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# Building Structures

Concepts

## PROSES ANALISIS & DESAIN

STRUKTUR
Struktur Frame/Truss?

Model Struktur

Konsep Struktur
Pemodelan Struktur
Analisis Struktur
Desain Elemen Struktur
Gambar Detail
Anggaran Biaya
Analisis Struktur

Engineer

Software

Engineer + Software

STRUKTUR

Baja (Baut)

Baja (Las)

Sambungan A

Sambungan B

Diagram Momen

## Sistem Struktur Bangunan Gedung

(a) Struktur Rangka Dengan Dinding Geser (Shear Wall) - (b) Struktur Rangka Pemikul
Momen (SRPM) - c) Struktur Rangka Dengan Pengaku (Bracing)

## SISTEM STRUKTUR GEDUNG

Frame & Shear Walls
Sistem Penahan Beban Lateral
(Beban Gempa, Beban Angin)

## Beam & Slab (Floor Diaphragm)

Sistem Penahan Beban Gravitasi
(Beban Mati , Beban Hidup)

## Sistem Penahan Beban Gravitasi

Berfungsi menahan beban gravitasi dan beban vertikal (Balok, Balok Anak, Pelat)

## Sistem Penahan Beban Lateral

Berfungsi menahan beban lateral/horisontal (kolom, shear walls, bracing)

## Floor Diaphragm (FD)

Sistem struktur yang mentransfer beban lateral pada Sistem Penahan Beban Lateral

## The Simplified Structural System

PENGARUH LUAR
- Getaran (Vibration)
- Penurunan
(Settlement)
- Temperatur
STRUKTUR

PENGARUH LUAR
- Getaran (Vibration)
- Penurunan
(Settlement)
- Temperatur

RESPON STRUKTUR
- Deformasi
(Displacements)
- Gaya Dalam (Internal
Force)
- Regangan (Strains)
- Tegangan (Stress)

RESPON STRUKTUR
- Deformasi
(Displacements)
- Gaya Dalam (Internal
Force)
- Regangan (Strains)
- Tegangan (Stress)
STRUKTUR

Analysis of Structures
xx yy zz

pvx 0
x
y
z
pv

## Real Structure is governed by Partial

Differential Equations of various
order
Direct solution is only possible for:
Simple Geometry
Simple Boundary

## - Real Structure cannot be analyzed, it can only be Load

Tested to determine the response
- We can only analyze a Model of the structure
- We therefore need tools to Model the Structure and to
Analyze the Model

## Finite Element Method: The Analysis Tool

Finite Element Analysis (FEA)
A discretized solution to a continuum
problem using FEM

## Finite Element Method (FEM)

A numerical procedure for solving (partial)
differential equations associated with field
problems, with an accuracy acceptable to
engineers

## Continuum to Discrete Model

pv

3D-CONTINUM
MODEL
(Governed by partial
differential equations)

CONTINUOUS MODEL
OF STRUCTURE
(Governed by either
partial or total differential
equations)

DISCRETE MODEL
OF STRUCTURE
(Governed by algebraic
equations)

## From Classical to FEM Solution

Classical

Equilibrium

Actual Structure

xx yy zz

pvx 0
x
y
z
Partial Differential
Equations

FEM

Assumptions

Structural Model

Kr R

Stress-Strain Law
Compatibility

Algebraic
Equations
_

dV p u dV p u ds
t
v

t
s

K = Stiffness
r = Response

Deformations (D)
Fv

F=KD

STRUCTURE
RESPONSES

EXCITATION
pv

Static
Dynamic

Elastic
Inelastic

Linear
Nonlinear

## The Equilibrium Equations

1. Linear-Static

Elastic OR Inelastic

Ku F
2. Linear-Dynamic Elastic

Mu(t ) Cu (t ) Ku (t ) F (t )
3. Nonlinear - Static

Elastic OR Inelastic

Ku FNL F
4. Nonlinear-Dynamic

Elastic OR Inelastic

Mu(t ) Cu (t ) Ku (t ) F (t ) NL F (t )

## Basic Steps in FEA

Evaluate Real Structure
Create Structural Model
Discretize Model in FE
Solve FE Model
Interpret FEA Results
Physical significance of Results

Engineer
Engineer + Software
Software

Discretization of Continuums
General Solid
( Orthogonal dimensions)
Z

Regular Solid
X

## ( T small compared to Lengths )

Y

Beam Element

Solid Element

Plate/ Shell

Membrane/ Panel
In-Plane, Only Axial

Plate/ Slab
Out of Plane, Only Bending

Shell
In-Plane and Bending

## (b) Solid Model

(c) 3D Plate-Frame

(e) 2D Frame
Fig. 1 Various Ways to Model a Real Struture

(d) 3D Frame

(f) Grid-Plate

Dimensions of Elements
1 D Elements (Beam type)
Can be used in 1D, 2D and 2D
2-3 Nodes. A, I etc.
Truss and Beam Elements (1D,2D,3D)

