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Building Structures

Modeling and Analysis


Concepts

MODEL STRUKTUR (SAP2000)

PROSES ANALISIS & DESAIN


STRUKTUR
Struktur Frame/Truss?

Model Struktur

Konsep Struktur
Pemodelan Struktur
Analisis Struktur
Desain Elemen Struktur
Gambar Detail
Anggaran Biaya
Analisis Struktur

Engineer

Software

Engineer + Software

PENGARUH SAMBUNGAN ELEMEN


STRUKTUR

Baja (Baut)

Baja (Las)

Sambungan A

Sambungan B

Diagram Momen

Sistem Struktur Bangunan Gedung

(a) Struktur Rangka Dengan Dinding Geser (Shear Wall) - (b) Struktur Rangka Pemikul
Momen (SRPM) - c) Struktur Rangka Dengan Pengaku (Bracing)

SISTEM STRUKTUR GEDUNG


Frame & Shear Walls
Sistem Penahan Beban Lateral
(Beban Gempa, Beban Angin)

Beam & Slab (Floor Diaphragm)


Sistem Penahan Beban Gravitasi
(Beban Mati , Beban Hidup)

Sistem Penahan Beban Gravitasi


Berfungsi menahan beban gravitasi dan beban vertikal (Balok, Balok Anak, Pelat)

Sistem Penahan Beban Lateral


Berfungsi menahan beban lateral/horisontal (kolom, shear walls, bracing)

Floor Diaphragm (FD)


Sistem struktur yang mentransfer beban lateral pada Sistem Penahan Beban Lateral

The Simplified Structural System


PENGARUH LUAR
- Beban (Load)
- Getaran (Vibration)
- Penurunan
(Settlement)
- Temperatur
STRUKTUR

PENGARUH LUAR
- Beban (Load)
- Getaran (Vibration)
- Penurunan
(Settlement)
- Temperatur

RESPON STRUKTUR
- Deformasi
(Displacements)
- Gaya Dalam (Internal
Force)
- Regangan (Strains)
- Tegangan (Stress)

RESPON STRUKTUR
- Deformasi
(Displacements)
- Gaya Dalam (Internal
Force)
- Regangan (Strains)
- Tegangan (Stress)
STRUKTUR

Analysis of Structures
xx yy zz

pvx 0
x
y
z
pv

Real Structure is governed by Partial


Differential Equations of various
order
Direct solution is only possible for:
Simple Geometry
Simple Boundary
Simple Loading.

The Need for Modeling

- Real Structure cannot be analyzed, it can only be Load


Tested to determine the response
- We can only analyze a Model of the structure
- We therefore need tools to Model the Structure and to
Analyze the Model

Finite Element Method: The Analysis Tool


Finite Element Analysis (FEA)
A discretized solution to a continuum
problem using FEM

Finite Element Method (FEM)


A numerical procedure for solving (partial)
differential equations associated with field
problems, with an accuracy acceptable to
engineers

Continuum to Discrete Model

pv

3D-CONTINUM
MODEL
(Governed by partial
differential equations)

CONTINUOUS MODEL
OF STRUCTURE
(Governed by either
partial or total differential
equations)

DISCRETE MODEL
OF STRUCTURE
(Governed by algebraic
equations)

From Classical to FEM Solution


Classical

Equilibrium

Actual Structure

xx yy zz

pvx 0
x
y
z
Partial Differential
Equations

FEM

Assumptions

Structural Model

Kr R

Stress-Strain Law
Compatibility

Algebraic
Equations
_

dV p u dV p u ds
t
v

t
s

(Principle of Virtual Work)

K = Stiffness
r = Response
R = Loads

Simplified Structural System

Loads (F)

Deformations (D)
Fv

F=KD

The Structural System

STRUCTURE
RESPONSES

EXCITATION
pv

Static
Dynamic

Elastic
Inelastic

Linear
Nonlinear

The Equilibrium Equations


1. Linear-Static

Elastic OR Inelastic

Ku F
2. Linear-Dynamic Elastic

Mu(t ) Cu (t ) Ku (t ) F (t )
3. Nonlinear - Static

Elastic OR Inelastic

Ku FNL F
4. Nonlinear-Dynamic

Elastic OR Inelastic

Mu(t ) Cu (t ) Ku (t ) F (t ) NL F (t )

Basic Steps in FEA


Evaluate Real Structure
Create Structural Model
Discretize Model in FE
Solve FE Model
Interpret FEA Results
Physical significance of Results

Engineer
Engineer + Software
Software

Discretization of Continuums
General Solid
( Orthogonal dimensions)
Z

H, B much less than L

Regular Solid
X

( T small compared to Lengths )


Y

Beam Element

Solid Element

Plate/ Shell

Membrane/ Panel
In-Plane, Only Axial

Plate/ Slab
Out of Plane, Only Bending

Shell
In-Plane and Bending

Global Modeling of Structural Geometry

(a) Real Structure

(b) Solid Model

(c) 3D Plate-Frame

(e) 2D Frame
Fig. 1 Various Ways to Model a Real Struture

(d) 3D Frame

(f) Grid-Plate

Dimensions of Elements
1 D Elements (Beam type)
Can be used in 1D, 2D and 2D
2-3 Nodes. A, I etc.
Truss and Beam Elements (1D,2D,3D)

2 D Elements (Plate type)


Can be used in 2D and 3D Model
3-9 nodes. Thickness

Plane Stress, Plane Strain, Axisymmetric, Plate and Shell Elements (2D,3D)

3 D Elements (Brick type)


Can be used in 3D Model
6-20 Nodes.
Brick Elements

DOF for 1D Elements


Dy

Dy

Dy
Rz

Dz

Dx

2D Truss

Dx

3D Truss

2D Beam

Ry
Dy
Rz

Dy
Dx

Rz

Dy
Dz

Rx

Dx

Rx

Rz

2D Frame

2D Grid

3D Frame

DOF for 2D Elements


Ry ?

