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Change Management

Final Stages of Implementation


ERP Configuration and Use
Fall 1998
Dr. Gail Corbitt

CSU Chico

Change Management
SAP AG

Overview of Topics
Review of Implementation Process
Identify Critical Success Factors
Define Change Management (big picture)
Define Role of Corporate Politics and Other Pitfalls
Discuss the Changing Roles in Technology Transfer
Situations
Overview of Go Live Issues and Concerns

CSU Chico

Change Management
SAP AG

Review of Implementation Process


Launch the Project

Project Planning

Define Standards and Procedures

Technical Requirements Planning/Initiation

Kick-off

Define the As Is

Business Blueprint -- what is the business

Identify areas of needed change (re-engineering)

Learn what SAP can and can not do

CSU Chico

Change Management
SAP AG

Review of Implementation Process cont.


Design the To Be

Re-engineer the processes that need changing

Develop Detailed Design of how ERP will be configured to support the To


Be business

Configuration of system
Design of Reports
Design all interfaces
Design and test all conversions
Develop Implementation (Go Live) Plan

Function and Integration Test

CSU Chico

Change Management
SAP AG

Review of Implementation Process cont


Implement or Go Live

Install the Tested Configured System on the Production System

Set up and Test the support system for users

Train the users

Populate the Database (bring in legacy data)

Cut Over to New system

CSU Chico

Change Management
SAP AG

Critical Success Factors


Continuous Visual Behavioral Support from Top
Management
Understand the Corporate Culture Surrounding Change:
Ready the Organization for Change
Make Changes to Organizational Structure Well in
Advance of Go Live (before you start project is ideal)
Document and Communicate Project Status
Continuously
Project Manager must be able to Stick to the
Task/Deliverable Schedule

CSU Chico

Change Management
SAP AG

Critical Success Factors Cont.


Project Team must be best at understanding the
business and SAP
Commitment to the Change (need to ride out the
problems)
Have a Team that Can Make Decisions
Use a Good Project Management Methodology -Commit to Use It

CSU Chico

Change Management
SAP AG

Components to the Project


Business Process (includes Data and Organizational
components)
Conversions and Interfaces (External systems that need
to work with SAP)
Development of custom Programs, Reports and
Screens (internal SAP interface)
Change Management (Site Readiness and Go Live Plan)
Integration and Project Management to Coordinate all of
the above

CSU Chico

Change Management
SAP AG

Change Management (Big Picture)


Change Management: Strategies for awareness, acceptance &
incorporation of change into the organizations environment

Systems Administration of hardware and software components

Version and Change Request Control

Conducting business differently

Verblens Principle (Weinberg and Gause 1989)

Theres no change, no matter how awful, that wont benefit some people, and
no change, no matter how good, that wont hurt some.

Plan or Manage the Change so that users and System are


ready at the same time and expectations on both sides are
matched

CSU Chico

Change Management
SAP AG

Change Management (Big Picture)


Change
Manager

Development
Project
Team

Prepare Users

Prepare System

Convergence

CSU Chico

Change Management
SAP AG

10

Goals of Change Management


Convergence of User and System Readiness
Optimize Organizations Social (Cultural) and Technical
Infrastructures
Create a Learning Organization

Continuous Improvement

Customer Focus

Adaptable to changes in the environment (external and internal)

CSU Chico

Change Management
SAP AG

11

Key Principles of Change Management


Steering Committee Must Have Product and Process
Champions or Stakeholders
Communication needs to multi-channeled (up is as valued
as down)
Conflict resolution and knowledge acquisition are
collaborative (information sharing not hoarding)
Implementation Team (change management team) has a
structure and roles of individuals are defined
Resistance to Change is always there but may be hard to
detect until after Go Live (Be Proactive)

CSU Chico

Change Management
SAP AG

12

Challenges and Pitfalls


Change process must be planned and managed
Magnitude of change is ALWAYS greater than imagined
Resistance to change appears in different forms -must be addressed
In global organizations cultural factors need special
consideration
Change in organizations occurs in stages -- need
strategies for EACH stage

CSU Chico

Change Management
SAP AG

13

Stages of Change
Boston consulting Group 5 Stage Model:

Stagnation (building desire to change)

Anticipation (acceptance of change is highest here)

Implementation (critical time for commitment -- most pain occurs


here)

Determination (expectations get real -- people begin to incorporate


change into daily routine)

Fruition (acceptance begins to climb back up)

Lewins 3 Stage Model: Unfreeze, Move and Re-freeze

CSU Chico

Change Management
SAP AG

14

Strategies for Stages


Unfreezing:

Develop awareness of change

Users see or have a need to change (internal felt need)

Driving forces for change outweigh the Restraining Forces

Moving:

Involve users in project team (as is --> to be processes)

Train the users

Develop in-house gurus -- change agents that can help resisters

CSU Chico

Change Management
SAP AG

15

Strategies for Stages


Re-freeze or Institutionalize Change:

Support organization is in place and working

Resistance to change has been addressed

Development Team moves on to a new project

At all Stages

Communication must be Open

Trust within the organization must be high

Knowledge must be Shared

CSU Chico

Change Management
SAP AG

16

Force Field Analysis


Technique to identify positive or driving forces and
negative or restraining forces in the environment that
contribute to the impending change

Can be personal or environmental

Identify the item as well as the strength of each item

Uses:

Determine readiness at the beginning of the process

Measure progress and surface new issues as we move through process

Build strategies and tactics that reinforce the positive and address the
negative (at all stages)

CSU Chico

Change Management
SAP AG

17

Force Field Example


Change: Change to Word from Spellbinder
Restraining Forces

Driving Forces
Department Standard

Long learning curve

Free Secretarial Support

Dissertation files may have


to be re-entered

Updates to software are


free

Printer control is difficult


Mail merge is harder to use

5.25
7.5

CSU Chico

Change Management
SAP AG

18

Force Field Example:


Pick something in your life youd like to change
List the forces (Driving and Restraining)
Draw the lines for strength
Interpret Results

CSU Chico

Change Management
SAP AG

19

Changing Roles in Technology Transfer


Situations
Knowledge Needed to Implement Change is not
Available
Change Agents are Consultants

Roles include Scouting for New Work and Executing Existing Work

Consultant will exit organization (need Knowledge Transfer)

Trust of consultant must be high

Action in organization must be unique to organization but most


consultants use boiler plate solutions

Outsourcing can be Viable

CSU Chico

Change Management
SAP AG

20

Latest Challenges/Changes in IT
Reduced Need for Programmers
Reliance on Complex Technology
Higher User Involvement
Users Own Systems -- IT more of Servant Role

How do these issues affect you?


How do you feel about these?
How are you prepared to work in an environment
where these things occur?

CSU Chico

Change Management
SAP AG

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