## 2 D Elements (Plate type)

Can be used in 2D and 3D Model
3-9 nodes. Thickness

Plane Stress, Plane Strain, Axisymmetric, Plate and Shell Elements (2D,3D)

## 3 D Elements (Brick type)

Can be used in 3D Model
6-20 Nodes.
Brick Elements

Dy

Dy

Dy
Rz

Dz

Dx

2D Truss

Dx

3D Truss

2D Beam

Ry
Dy
Rz

Dy
Dx

Rz

Dy
Dz

Rx

Dx

Rx

Rz

2D Frame

2D Grid

3D Frame

Ry ?

Ry ?
Dy

Dy

Dy
Rz

Rx

Dx

Membrane

Plate

Dz

Dx

Rz

Shell

Rx

Dy
Dz

Dx

Solid/ Brick

## Frame and Grid Model

The structure represented by rod or
bar type elements
Does not model the cross-section
dimensions
Suitable for skeletal structures
Sometimes surface type structures
can also be represented by frame
model
The simplest and easiest model to
construct, analyze and interpret
Can be in 2D or in 3D space
2D Frame

3D Frame
2D Grid

Membrane Model

## Ignore bending stiffness

Tension / Compression
In- plane Shear
Principle Stresses
suitable for very thin
structures / members
Thin Walled Shells,
Specially Suitable for Ferro
Cement Structure

Plain-Strain
Assumptions

x
1 unit

x2

x3

x1
3D Problem

2D Problem

## Plate Bending Model

Primarily Bending mode
Moment and Shear are
predominant
Suitable for moderately thick
slabs and plates
Can be used in 3D or 2D models
Suitable for planks and
relatively flat structures

## General Plate-Shell Model

Combined Membrane and Plate
Suitable for general application
to surface structures
Suitable for curved structures
Thick shell and thin shell
implementations available
Membrane thickness and plate
thickness can be specified
separately
Numerous results generated.
Difficult to design the section for
combined actions

Solid Model

## Shear Axial deformation mode in 3D

Suitable for micro-models
Suitable for very thick plates / solids
May not be applicable much to
ferocement structures

Use 6 to 20 node
elements

Soil-Structure Interaction
Simple Supports
Fix, Pin, Roller etc.
Support Settlement

Elastic Supports
Spring to represent soil

## Full Structure-Soil Model

Use 2D plane stress elements
Use 3D Solid Elements

Truss
Truss
Frame

Membrane

Shell

Solid

OK

Dz

OK

OK

OK

Rx, Ry, Rz

OK

Dz

Rx ?
Dx, Dy

Rx ?

Rx, Ry, Rz

OK

OK

OK

Dx, Dy

OK

OK

Rx, Rz

OK

Rx, Rz

OK

OK

Rx, Rz

Rx, Ry, Rz

OK

Dz

Dx, Dz

OK

Rx, Rz

OK

OK

Dz

Dx, Dz

OK

OK

Plate

Solid

## Orphan Degrees Of Freedom:

0

Plate

OK

Membrane

Shell

Frame

What Type of
Analysis should be
Carried Out?

Analysis Type

## The type of Analysis to be carried out

depends on the Structural System
The Type Structure (Material and Geometry)
The Type Response

## Basic Analysis Types

Excitation Structure Response

## Basic Analysis Type

Static

Elastic

Linear

Linear-Elastic-Static Analysis

Static

Elastic

Nonlinear

Nonlinear-Elastic-Static Analysis

Static

Inelastic

Linear

Linear-Inelastic-Static Analysis

Static

Inelastic

Nonlinear

Nonlinear-Inelastic-Static Analysis

Dynamic

Elastic

Linear

Linear-Elastic-Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic

Elastic

Nonlinear

Nonlinear-Elastic-Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic

Inelastic

Linear

Linear-Inelastic-Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic

Inelastic

Nonlinear

Nonlinear-Inelastic-Dynamic Analysis

## Some More Solution Types

Non-linear Analysis

P-Delta Analysis
Buckling Analysis
Static Pushover Analysis
Fast Non-Linear Analysis (FNA)
Large Displacement Analysis

Dynamic Analysis
Free Vibration and Modal Analysis
Response Spectrum Analysis

Static Vs Dynamic
Static Excitation
When the Excitation (Load) does not vary rapidly with Time
When the Load can be assumed to be applied Slowly

Dynamic Excitation
When the Excitation varies rapidly with Time
When the Inertial Force becomes significant