Ry ?
Dy

Dy

Dy
Rz

Rx

Dx

Membrane

Plate

Dz

Dx

Rz

Shell

Rx

DOF for 3D Elements


Dy
Dz

Dx

Solid/ Brick

Frame and Grid Model


The structure represented by rod or
bar type elements
Does not model the cross-section
dimensions
Suitable for skeletal structures
Sometimes surface type structures
can also be represented by frame
model
The simplest and easiest model to
construct, analyze and interpret
Can be in 2D or in 3D space
2D Frame

3D Frame
2D Grid

Membrane Model

Ignore bending stiffness


Tension / Compression
In- plane Shear
For in plane loads
Principle Stresses
suitable for very thin
structures / members
Thin Walled Shells,
Specially Suitable for Ferro
Cement Structure

Plane Stress and Plane


Plain-Strain
Assumptions

x
1 unit

x2

x3

x1
3D Problem

2D Problem

Plane Strain Problem

Plane Stress Problem

Plate Bending Model


Primarily Bending mode
Moment and Shear are
predominant
Suitable for moderately thick
slabs and plates
For Out-of-plane loads only
Can be used in 3D or 2D models
Suitable for planks and
relatively flat structures

General Plate-Shell Model


Combined Membrane and Plate
Suitable for general application
to surface structures
Suitable for curved structures
Thick shell and thin shell
implementations available
Membrane thickness and plate
thickness can be specified
separately
Numerous results generated.
Difficult to design the section for
combined actions

Solid Model

Shear Axial deformation mode in 3D


Suitable for micro-models
Suitable for very thick plates / solids
May not be applicable much to
ferocement structures

Use 6 to 20 node
elements

Soil-Structure Interaction
Simple Supports
Fix, Pin, Roller etc.
Support Settlement

Elastic Supports
Spring to represent soil
Using Modulus of Sub-grade reaction

Full Structure-Soil Model


Use 2D plane stress elements
Use 3D Solid Elements

Connecting Different Types of Elements


Truss
Truss
Frame

Membrane

Shell

Solid

OK

Dz

OK

OK

OK

Rx, Ry, Rz

OK

Rx, Ry, Rz,


Dz

Rx ?
Dx, Dy

Rx ?

Rx, Ry, Rz

OK

OK

OK

Dx, Dy

OK

OK

Rx, Rz

OK

Rx, Rz

OK

OK

Rx, Rz

Rx, Ry, Rz

OK

Rx, Ry, Rz,


Dz

Dx, Dz

OK

Rx, Rz

OK

OK

Dz

Dx, Dz

OK

OK

Plate

Solid

Orphan Degrees Of Freedom:


0

Plate

OK

Membrane

Shell

Frame

What Type of
Analysis should be
Carried Out?

Analysis Type

The type of Analysis to be carried out


depends on the Structural System
The Type of Excitation (Loads)
The Type Structure (Material and Geometry)
The Type Response

Basic Analysis Types


Excitation Structure Response

Basic Analysis Type

Static

Elastic

Linear

Linear-Elastic-Static Analysis

Static

Elastic

Nonlinear

Nonlinear-Elastic-Static Analysis

Static

Inelastic

Linear

Linear-Inelastic-Static Analysis

Static

Inelastic

Nonlinear

Nonlinear-Inelastic-Static Analysis

Dynamic

Elastic

Linear

Linear-Elastic-Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic

Elastic

Nonlinear

Nonlinear-Elastic-Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic

Inelastic

Linear

Linear-Inelastic-Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic

Inelastic

Nonlinear

Nonlinear-Inelastic-Dynamic Analysis

Some More Solution Types


Non-linear Analysis

P-Delta Analysis
Buckling Analysis
Static Pushover Analysis
Fast Non-Linear Analysis (FNA)
Large Displacement Analysis

Dynamic Analysis
Free Vibration and Modal Analysis
Response Spectrum Analysis
Steady State Dynamic Analysis

Static Vs Dynamic
Static Excitation
When the Excitation (Load) does not vary rapidly with Time
When the Load can be assumed to be applied Slowly

Dynamic Excitation
When the Excitation varies rapidly with Time
When the Inertial Force becomes significant

Most Real Excitation are Dynamic but are considered


Quasi Static
Most Dynamic Excitation can be converted to
Equivalent Static Loads

Elastic Vs Inelastic
Elastic Material
Follows the same path during loading and unloading and returns to initial
state of deformation, stress, strain etc. after removal of load/ excitation

Inelastic Material
Does not follow the same path during loading and unloading and may not
returns to initial state of deformation, stress, strain etc. after removal of
load/ excitation

Most materials exhibit both, elastic and inelastic behavior


depending upon level of loading.

Linear Vs Nonlinear
Linearity
The response is directly proportional to excitation
(Deflection doubles if load is doubled)

Non-Linearity
The response is not directly proportional to excitation
(deflection may become 4 times if load is doubled)

Non-linear response may be produced by:


Geometric Effects (Geometric non-linearity)
Material Effects (Material non-linearity)
Both

Linear-Elastic

Action

Action

Elasticity and Linearity

Deformation

Action

Action

Deformation

Linear-Inelastic

Nonlinear-Elastic
Deformation

Nonlinear-Inelastic
Deformation

Physical Object Based


Modeling, Analysis and Design

Continuum Vs Structure
A continuum extends in all direction, has infinite
particles, with continuous variation of material
properties, deformation characteristics and stress state
A Structure is of finite size and is made up of an
assemblage of substructures, components and members
Dicretization process is used to convert Structure to
Finite Element Models for determining response

Physical Categorization of Structures


Structures can be categorized in many ways.
For modeling and analysis purposes, the overall physical
behavior can be used as basis of categorization

Cable or Tension Structures


Skeletal or Framed Structures
Surface or Spatial Structures
Solid Structures
Mixed Structures

Structure Types
Cable Structures
Cable Nets
Cable Stayed

Bar Structures
2D/3D Trusses
2D/3D Frames, Grids

Surface Structures
Plate, Shell
In-Plane, Plane Stress

Solid Structures

Structure, Member, Element


Structure can considered as an assemblage of Physical
Components called Members
Slabs, Beams, Columns, Footings, etc.

Physical Members can be modeled by using one or more


Conceptual Components called Elements
1D elements, 2D element, 3D elements
Frame element, plate element, shell element, solid element, etc.

Modeling in terms Graphical Objects to represent Physical


Components relieves the engineers from intricacies and
idiosyncrasy of finite element discretization

Structural Members
Continuum

Regular Solid
(3D)

y
Plate/Shell (2D)
x z
t<<(x,z)

z
x

z
Beam (1D)
b h
L>>(b,h)
h
b

Dimensional Hierarchy of Structural Members

Load Transfer Path For Gravity Loads


Most loads are basically Volume Loads generated due to
mass contained in a volume
Mechanism and path must be found to transfer these loads to
the Supports through a Medium

All types of Static Loads can be represented as:


Point Loads
Line Loads
Area Loads
Volume Loads

The Load Transfer Path


The Load is transferred through a
medium which may be:

A Point
A Line
An Area
A Volume
A system consisting of combination of
several mediums

The supports may be represented as:

Point Supports
Line Supports
Area Supports
Volume Supports

Graphic Object Representation


Object

Load

Geometry
Medium

Support
Boundary

Point

Point Load
Concentrated Load

Node

Point Support
Column Support

Line

Beam Load
Wall Load
Slab Load

Beam / Truss
Connection Element
Spring Element

Line Support
Wall Support
Beam Support

Area

Slab Load
Wind Load

Plate Element
Shell Element
Panel/ Plane

Soil Support

Volume

Seismic Load
Liquid Load

Solid Element

Soil Support

ETABS uses graphic object modeling concept

Load Transfer Path is difficult to Determine


Complexity of Load Transfer
Mechanism depend on:

Load

Vol.

Complexity of Load
Complexity of Medium
Complexity of Boundary

Area
Line
Point Line
Line
Area
Volume

Boundary

Area

Volume

Medium

Load Transfer Path is difficult to Determine

Point

Line

Area

Volume

Transfer of a Point Load to Point Supports Through Various Mediums

Objects in ETABS
Building Object Specific Classification

Plank One way slabs


Slab One way or Two way slabs
Deck Special one way slabs
Wall Shear Walls, Deep Beams, In-Fill Panel
Frame Column, Beam or Brace

Finite Elements

Shell
Plate
Membrane
Beam
Node

The Frame Element


The Actions Corresponding to Six DOF at Both Ends, in
Local Coordinate System
2

+V2

+P

+V3

+V3
+P

+V2

+M2

+T

+M3
3

+M3
+T

+M2

Shell Element
General
Total DOF per Node = 6 (or 5)
Total Displacements per Node = 3
Total Rotations per Node = 3
Used for curved surfaces

U3, R3

U3, R3
U2, R2

Node 3

U2, R2
Node 4

U1, R1

Application
For Modeling surface elements carrying
general loads

May be used for modeling of general slabs


systems. But not used generally

U3, R3
1

U3, R3

U2, R2

Node 1

Building Specific Application

U1, R1

U2, R2
Node 2

U1, R1

Shell

U1, R1

Plate Element
General
Total DOF per Node = 3
Total Displacements per Node = 1
Total Rotations per Node = 2
Plates are for flat surfaces

U3

U3

R2

Node 3

Node 4

R1

Application
For Modeling surface elements carrying
out of plane loads

Building Specific Application


For representing floor slabs for Vertical
Load Analysis
Model slabs

R1
2

U3

R2

Node 1

R2

U3

R2

Node 2

R1

R1

Plate

Membrane Element
General
Total DOF per Node = 3 (or 2)
Total Displacements per Node = 2
Total Rotations per Node = 1 (or 0)
Membranes are modeled for flat surfaces

Application
For Modeling surface elements carrying
in-plane loads

Building Specific Application


For representing floor slabs for Lateral
Load Analysis.
Model Shear walls, Floor Diaphragm etc

R3

U2

U2
Node 4

Node 3

U1
3

U1

R3

U2

Node 1

R3

U2

Node 2

U1

Membrane

U1

Meshing Slabs and Walls

Zipper

In general the mesh in the slab


should match with mesh in the wall
to establish connection

Some software automatically


establishes connectivity by using
constraints or Zipper elements

Selection Of Structural Systems


Basic Concepts and Considerations

Knowledge Model for System Selection

Architecture
Building Services
Construction Eng.
Value Eng.
Aesthetics
Ergonomics Eng.
Structural Eng.
Knowledge Eng.
Economics
Artificial Intelligence
System Eng.
Common Sense

Construction
Engineering

Structural
System Selection

Artificial Intelligence

Determining System Suitability


The Analytical Hierarchy Approach
A weighted importance and suitability value analysis to
determine the comparative value of a system or option