## Most Real Excitation are Dynamic but are considered

Quasi Static
Most Dynamic Excitation can be converted to

Elastic Vs Inelastic
Elastic Material
state of deformation, stress, strain etc. after removal of load/ excitation

Inelastic Material
returns to initial state of deformation, stress, strain etc. after removal of

## Most materials exhibit both, elastic and inelastic behavior

Linear Vs Nonlinear
Linearity
The response is directly proportional to excitation
(Deflection doubles if load is doubled)

Non-Linearity
The response is not directly proportional to excitation
(deflection may become 4 times if load is doubled)

## Non-linear response may be produced by:

Geometric Effects (Geometric non-linearity)
Material Effects (Material non-linearity)
Both

Linear-Elastic

Action

Action

## Elasticity and Linearity

Deformation

Action

Action

Deformation

Linear-Inelastic

Nonlinear-Elastic
Deformation

Nonlinear-Inelastic
Deformation

## Physical Object Based

Modeling, Analysis and Design

Continuum Vs Structure
A continuum extends in all direction, has infinite
particles, with continuous variation of material
properties, deformation characteristics and stress state
A Structure is of finite size and is made up of an
assemblage of substructures, components and members
Dicretization process is used to convert Structure to
Finite Element Models for determining response

## Physical Categorization of Structures

Structures can be categorized in many ways.
For modeling and analysis purposes, the overall physical
behavior can be used as basis of categorization

## Cable or Tension Structures

Skeletal or Framed Structures
Surface or Spatial Structures
Solid Structures
Mixed Structures

Structure Types
Cable Structures
Cable Nets
Cable Stayed

Bar Structures
2D/3D Trusses
2D/3D Frames, Grids

Surface Structures
Plate, Shell
In-Plane, Plane Stress

Solid Structures

## Structure, Member, Element

Structure can considered as an assemblage of Physical
Components called Members
Slabs, Beams, Columns, Footings, etc.

## Physical Members can be modeled by using one or more

Conceptual Components called Elements
1D elements, 2D element, 3D elements
Frame element, plate element, shell element, solid element, etc.

## Modeling in terms Graphical Objects to represent Physical

Components relieves the engineers from intricacies and
idiosyncrasy of finite element discretization

Structural Members
Continuum

Regular Solid
(3D)

y
Plate/Shell (2D)
x z
t<<(x,z)

z
x

z
Beam (1D)
b h
L>>(b,h)
h
b

## Dimensional Hierarchy of Structural Members

mass contained in a volume
Mechanism and path must be found to transfer these loads to
the Supports through a Medium

## All types of Static Loads can be represented as:

The Load is transferred through a
medium which may be:

A Point
A Line
An Area
A Volume
A system consisting of combination of
several mediums

Point Supports
Line Supports
Area Supports
Volume Supports

## Graphic Object Representation

Object

Geometry
Medium

Support
Boundary

Point

Node

Point Support
Column Support

Line

Beam / Truss
Connection Element
Spring Element

Line Support
Wall Support
Beam Support

Area

Plate Element
Shell Element
Panel/ Plane

Soil Support

Volume

Solid Element

Soil Support

## Load Transfer Path is difficult to Determine

Mechanism depend on:

Vol.

Complexity of Medium
Complexity of Boundary

Area
Line
Point Line
Line
Area
Volume

Boundary

Area

Volume

Medium

Point

Line

Area

Volume

## Transfer of a Point Load to Point Supports Through Various Mediums

Objects in ETABS
Building Object Specific Classification

## Plank One way slabs

Slab One way or Two way slabs
Deck Special one way slabs
Wall Shear Walls, Deep Beams, In-Fill Panel
Frame Column, Beam or Brace

Finite Elements

Shell
Plate
Membrane
Beam
Node

## The Frame Element

The Actions Corresponding to Six DOF at Both Ends, in
Local Coordinate System
2

+V2

+P

+V3

+V3
+P

+V2

+M2

+T

+M3
3

+M3
+T

+M2

Shell Element
General
Total DOF per Node = 6 (or 5)
Total Displacements per Node = 3
Total Rotations per Node = 3
Used for curved surfaces

U3, R3

U3, R3
U2, R2

Node 3

U2, R2
Node 4

U1, R1

Application
For Modeling surface elements carrying

## May be used for modeling of general slabs

systems. But not used generally

U3, R3
1

U3, R3

U2, R2

Node 1

## Building Specific Application

U1, R1

U2, R2
Node 2

U1, R1

Shell

U1, R1

Plate Element
General
Total DOF per Node = 3
Total Displacements per Node = 1
Total Rotations per Node = 2
Plates are for flat surfaces

U3

U3

R2

Node 3

Node 4

R1

Application
For Modeling surface elements carrying

## Building Specific Application

For representing floor slabs for Vertical
Model slabs

R1
2

U3

R2

Node 1

R2

U3

R2

Node 2

R1

R1

Plate

Membrane Element
General
Total DOF per Node = 3 (or 2)
Total Displacements per Node = 2
Total Rotations per Node = 1 (or 0)
Membranes are modeled for flat surfaces

Application
For Modeling surface elements carrying

## Building Specific Application

For representing floor slabs for Lateral
Model Shear walls, Floor Diaphragm etc

R3

U2

U2
Node 4

Node 3

U1
3

U1

R3

U2

Node 1

R3

U2

Node 2

U1

Membrane

U1

Zipper

## In general the mesh in the slab

should match with mesh in the wall
to establish connection

## Some software automatically

establishes connectivity by using
constraints or Zipper elements

## Selection Of Structural Systems

Basic Concepts and Considerations

## Knowledge Model for System Selection

Architecture
Building Services
Construction Eng.
Value Eng.
Aesthetics
Ergonomics Eng.
Structural Eng.
Knowledge Eng.
Economics
Artificial Intelligence
System Eng.
Common Sense

Construction
Engineering

Structural
System Selection

Artificial Intelligence

## Determining System Suitability

The Analytical Hierarchy Approach
A weighted importance and suitability value analysis to
determine the comparative value of a system or option

Value of
an Option

Vl Ai S i
i 1

Global
Importance
Weights and
Scores

B S C
j 1

ij

ij

Sub
Importance
Weights and
Scores

k 1

ijkl

S ijk

Suitability
Value and
Score

## Evaluating System Suitability

The Suitability Equation
m

i 1

C
S

ijkl ijk
k 1

Vl Ai S i

Bij Sij
j 1

Slab Systems

Main Criteria Ai
Sub Criteria Bij
Item k

Am
Sub Criteria Bin

Item p

Item k

Bmn

Item p

Item p

Wt

Score

Wt

Score

Wt

Score

Wt

Score

Score

Cijkl

Sijkl

Cijnl

Sijpl

Cinkl

Sinkl

Cinnl

Sinpl

Smnpl

System 1
System l
System - q

System
Value
(V)

## Assigning Suitability Values

Score or Weight

Representation of Suitability

10

8,9

6,7

4,3

1,2

## Selection of Structural System

Function has considerable effect on the selection
of structural system
Based on Function/Occupancy of Tall Buildings:
Residential Buildings
Apartments
Hotels
Dormitories

## Office and Commercial Buildings

Mixed Occupancy Commercial + Residential
Industrial Buildings and Parking Garages

## Known location of partitions and their load

Column lines generally matches architectural layout
Typical spans 15-22 ft
Tall buildings economy in achieved using the thinnest slab
One way pre-cast or flat slab popular
Lateral load resistance provided by frame or shear walls
More or less fixed M/E system layouts

## Unknown location of partitions and their load

Typical spans 20-35 ft
Need for flexible M/E layouts
Post-tension or ribbed and flat slab with drop panel
popular

## Ideal balance between vertical and lateral load resisting

systems: sufficient shear walls to limit the resultant
tension under gravity plus wind

Resisting Systems
The Components Needed to

Purpose
To Transfer Gravity Loads Applied at the Floor Levels
down to the Foundation Level

## Direct Path Systems

Slab Supported on Load Bearing Walls
Slab Supported on Columns

## Indirect Multi Path Systems

Slab Supported on Beams
Beams Supported on Other Beams
Beams Supported on Walls or Columns

1. Slabs supported on Long Rigid Supports

## Supported on stiff Beams or Walls

One-way and Two-way Slabs
Main consideration is flexural reinforcement

## Supported on Columns directly

Flat Slab Floor systems
Main consideration is shear transfer, moment distribution in various

## 3. Slabs supported on soil

Footings, Mat etc. Heavy concentrated loads

Behavior and Response

## Flat Slab and Flat Plate

Beam-Slab
Waffle Slab
Wall Joist

Beam, Slab
Girder, Beam, Slab
Girder, Joist

Conventional Approach
For Wall Supported Slabs
Assume load transfer in One-Way or Two-Way manner
Uniform, Triangular or Trapezoidal Load on Walls

## For Beam Supported Slabs

Assume beams to support the slabs in similar ways as walls
Design slabs as edge supported on beams

## For Flat-Slabs or Columns Supported Slabs

Assume load transfer in strips directly to columns

Single Path

Single Path

Slab On Walls

Slab on Columns

Dual Path
Slab On Beams,
Beams on Columns

Mixed Path

Complex Path

Slab On Walls
Slab On Beams
Beams on Walls

Slab on Beams
Slab on Walls
Beams on Beams
Beams on Columns

Slab On Ribs
Ribs On Beams
Beams on Columns

To Lines

To Points

## Slab System Behavior

D
B

Slab T = 200 mm
Beam Width, B = 300 mm
Beam Depth, D
a) 300 mm
b) 500 mm
c) 1000 mm