Value of
an Option

Vl Ai S i
i 1

Global
Importance
Weights and
Scores

B S C
j 1

ij

ij

Sub
Importance
Weights and
Scores

k 1

ijkl

S ijk

Suitability
Value and
Score

Evaluating System Suitability


The Suitability Equation
m

i 1

C
S

ijkl ijk
k 1

Vl Ai S i

Bij Sij
j 1

Using the Suitability Equation


Slab Systems

Criteria Weights and Scores


Main Criteria Ai
Sub Criteria Bij
Item k

Am
Sub Criteria Bin

Item p

Item k

Bmn

Item p

Item p

Wt

Score

Wt

Score

Wt

Score

Wt

Score

Score

Cijkl

Sijkl

Cijnl

Sijpl

Cinkl

Sinkl

Cinnl

Sinpl

Smnpl

System 1
System l
System - q

System
Value
(V)

Assigning Suitability Values


Score or Weight

Representation of Suitability

10

Most important, most suitable, most desirable, essential

8,9

Very important, very suitable, very desirable

6,7

Important, suitable or desirable

May be or could be important, suitable or desirable

4,3

May not be important, suitable or desirable

1,2

Not important, not suitable, not desirable

Definitely not required, definitely not suitable, ignore

Selection of Structural System


Function has considerable effect on the selection
of structural system
Based on Function/Occupancy of Tall Buildings:
Residential Buildings
Apartments
Hotels
Dormitories

Office and Commercial Buildings


Mixed Occupancy Commercial + Residential
Industrial Buildings and Parking Garages

Typical Characteristics of Residential Bldg

Known location of partitions and their load


Column lines generally matches architectural layout
Typical spans 15-22 ft
Tall buildings economy in achieved using the thinnest slab
One way pre-cast or flat slab popular
Lateral load resistance provided by frame or shear walls
More or less fixed M/E system layouts

Typical Characteristics of Office and Commercial Bldg

Unknown location of partitions and their load


Typical spans 20-35 ft
Need for flexible M/E layouts
Post-tension or ribbed and flat slab with drop panel
popular

Ideal balance between vertical and lateral load resisting


systems: sufficient shear walls to limit the resultant
tension under gravity plus wind
Lateral load resistance varies significantly

Vertical Load
Resisting Systems
The Components Needed to
Complete the Load-Transfer Path
for Vertical Gravity Loads

Gravity Load Resisting Systems


Purpose
To Transfer Gravity Loads Applied at the Floor Levels
down to the Foundation Level

Direct Path Systems


Slab Supported on Load Bearing Walls
Slab Supported on Columns

Indirect Multi Path Systems


Slab Supported on Beams
Beams Supported on Other Beams
Beams Supported on Walls or Columns

Vertical Load Resisting Systems


1. Slabs supported on Long Rigid Supports

Supported on stiff Beams or Walls


One-way and Two-way Slabs
Main consideration is flexural reinforcement

2. Slab-System supported on Small Rigid Supports

Supported on Columns directly


Flat Slab Floor systems
Main consideration is shear transfer, moment distribution in various
parts, lateral load resistance

3. Slabs supported on soil

Slabs on Grade: Light, uniformly distributed loads


Footings, Mat etc. Heavy concentrated loads

Vertical Load
Behavior and Response

Popular Gravity Load Resting Systems


Direct Load Transfer Systems (Single load transfer path)

Flat Slab and Flat Plate


Beam-Slab
Waffle Slab
Wall Joist

Indirect Load Transfer System (Multi step load transfer path)


Beam, Slab
Girder, Beam, Slab
Girder, Joist

Conventional Approach
For Wall Supported Slabs
Assume load transfer in One-Way or Two-Way manner
Uniform, Triangular or Trapezoidal Load on Walls

For Beam Supported Slabs


Assume beams to support the slabs in similar ways as walls
Design slabs as edge supported on beams
Transfer load to beams and design beams for slab load

For Flat-Slabs or Columns Supported Slabs


Assume load transfer in strips directly to columns

Popular Gravity Load Resting Systems

Gravity Load Transfer Paths

Single Path

Single Path

Slab On Walls

Slab on Columns

Dual Path
Slab On Beams,
Beams on Columns

Gravity Load Transfer Paths

Mixed Path

Complex Path

Slab On Walls
Slab On Beams
Beams on Walls

Slab on Beams
Slab on Walls
Beams on Beams
Beams on Columns

Three Step Path


Slab On Ribs
Ribs On Beams
Beams on Columns

Simplified Load Transfer

To Lines

To Points

Transfer of Area Load

To Lines and Points

Load Transfer Through Slab and Beam

Slab Deformation and Beams

Slab System Behavior

D
B

Slab T = 200 mm
Beam Width, B = 300 mm
Beam Depth, D
a) 300 mm
b) 500 mm
c) 1000 mm

5 .0 m

Moment Distribution in Beam-Slab


Effect of Beam Size on
Moment Distribution

a) Beam Depth = 300 mm

c) Beam Depth = 1000 mm

b) Beam Depth = 500 mm

Moment Distribution in Slabs Only


Effect of Beam Size on Moment Distribution

a) Beam Depth = 300 mm

b) Beam Depth = 500 mm

c) Beam Depth = 1000 mm

Modeling and Analysis for


Vertical Loads

Modeling for Gravity Loads

Must be carried out for several load cases/ patterns


Does not change much for different floors
1. Use Direct Design Methods

Model, analyze and design Floor by Floor, Without columns


Slab analysis and design by using Coefficients
Beam analysis as continuous beams

2. Use Sub-Frame Concept

Model slab/ beam for in-plane loads


Model, analyze and design Floor by Floor, With columns

3. Use Grid, Plate Model for the Floor

Model slab and beams for out-of plane loads


Analyze un-symmetrical loads, geometry, openings etc.