5 .0 m

## Moment Distribution in Beam-Slab

Effect of Beam Size on
Moment Distribution

## Moment Distribution in Slabs Only

Effect of Beam Size on Moment Distribution

## Must be carried out for several load cases/ patterns

Does not change much for different floors
1. Use Direct Design Methods

## Model, analyze and design Floor by Floor, Without columns

Slab analysis and design by using Coefficients
Beam analysis as continuous beams

## Model slab/ beam for in-plane loads

Model, analyze and design Floor by Floor, With columns

## Model slab and beams for out-of plane loads

Analyze un-symmetrical loads, geometry, openings etc.

Design Strip

Design Strip

Middle Strip
Column Strip
Middle Strip

## Using Equivalent Frame Method Design Strip

Design Strip
Middle Strip

L2

Column Strip
Middle Strip
Drop Panels
Longitudinal Beams

Transverse Beams

L1

L2

Resisting Systems
The Components Needed to

Purpose
To Transfer Lateral Loads Applied at any location in the
structure down to the Foundation Level

Single System

## Moment Resisting Frames

Braced Frames
Shear Walls
Tubular Systems

Dual System
Shear Wall - Frames
Tube + Frame + Shear Wall

Load generated due to Seismic Excitation

Load generated due to horizontal component of Gravity
Loads in Inclined Systems and in Un-symmetrical
structures
Load due to lateral soil pressure, liquid and material
retention

## Sample Lateral Load Resistance Systems

Bearing wall system
Light frames with shear panels

## Fully Braced System (FBS)

Shear Walls (SW)
Diagonal Bracing (DB)

## Moment Resisting Frames (MRF)

Special Moment-Resisting Frames (SMRF)
Concrete Intermediate Moment-Resisting Frame (IMRF)
Ordinary Moment-Resisting Frame (OMRF)

## Dual Systems (DS)

Shear Walls + Frames (SWF)
Ordinary Braced Frame (OBF)
Special Braced Frame (SBF)

## Moment Resisting Frame

shear in columns, that
produces moment in
columns and in beams
The Beam-Column
connection is crucial for the
system to work
The moments and shear

## Shear Wall and Frame

primarily resisted by the
shear in the walls, in turn
producing bending moment
The openings in wall
become areas of high stress
concentration and need to
be handled carefully
the frames
distribution haws been used

## Shear Wall - Frame

The Walls are part of the
frame and act together with
the frame members
primarily resisted by the
shear in the walls, in turn
producing bending moment.
the frame members in
moment and shear

Braced Frame
resisted by the Axial Force in
the braces, columns and
beams in the braced zone.
The frame away from the
braced zone does not have
significant moments
Bracing does not have to be
provided in every bay, but
should be provided in every
story

Tubular Structure
The system is formed by using
closely spaced columns and deep
spandrel beams
resisted by the entire building
acting as a big cantilever with a
tubular/ box cross-section
There is a shear lag problem
between opposite faces of the tube
due to in-efficiency of column
beam connection
The height to width ratio should
be more than 5

## Braced Tube Systems

the basic tubular structure
This modification of the
Tubular System reduces shear
lag between opposite faces

Resisting
System
Behavior, Response
and Modeling

1. 2D Frame Models

## Convert building in to several 2D frames in each direction

Suitable for symmetrical loads and geometry

2. 3D Frame Model

## Make a 3D frame model of entire building structure

Can be open floor model or braced floor model

## 4. Rigid Diaphragm Model

A special model suitable for buildings that uses the concept of Rigid
Floor Diaphragm

Modeling as 2D Frame(s)
Convert 3D Building to an assemblage of 2D Frames
Using Independent Frames
Using Sub-Structuring Concept

Easier to model, analyze and interpret
Fairly accurate for Gravity Load Analysis

Main Problems:

## Center of Stiffness and Center of Forces my not coincide

Difficult to consider building torsional effects
Several Frames may need to be modeled in each direction
Difficult to model non-rectangular framing system

2. Select and
isolate Typical
2D Structure

## 1. Consider the Structure

Plan and 3D View

4. Obtain results

3. Discretize
the Model,

F1

Shear Wall

F2
F3

Modeling

Plan
F1

F2

F3

## Link Element can allow only to transmit the shear and

axial force from one end to other end. It has moment
discontinuity at both ends

## Link Element act as a member which links the forces of

one frame to another frame, representing the effect of
Rigid Floor.