4. Use full 3D Modeling

The Design Strip Concept

Design Strip

Design Strip

Middle Strip
Column Strip
Middle Strip

Using Equivalent Frame Method Design Strip

Design Strip
Middle Strip

L2

Column Strip
Middle Strip
Drop Panels
Longitudinal Beams

Transverse Beams

L1

L2

Lateral Load
Resisting Systems
The Components Needed to
Complete the Load-Transfer Path
for Lateral Loads

Lateral Load Bearing Systems


Purpose
To Transfer Lateral Loads Applied at any location in the
structure down to the Foundation Level

Single System

Moment Resisting Frames


Braced Frames
Shear Walls
Tubular Systems

Dual System
Shear Wall - Frames
Tube + Frame + Shear Wall

Lateral Loads
Primary Lateral Loads
Load generated by Wind Pressure
Load generated due to Seismic Excitation

Other Lateral Loads


Load generated due to horizontal component of Gravity
Loads in Inclined Systems and in Un-symmetrical
structures
Load due to lateral soil pressure, liquid and material
retention

Sample Lateral Load Resistance Systems


Bearing wall system
Light frames with shear panels
Load bearing shear walls

Fully Braced System (FBS)


Shear Walls (SW)
Diagonal Bracing (DB)

Moment Resisting Frames (MRF)


Special Moment-Resisting Frames (SMRF)
Concrete Intermediate Moment-Resisting Frame (IMRF)
Ordinary Moment-Resisting Frame (OMRF)

Dual Systems (DS)


Shear Walls + Frames (SWF)
Ordinary Braced Frame (OBF)
Special Braced Frame (SBF)

Moment Resisting Frame


The Load is transferred by
shear in columns, that
produces moment in
columns and in beams
The Beam-Column
connection is crucial for the
system to work
The moments and shear
from later loads must be
added to those from gravity
loads

Shear Wall and Frame


The lateral loads is
primarily resisted by the
shear in the walls, in turn
producing bending moment
The openings in wall
become areas of high stress
concentration and need to
be handled carefully
Partial loads is resisted by
the frames
Traditionally 75/25
distribution haws been used

Shear Wall - Frame


The Walls are part of the
frame and act together with
the frame members
The lateral loads is
primarily resisted by the
shear in the walls, in turn
producing bending moment.
Partial loads is resisted by
the frame members in
moment and shear

Braced Frame
The lateral loads is primarily
resisted by the Axial Force in
the braces, columns and
beams in the braced zone.
The frame away from the
braced zone does not have
significant moments
Bracing does not have to be
provided in every bay, but
should be provided in every
story

Tubular Structure
The system is formed by using
closely spaced columns and deep
spandrel beams
The lateral loads is primarily
resisted by the entire building
acting as a big cantilever with a
tubular/ box cross-section
There is a shear lag problem
between opposite faces of the tube
due to in-efficiency of column
beam connection
The height to width ratio should
be more than 5

Braced Tube Systems


Diagonal Braces are added to
the basic tubular structure
This modification of the
Tubular System reduces shear
lag between opposite faces

Lateral Load
Resisting
System
Behavior, Response
and Modeling

Modeling for Lateral Loads


1. 2D Frame Models

Convert building in to several 2D frames in each direction


Suitable for symmetrical loads and geometry

2. 3D Frame Model

Make a 3D frame model of entire building structure


Can be open floor model or braced floor model

3. Full 3D Finite Element Model

A full 3D Finite Element Model using plate and beam elements

4. Rigid Diaphragm Model

A special model suitable for buildings that uses the concept of Rigid
Floor Diaphragm

Modeling as 2D Frame(s)
Convert 3D Building to an assemblage of 2D Frames
Using Independent Frames
Using Linked Frames
Using Sub-Structuring Concept

Advantages
Easier to model, analyze and interpret
Fairly accurate for Gravity Load Analysis

Main Problems:

Center of Stiffness and Center of Forces my not coincide


Difficult to consider building torsional effects
Several Frames may need to be modeled in each direction
Difficult to model non-rectangular framing system

Create a Simple 2D Model


2. Select and
isolate Typical
2D Structure

1. Consider the Structure


Plan and 3D View

4. Obtain results

3. Discretize
the Model,
apply loads

Using Linked Frames


F1

Linked Elements
Shear Wall

F2
F3

Modeling

Plan
F1

F2

F3

Link Element can allow only to transmit the shear and


axial force from one end to other end. It has moment
discontinuity at both ends

Typical Frame Elevation

Link Element act as a member which links the forces of


one frame to another frame, representing the effect of
Rigid Floor.

Full 3D Finite Element Model


The columns and beams are modeled by using
beam elements
The slabs and shear walls are modeled by using
plate elements
At least 9 or 16 elements in each slab panel must be
used if gravity loads are applied to the slabs
If the model is only for lateral analysis, one element
per slab panel may be sufficient to model the inplane stiffness
Shear walls may be modeled by plate or panel or
plane stress element. The out of plane bending is
not significant

Full 3D Finite Element Model


Example:
Uses more than 4000
beam and plate elements
Suitable for analysis for
gravity and lateral loads
Results can be used for
design of columns and
beams
Slab reinforcement
difficult to determine
from plate results

Modeling of Floor Diaphragm


Use Plate Elements
Panels, Plane Stress

Use Diagonal
Bracing

Use Diagonals
In 3D Frame Models

Use Conceptual Rigid


Diaphragm
Link Frames in 2D
Master DOF in 3D
Use Approximately

Use Plate
Elements

The Rigid Floor Diaphragm


Combines the simplicity and advantages of the 2D Frame
models with the accuracy of the 3D models
Basic Concept:
The building structure is represented by vertical units (2D Frames,
3D Frames and Shear Walls), connected by the invisible rigid
diaphragm
The lateral movement of all vertical units are connected to three
master degree of freedom
This takes into account the building rotation and its effect on the
vertical units.
The modeling and analysis is greatly simplified and made efficient

Rigid Floor Diaphragm Concept


Modeled as Rigid Horizontal Plane of infinite
in-plane stiffness (in X-Y plane)
Assumed to have a hinge connection with
frame member or shear wall, so flexural
influence of all floors to lateral stiff ness is
neglected
All column lines of all frames at particular
level can not deform independent of each
other
The floor levels of all frames must be at the
same elevation and base line, but they need
not have same number of stories

How RFD Concept Works

uilding d.o.f.s

F1 , 1

UL

r
rY
F3 , 3

UL3
X

UL2

rx

UL1

F3 , 2
F2 , 1

Local Frame DOF

When Single Rigid Floor Cannot be Used

Automatic Floor Meshing


and Auto Load Transfer
(In ETABS)

Area Objects: Slab


By default uses two-way load transfer
mechanism
Simple RC solid slab
Can also be used to model one way slabs

Area Object: Deck


Use one-way load transfer mechanism
Metallic Composite Slabs
Includes shear studs
Generally used in association with
composite beams
Deck slabs may be
o Filled Deck
o Unfilled Deck
o Solid Slab Deck

Area Object: Plank


By default use one-way load transfer
mechanism
Generally used to model pre-cast slabs
Can also be simple RC solid slab

Automatic Floor Meshing


First step to Auto Load Transfer

Basic Floor Modeling Object


Points
Columns
Load Points
Boundary Point

Lines
Beams

Areas

Deck:
Represents a Steel Metal Deck, One way Load Transfer
Plank : Represents clearly on-way slab portion
Slab:
Represents one-way or two-way slab portion
Opening: Represents Openings in Floor

Automatic Meshing
ETABS automatically meshes all line objects with frame
section properties into the analysis model
ETABS meshes all floor type (horizontal) area objects (deck
or slab) into the analysis model
Meshing does not change the number of objects in the
model
To mesh line objects with section properties use Edit menu
> Divide Lines
To mesh area objects with section properties use Edit menu
> Mesh Areas

Automatic Meshing
AutomaticMeshingofLineObjects
Frameelementsaremeshedatlocationswhereotherframe
elementsattachtoorcrossthemandatlocationswherepoint
objectslieonthem.
Lineobjectsassignedlinkpropertiesareneverautomatically
meshedintotheanalysismodelbyETABS
ETABSautomaticallymeshes(divides)thebracesatthepoint
wheretheycrossintheanalysismodel
Noendreleasesareintroduced.

AutomaticMeshingofLineObjects
Beam 1

Girder A

Beam 2

Beam 1

Piece 1

Piece 2

Beam 2
Piece 3

b) Girders A and B As Modeled in


the ETABS Analysis Model

Girder B

a) Floor Plan

Example showing how beams are automatically divided (meshed) where they
support other beams for the ETABS analysis model

AutomaticMeshingofAreaObjects
ETABSautomaticallymeshesafloortypeareaobjectupintofour
sided(quadrilateral)elements
Eachsideofeachelementofthemeshhasabeam(RealorImaginary)
orwallrunningalongit
ETABStreatsawallliketwocolumnsandabeamwherethecolumns
arelocatedattheendsofthewallandthebeamconnectsthecolumns.
Eachcolumnisassumedtohavefourbeamsconnectingtoit
Thefloorisbrokenupatallwallsandallrealandimaginarybeamsto
createameshoffoursidedelements

AutomaticMeshingofAreaObjects

Girder B
a) Floor Plan

Beam 3

Beam 2

Beam 1

Girder A

Beam 3

Beam 2

Beam 1

Girder A

Girder B
b) ETABS Imaginary Beams Shown Dashed c) ETABS Automatic Floor Meshing

Example of ETABS automatically generated mesh for floor-type area objects

AutomaticMeshingofAreaObjects
Example of ETABS
automatically generated mesh
for floor-type area objects

a) Floor Plan (No Beams)

b) ETABS Imaginary Beams Connecting


Columns Shown Dashed

c) ETABS Imaginary Beams Extended to


Edge of Floor Shown Dashed

d) ETABS Automatic Floor Meshing

AutomaticMeshingofAreaObjects
ForfloorsthatareautomaticallymeshedbyETABSitis
recommendedthatmodelbeams(oratleastnulltypelineobjects)
areconnectingcolumnsratherthannobeams(orlineobjects)
Thismakestheautomaticmeshingfortheanalysismodelcleaner,
fasterandmorepredictable
Includingbeamsand/ornulltypelineobjectsbetweenall
columnsinyourmodelmakesautomaticfloormeshingmore
predictable

AutomaticMeshingofAreaObjects
C4

C3

C4

C3

C4

C3

C1
a)

C2

C1
b)

C2

C1
c)

C2

C4

C3

C4

C3

C4

C3

C1
d)

C2

C1
e)

C2

C1
f)

C2

C4

C3

C4

C3

C4

C3

C1
g)

C2

C1
h)

C2

C1
i)