## Full 3D Finite Element Model

The columns and beams are modeled by using
beam elements
The slabs and shear walls are modeled by using
plate elements
At least 9 or 16 elements in each slab panel must be
used if gravity loads are applied to the slabs
If the model is only for lateral analysis, one element
per slab panel may be sufficient to model the inplane stiffness
Shear walls may be modeled by plate or panel or
plane stress element. The out of plane bending is
not significant

## Full 3D Finite Element Model

Example:
Uses more than 4000
beam and plate elements
Suitable for analysis for
Results can be used for
design of columns and
beams
Slab reinforcement
difficult to determine
from plate results

## Modeling of Floor Diaphragm

Use Plate Elements
Panels, Plane Stress

Use Diagonal
Bracing

Use Diagonals
In 3D Frame Models

## Use Conceptual Rigid

Diaphragm
Master DOF in 3D
Use Approximately

Use Plate
Elements

## The Rigid Floor Diaphragm

Combines the simplicity and advantages of the 2D Frame
models with the accuracy of the 3D models
Basic Concept:
The building structure is represented by vertical units (2D Frames,
3D Frames and Shear Walls), connected by the invisible rigid
diaphragm
The lateral movement of all vertical units are connected to three
master degree of freedom
This takes into account the building rotation and its effect on the
vertical units.
The modeling and analysis is greatly simplified and made efficient

## Rigid Floor Diaphragm Concept

Modeled as Rigid Horizontal Plane of infinite
in-plane stiffness (in X-Y plane)
Assumed to have a hinge connection with
frame member or shear wall, so flexural
influence of all floors to lateral stiff ness is
neglected
All column lines of all frames at particular
level can not deform independent of each
other
The floor levels of all frames must be at the
same elevation and base line, but they need
not have same number of stories

uilding d.o.f.s

F1 , 1

UL

r
rY
F3 , 3

UL3
X

UL2

rx

UL1

F3 , 2
F2 , 1

(In ETABS)

## Area Objects: Slab

By default uses two-way load transfer
mechanism
Simple RC solid slab
Can also be used to model one way slabs

## Area Object: Deck

Metallic Composite Slabs
Includes shear studs
Generally used in association with
composite beams
Deck slabs may be
o Filled Deck
o Unfilled Deck
o Solid Slab Deck

## Area Object: Plank

By default use one-way load transfer
mechanism
Generally used to model pre-cast slabs
Can also be simple RC solid slab

## Automatic Floor Meshing

First step to Auto Load Transfer

## Basic Floor Modeling Object

Points
Columns
Boundary Point

Lines
Beams

Areas

Deck:
Represents a Steel Metal Deck, One way Load Transfer
Plank : Represents clearly on-way slab portion
Slab:
Represents one-way or two-way slab portion
Opening: Represents Openings in Floor

Automatic Meshing
ETABS automatically meshes all line objects with frame
section properties into the analysis model
ETABS meshes all floor type (horizontal) area objects (deck
or slab) into the analysis model
Meshing does not change the number of objects in the
model
To mesh line objects with section properties use Edit menu
> Divide Lines
To mesh area objects with section properties use Edit menu
> Mesh Areas

Automatic Meshing
AutomaticMeshingofLineObjects
Frameelementsaremeshedatlocationswhereotherframe
elementsattachtoorcrossthemandatlocationswherepoint
objectslieonthem.
meshedintotheanalysismodelbyETABS
ETABSautomaticallymeshes(divides)thebracesatthepoint
wheretheycrossintheanalysismodel
Noendreleasesareintroduced.

AutomaticMeshingofLineObjects
Beam 1

Girder A

Beam 2

Beam 1

Piece 1

Piece 2

Beam 2
Piece 3

## b) Girders A and B As Modeled in

the ETABS Analysis Model

Girder B

a) Floor Plan

Example showing how beams are automatically divided (meshed) where they
support other beams for the ETABS analysis model

AutomaticMeshingofAreaObjects
ETABSautomaticallymeshesafloortypeareaobjectupintofour
Eachsideofeachelementofthemeshhasabeam(RealorImaginary)
orwallrunningalongit
ETABStreatsawallliketwocolumnsandabeamwherethecolumns
arelocatedattheendsofthewallandthebeamconnectsthecolumns.
Eachcolumnisassumedtohavefourbeamsconnectingtoit
Thefloorisbrokenupatallwallsandallrealandimaginarybeamsto
createameshoffoursidedelements

AutomaticMeshingofAreaObjects

Girder B
a) Floor Plan

Beam 3

Beam 2

Beam 1

Girder A

Beam 3

Beam 2

Beam 1

Girder A

Girder B
b) ETABS Imaginary Beams Shown Dashed c) ETABS Automatic Floor Meshing

## Example of ETABS automatically generated mesh for floor-type area objects

AutomaticMeshingofAreaObjects
Example of ETABS
automatically generated mesh
for floor-type area objects