C2

Illustration of how ETABS


creates the distribution of
imaginary beams

Automatic Transformation and


Transfer of Floor Loads to
Appropriate Elements
(Using the Auto Meshed Geometry)

Load Transformation
Themainissue:
Howpointloads,lineloadsandarealoadsthatlieonanarea
objectinyourobjectbasedETABSmodelarerepresentedin
theanalysismodel
There are four distinct types of load transformation in
ETABS for out-of-plane load transformation for floor-type
area objects

withdecksectionproperties
withslabsectionpropertiesthathavemembranebehavioronly
allothertypesofareaobjects
Inplaneloadtransformationforalltypesofareaobjects

Load Transformation
AreaObjects

loadtransformationoccursafterany
automaticmeshingintotheanalysis
model

ETABSnormalizesthecoordinatesof
thefourcornerpointsofthearea
object
Thenormalizationisthekey
assumptioninthismethod
Itisaperfectlyvalidassumptionifthe
quadrilateralisasquare,rectangularor
aparallelogram

a) Quadrilateral Element

b) The r and s Axes

s
(-1, 1)

(-1, -1)

(-1, 1)

(1, 1)
2

4
(1, -1)

c) Corner Point r-s Coordinates

(-1, -1)

(1, 1)

(r, s)

1
r

P
4
(1, -1)

d) Point Load, P

Example of transfer of out-of-plane loads


for other area objects

Load Transformation
Theloaddistributionfordecksectionsisoneway,in
contrasttoslabsectionswhichareassumedtospanintwo
directions
ETABSfirstautomaticallymeshesthedeckinto
quadrilateralelements
OncethemeshingiscompleteETABSdeterminesthe
meshedshellelementsthathaverealbeamsalongthemand
thosethathaveimaginarybeams
Italsodetermineswhichedgesofthemeshedshellelements
arealsoedgesofthedeck.

Load Transformation
RectangularInteriorMeshedElementwithUniformLoad

x/2

Edge 3

x/2
wx / 2

Edge 3

Edge 2

Edge 4

Edge 2

Direction of deck span

Edge 4

Ifthesupportingmember
attheendpointofan
imaginarybeamisitself
imaginary,thentheload
fromtheimaginarybeam
tributarytothatendpoint
islost,thatis,itis
ignoredbyETABS

c) Loading on Edges 2 and 4

Uniform load = w
Edge 1
a) Rectangular Interior Element
of Meshed Floor

Edge 1
b) Distribution of Uniform Load

Exampleofrectangularinteriormeshed
elementwithauniformload

Load Transformation
RectangularInteriorMeshedElementwithPointLoad
ETABSdistributesthepointloadtotheappropriateedgebeams
(basedonthedirectionofthedeckspan)
IfthebeamsalongedgesarerealbeamsETABStransferstheloadonto
adjacentbeams
x1

x2

P * x1
x1 + x2

Edge 3

Point load, P

Edge 2

Direction of deck span

Edge 4

Ifthesupporting
memberattheendpoint
ofanimaginarybeamis
itselfimaginary,thenthe
loadfromtheimaginary
beamtributarytothat
endpointislost,thatis,
itisignoredbyETABS

Edge 1
a) Rectangular Interior Element
of Meshed Floor

Edge 4
x1

Edge 2
x2

c) Loading on Edge 2
P * x2

P * x2

P * x1

x1 + x2

x1 + x2

b) Distribution of Point Load

x1 + x2

d) Loading on Edge 4

Load Transformation
RectangularInteriorMeshedElementwithLineLoad
Alineloadistransformedinasimilarfashiontothatforapointload
usinganumericalintegrationtechnique
Thelineloadisdiscreditedasaseriesofpointloadswhichare
transformedtosurroundingbeams
Theseriesofpointloadsisthenconvertedbacktoalineloadonthe
surroundingbeams
Anarealoadthatdoesnotcovertheentireelementisalsotransformed
inasimilarfashiontothatforapointloadusinganumericalintegration
technique.

GeneralInteriorMeshedElement
Uniform load

Midpoint
Midpoint

Direction of deck span

Line 3 P3

P3
P2

P2
P1

a) General Interior Element of


Meshed Floor Deck

a) General Interior Element of


Meshed Floor Deck

b)

c)

Line 2
P1

Line 1

b)

d)

e) Transformation of Uniform Load

f) Loading on Edge 1

Exampleofgeneralinteriormeshed
elementwithapointload
g) Loading on Edge 2

h) Loading on Edge 3

i) Loading on Edge 4

Exampleofgeneralinteriormeshedelementwitha
uniformload

ExteriorMeshedElement
D

B eam 2b

B eam 2a

Beam 3b

D
Beam 3a

Imaginary
Beam 6

Beam 3a

Beam 1b

No beam at
edge of deck

b) Deck Meshing

Beam 2b

Beam 1b

a) Floor Plan

No beam at
edge of deck
Beam 4a

a) Floor Plan

b) Deck Meshing

Imaginary Beam 5

Beam 1a

Beam 2a

Beam 3b

Beam 1a

Exampleofexteriormeshedelements
withcantileverbeamsextendingto
edgeofdeck

Beam 1b

B eam 2b
Edge of deck is at
center of spandrel
beam, typical in this
example

Beam 1a

B eam 2a

Beam 1b

Beam 2b

Exampleofexteriormeshed
elementswithrealbeamsonall
sides

Beam 4b

Beam 3b

Imaginary Beam 5

Beam 3a

ImaginaryBeam 6

Beam 2a

No beam at
edge of deck

a) Floor Plan

b) Deck Meshing
E2

Beam 2b

Exampleofexterior
meshedelements
withcantilever
beamsextendingto
edgeofaskewed
deck