## b) ETABS Imaginary Beams Connecting

Columns Shown Dashed

## c) ETABS Imaginary Beams Extended to

Edge of Floor Shown Dashed

## d) ETABS Automatic Floor Meshing

AutomaticMeshingofAreaObjects
ForfloorsthatareautomaticallymeshedbyETABSitis
recommendedthatmodelbeams(oratleastnulltypelineobjects)
areconnectingcolumnsratherthannobeams(orlineobjects)
Thismakestheautomaticmeshingfortheanalysismodelcleaner,
fasterandmorepredictable
Includingbeamsand/ornulltypelineobjectsbetweenall
columnsinyourmodelmakesautomaticfloormeshingmore
predictable

AutomaticMeshingofAreaObjects
C4

C3

C4

C3

C4

C3

C1
a)

C2

C1
b)

C2

C1
c)

C2

C4

C3

C4

C3

C4

C3

C1
d)

C2

C1
e)

C2

C1
f)

C2

C4

C3

C4

C3

C4

C3

C1
g)

C2

C1
h)

C2

C1
i)

C2

## Illustration of how ETABS

creates the distribution of
imaginary beams

## Automatic Transformation and

Appropriate Elements
(Using the Auto Meshed Geometry)

Themainissue:
objectinyourobjectbasedETABSmodelarerepresentedin
theanalysismodel
There are four distinct types of load transformation in
ETABS for out-of-plane load transformation for floor-type
area objects

withdecksectionproperties
withslabsectionpropertiesthathavemembranebehavioronly
allothertypesofareaobjects

AreaObjects

automaticmeshingintotheanalysis
model

ETABSnormalizesthecoordinatesof
thefourcornerpointsofthearea
object
Thenormalizationisthekey
assumptioninthismethod
Itisaperfectlyvalidassumptionifthe
aparallelogram

s
(-1, 1)

(-1, -1)

(-1, 1)

(1, 1)
2

4
(1, -1)

(-1, -1)

(1, 1)

(r, s)

1
r

P
4
(1, -1)

## Example of transfer of out-of-plane loads

for other area objects

contrasttoslabsectionswhichareassumedtospanintwo
directions
ETABSfirstautomaticallymeshesthedeckinto
OncethemeshingiscompleteETABSdeterminesthe
meshedshellelementsthathaverealbeamsalongthemand
thosethathaveimaginarybeams
Italsodetermineswhichedgesofthemeshedshellelements
arealsoedgesofthedeck.

x/2

Edge 3

x/2
wx / 2

Edge 3

Edge 2

Edge 4

Edge 2

## Direction of deck span

Edge 4

Ifthesupportingmember
attheendpointofan
imaginarybeamisitself
fromtheimaginarybeam
tributarytothatendpoint
islost,thatis,itis
ignoredbyETABS

Edge 1
a) Rectangular Interior Element
of Meshed Floor

Edge 1

Exampleofrectangularinteriormeshed

(basedonthedirectionofthedeckspan)
x1

x2

P * x1
x1 + x2

Edge 3

Edge 2

## Direction of deck span

Edge 4

Ifthesupporting
memberattheendpoint
ofanimaginarybeamis
itselfimaginary,thenthe
beamtributarytothat
endpointislost,thatis,
itisignoredbyETABS

Edge 1
a) Rectangular Interior Element
of Meshed Floor

Edge 4
x1

Edge 2
x2

P * x2

P * x2

P * x1

x1 + x2

x1 + x2

## b) Distribution of Point Load

x1 + x2

usinganumericalintegrationtechnique
transformedtosurroundingbeams
surroundingbeams
technique.

GeneralInteriorMeshedElement

Midpoint
Midpoint

Line 3 P3

P3
P2

P2
P1

## a) General Interior Element of

Meshed Floor Deck

## a) General Interior Element of

Meshed Floor Deck

b)

c)

Line 2
P1

Line 1

b)

d)

## e) Transformation of Uniform Load

Exampleofgeneralinteriormeshed

Exampleofgeneralinteriormeshedelementwitha

ExteriorMeshedElement
D

B eam 2b

B eam 2a

Beam 3b

D
Beam 3a

Imaginary
Beam 6

Beam 3a

Beam 1b

No beam at
edge of deck

b) Deck Meshing

Beam 2b

Beam 1b

a) Floor Plan

No beam at
edge of deck
Beam 4a

a) Floor Plan

b) Deck Meshing

Imaginary Beam 5

Beam 1a

Beam 2a

Beam 3b

Beam 1a

Exampleofexteriormeshedelements
withcantileverbeamsextendingto
edgeofdeck

Beam 1b

B eam 2b
Edge of deck is at
center of spandrel
beam, typical in this
example

Beam 1a

B eam 2a

Beam 1b

Beam 2b

Exampleofexteriormeshed
elementswithrealbeamsonall
sides

Beam 4b

Beam 3b

Imaginary Beam 5

Beam 3a

ImaginaryBeam 6

Beam 2a

No beam at
edge of deck

a) Floor Plan

b) Deck Meshing
E2

Beam 2b

Exampleofexterior
meshedelements
withcantilever
beamsextendingto
deck

Beam 1b

Beam 3a

## c) Condition at Skewed Deck

Edge (Areas D and E)