Beam 1b

Beam 3a

c) Condition at Skewed Deck


Edge (Areas D and E)

E1
Beam 3b

ImaginaryBeam 6

Beam 2a

Beam 2b

Beam 1b

Beam 3b

Beam 1a

Beam 3a

Beam 2b

No beam at
edge of deck

Beam 1a

Beam 1b

ExteriorMeshedElement

ExteriorMeshedElement
Edge of deck

D
Beam 1

Beam 1

a) Floor Plan

Column 1

Beam 2

Beam 2

Column 1

b) Deck Meshing

Example of exterior meshed elements with overhanging slab

ExteriorMeshedElement

a) Floor Plan

Beam 1b

b) Deck Meshing

Example of exterior meshed elements with overhanging slab

Beam 3b

I
J

Beam 3a

Beam 1a

Beam 2b

Beam 1b

Beam 2a

Beam 2a

Beam 1a

Beam 2b

EffectofDeckOpenings
6'

14'

Note: Assume floor loading is 100


psf. Opening is either loaded or
unloaded as noted in c, d, e and f
which are loading diagrams for
Beam 1.

6'

4'

6'

14'

4'

4'

0.6 klf

2'

0.2 klf
Beam 1

c) Unframed, unloaded opening


a) Floor Plan with Unframed Opening
4'

6'

14'
d) Unframed, loaded opening
0.7k

0.7k

0.1 klf

0.6 klf

6'

0.6 klf

2'

4'

e) Framed, unloaded opening

Beam 1
b) Floor Plan with Framed Opening
(Beams on all Sides)

0.6 klf

1.5k

1.5k

0.1 klf

f) Framed, loaded opening

0.6 klf

Example of effect of openings


on distribution of load over
deck sections

Load Transformation
VerticalLoadTransformationforFloorswithMembrane
SlabProperties
onlyappliestofloortypeareaobjectswithslabsection
propertiesthathavemembranebehavioronly
Theloaddistributionformembraneslabsectionsistwoway
Theactualdistributionofloadsontheseelementsisquite
complex
ETABSusestheconceptoftributaryloadsasasimplifying
assumptionfortransformingtheloads

3 3
1

midpoints

FloorswithMembraneSlabProperties
1
h) Real beams on two
adjacent sides plus
one vertical support
element at corner point

g) Real beam on one side


plus one vertical
support element at
corner point

4 4

2 2
1

1
a) Real beams on all sides

3 3

2 2

1
b) Case 1 of real beams on
three sides

3
4

3 3
1
1
c) Case 2 of real beams on
three sides

1
d) Real beams on two
adjacent sides

1
e) Real beams on two
opposite sides
2

midpoint
1
1

2
2

1
h) Real beams on two
adjacent sides plus
one vertical support
element at corner point
3

2
3

1
2
k) Vertical support
elements at three
corner points (no real
beams)

1
2
l) Vertical support
elements at two
adjacent corner points
(no real beams)

1
Real beam at shell edge
1
n) Vertical support
elements at one
corner point (no
real beams)

No beam at shell edge


Tributary area dividing line
Vertical support element
Legend

3 3

g) Real beam on one side


plus one vertical
support element at
corner point
4

1
m)Vertical support
elements at two
opposite corner points
(no real beams)

3
3

midpoints

1
i) Real beam on one side
plus two vertical
support elements at
corner points

1
f) Real beam on one side

1
2
j) Vertical support
elements at all corner
points (no real beams)

1
1

2
2 2

1
i) Real beam on one side
plus two vertical
support elements at
corner points

Tributary areas for various


conditions of a membrane slab

FloorswithMembraneSlabProperties
3

4 4

2 2

4 4

2 2
1

1
a) Full uniform load
transformation

1
b) Partial uniform load
transformation

4 4

Example of load distribution on


a membrane slab

2 2

4 4

2 2

1
c) Line load transformation

1
d) Point load transformation

Type of Slab Systems in SAFE

The 5-Story Walkup Flats


A

6
5

6.0
4

6.0
3
2
1

2.8
2.8
4.0

4.0

5.5

5.5

4.0

Column Layout Plan

4.0

The 5-Story Walkup Flats


A

6
5

C2

C1

C1= 0.3 x 0.8


C2 = 0.3 x 0.4

6.0
4

B1 = 0.25 x 0.4
B2 = 0.25 x 0.5

B1
6.0

B2

S1 = 0.15

3
2
1

2.8
2.8

4.0

4.0

5.5

5.5

4.0

Slab and Beam Layout

4.0

The 5-Story Walkup Flats

3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.5
2.0
6

Section

35 Story Office Building


5

7.0
4

8.0
3

8.0
2

Plan
Typical Floor
(B1, B2, 4-35)

7.0
1
A

6.0

6.0

8.0

8.0

6.0

6.0

35 Story Office Building


5

7.0
4

8.0
3

8.0
2

Plan
Floor 1-2

7.0
1
A

6.0

6.0

8.0

8.0

6.0

6.0

35 Story Office Building


5

7.0
4

8.0
3

8.0
2

Plan
Floor 3

7.0
1
A

6.0

6.0

8.0

8.0

6.0

6.0

35 Story Office Building

32 @ 3.5

2@
5.0
2 @ 2.8

Section at
C and D
5

35 Story Office Building

32 @ 3.5

2@
5.0
2 @ 2.8

Section at
B and E
5

35 Story Office Building

32 @ 3.5

2@
5.0
2 @ 2.8

Section at
A and G
5