E1
Beam 3b

ImaginaryBeam 6

Beam 2a

Beam 2b

Beam 1b

Beam 3b

Beam 1a

Beam 3a

Beam 2b

No beam at
edge of deck

Beam 1a

Beam 1b

ExteriorMeshedElement

ExteriorMeshedElement
Edge of deck

D
Beam 1

Beam 1

a) Floor Plan

Column 1

Beam 2

Beam 2

Column 1

b) Deck Meshing

## Example of exterior meshed elements with overhanging slab

ExteriorMeshedElement

a) Floor Plan

Beam 1b

b) Deck Meshing

## Example of exterior meshed elements with overhanging slab

Beam 3b

I
J

Beam 3a

Beam 1a

Beam 2b

Beam 1b

Beam 2a

Beam 2a

Beam 1a

Beam 2b

EffectofDeckOpenings
6'

14'

psf. Opening is either loaded or
unloaded as noted in c, d, e and f
Beam 1.

6'

4'

6'

14'

4'

4'

0.6 klf

2'

0.2 klf
Beam 1

a) Floor Plan with Unframed Opening
4'

6'

14'
0.7k

0.7k

0.1 klf

0.6 klf

6'

0.6 klf

2'

4'

Beam 1
b) Floor Plan with Framed Opening
(Beams on all Sides)

0.6 klf

1.5k

1.5k

0.1 klf

0.6 klf

## Example of effect of openings

deck sections

SlabProperties
onlyappliestofloortypeareaobjectswithslabsection
propertiesthathavemembranebehavioronly
complex

3 3
1

midpoints

FloorswithMembraneSlabProperties
1
h) Real beams on two
one vertical support
element at corner point

## g) Real beam on one side

plus one vertical
support element at
corner point

4 4

2 2
1

1
a) Real beams on all sides

3 3

2 2

1
b) Case 1 of real beams on
three sides

3
4

3 3
1
1
c) Case 2 of real beams on
three sides

1
d) Real beams on two

1
e) Real beams on two
opposite sides
2

midpoint
1
1

2
2

1
h) Real beams on two
one vertical support
element at corner point
3

2
3

1
2
k) Vertical support
elements at three
corner points (no real
beams)

1
2
l) Vertical support
elements at two
(no real beams)

1
Real beam at shell edge
1
n) Vertical support
elements at one
corner point (no
real beams)

## No beam at shell edge

Tributary area dividing line
Vertical support element
Legend

3 3

## g) Real beam on one side

plus one vertical
support element at
corner point
4

1
m)Vertical support
elements at two
opposite corner points
(no real beams)

3
3

midpoints

1
i) Real beam on one side
plus two vertical
support elements at
corner points

1
f) Real beam on one side

1
2
j) Vertical support
elements at all corner
points (no real beams)

1
1

2
2 2

1
i) Real beam on one side
plus two vertical
support elements at
corner points

## Tributary areas for various

conditions of a membrane slab

FloorswithMembraneSlabProperties
3

4 4

2 2

4 4

2 2
1

1
transformation

1
transformation

4 4

a membrane slab

2 2

4 4

2 2

1

1

A

6
5

6.0
4

6.0
3
2
1

2.8
2.8
4.0

4.0

5.5

5.5

4.0

4.0

A

6
5

C2

C1

C2 = 0.3 x 0.4

6.0
4

B1 = 0.25 x 0.4
B2 = 0.25 x 0.5

B1
6.0

B2

S1 = 0.15

3
2
1

2.8
2.8

4.0

4.0

5.5

5.5

4.0

4.0

3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.5
2.0
6

Section

5

7.0
4

8.0
3

8.0
2

Plan
Typical Floor
(B1, B2, 4-35)

7.0
1
A

6.0

6.0

8.0

8.0

6.0

6.0

5

7.0
4

8.0
3

8.0
2

Plan
Floor 1-2

7.0
1
A

6.0

6.0

8.0

8.0

6.0

6.0

5

7.0
4

8.0
3

8.0
2

Plan
Floor 3

7.0
1
A

6.0

6.0

8.0

8.0

6.0

6.0

32 @ 3.5

2@
5.0
2 @ 2.8

Section at
C and D
5

32 @ 3.5

2@
5.0
2 @ 2.8

Section at
B and E
5

32 @ 3.5

2@
5.0
2 @ 2.8

Section at
A and G
5