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IPv6 IPv6 Talal A. Alsubaie App. & DB Department Saudi FDA
IPv6 IPv6 Talal A. Alsubaie App. & DB Department Saudi FDA

IPv6

IPv6

Talal A. Alsubaie

App. & DB Department

Saudi FDA

Special Thanks… Special Thanks… To Saad A. Al-Maleki for his assessment in this work.
Special Thanks… Special Thanks… To Saad A. Al-Maleki for his assessment in this work.

Special Thanks…

Special

Thanks…

To Saad A. Al-Maleki for his assessment in this work.

Outlines Outlines • IPv4 Addressing. • Features of IPv6. • IPv6 Addressing. • Transition Mechanisms. •
Outlines Outlines • IPv4 Addressing. • Features of IPv6. • IPv6 Addressing. • Transition Mechanisms. •

Outlines

Outlines

IPv4 Addressing. Features of IPv6. IPv6 Addressing. Transition Mechanisms. Software Support. IPv6 Market Conclusion.

IPv4 Addressing IPv4 Addressing • INTERNET is the world largest public network. • ~320 million users
IPv4 Addressing IPv4 Addressing • INTERNET is the world largest public network. • ~320 million users

IPv4 Addressing

IPv4

Addressing

INTERNET is the world largest public network.

~320 million users in 2000

2005

:

~550 million users by

IPv4 defines a 32 bit, that will give us (4,294,967,296) IP addresses.

The first problem is concerned with the eventual running out of the IP address space.

IPv4 Addressing IPv4 Addressing (cont.) (cont.) • Techniques was used with address shortage in IPv4: •
IPv4 Addressing IPv4 Addressing (cont.) (cont.) • Techniques was used with address shortage in IPv4: •

IPv4 Addressing

IPv4

Addressing (cont.)

(cont.)

Techniques was used with address shortage in

IPv4:

Subnettin. Classless Inter Domain Routing (CIDR) Network Address Translation (NAT)

NAT and NAT and Subnet Subnet

NAT and

NAT

and Subnet

Subnet

NAT and NAT and Subnet Subnet
•
• IPv4 Addressing IPv4 Addressing (cont.) (cont.) P2P applications. • Need to reserve an IP address

IPv4 Addressing

IPv4

Addressing (cont.)

(cont.)

P2P applications.

Need to reserve an IP address to each peer.

Always-on devices.

Mobile Phones, ADSL, and Intelligent Home

...

ect.

Always Connected Always Connected Devices Devices Global Addressing Always-on Devices Need an Address When You Call

Always Connected

Always

Connected

Devices Devices
Devices
Devices
Global Addressing
Global
Addressing

Always-on Devices Need an Address When You Call Them

Features of Features of IPv6 IPv6  Large Address Space.  128 bit vs. 32 bit
Features of Features of IPv6 IPv6  Large Address Space.  128 bit vs. 32 bit

Features of

Features

of IPv6

IPv6

Large Address Space.

128 bit vs. 32 bit in IPv4.

Stateless auto configuration of hosts.

Plug and play.

Multicast.

It is part of IPv6, unlike IPv4 was introduced later.

Features of Features of IPv6 IPv6  Link-local addresses.  Never change, unlike global address. 
Features of Features of IPv6 IPv6  Link-local addresses.  Never change, unlike global address. 

Features of

Features

of IPv6

IPv6

Link-local addresses.

Never change, unlike global address.

Jumbograms.

IPv4, packets are limited to 64 KB, Jumbograms

can be as large as 4GB. in high speed networks

Network-layer security.

IP Security is built-in IPv6, unlike IPv4 built-on.

Mobility.

Make IPv6 node to be mobile to change it’s location in an IPv6 network. (May change IPv6

Address Dynamically).

Features of Features of IPv6 IPv6  Mobility ◦ Mobile Operators using 3GPP UMTS / Internet
Features of Features of IPv6 IPv6  Mobility ◦ Mobile Operators using 3GPP UMTS / Internet

Features of

Features

of IPv6

IPv6

Mobility

Mobile Operators using 3GPP UMTS / Internet Multimedia Services (IMS)

Features of Features of IPv6 IPv6  Mobility ◦ Mobile Operators using 3GPP UMTS / Internet

Nokia, Motorola and others making use of mobile IPv6 in their devices

Ad-hoc networks – think police, fire and emergency services – push to talk requirements

Features of Features of IPv6 IPv6  Mobility ◦ Mobile Operators using 3GPP UMTS / Internet
IPv6 Addressing IPv6 Addressing  The primary change from IPv4 to IPv6 is the length of
IPv6 Addressing IPv6 Addressing  The primary change from IPv4 to IPv6 is the length of

IPv6 Addressing

IPv6

Addressing

The primary change from IPv4 to IPv6 is the length of network addresses.

128 bit vs. 32 bit.

IPv6 addresses are typically composed of two logical parts:

64-bit (sub-)network prefix.

64-bit host part. (automatically generated from the interface's MAC address).

 User identity being permanently tied to an IPv6 address.
 User identity being permanently tied to an IPv6
address.
IPv6 Addressing IPv6 Addressing (cont.) (cont.)  Notation: ◦ IPv6 addresses are normally written as eight
IPv6 Addressing IPv6 Addressing (cont.) (cont.)  Notation: ◦ IPv6 addresses are normally written as eight

IPv6 Addressing

IPv6

Addressing (cont.)

(cont.)

Notation:

IPv6 addresses are normally written as eight groups of four hexadecimal digits.

2001:0db8:85a3:08d3:1319:8a2e:0370:7334

Four-digit group(s) of 0000, can be omitted and replaced with two colons( :: ).

2001:0db8:0000:0000:0000:0000:1428:57ab is equal to 2001:0db8::1428:57ab .

A sequence of 4 bytes at the end of an IPv6 address can also be written in decimal, using dots as separators.

Used with mixed environment of IPv4 and IPv6 addresses.

::1 = localhost

= (127.0.0.1) in IPv4

IPv6 Addressing IPv6 Addressing (cont.) (cont.)  IPv6 addresses in URL:  In a URL the
IPv6 Addressing IPv6 Addressing (cont.) (cont.)  IPv6 addresses in URL:  In a URL the

IPv6 Addressing

IPv6

Addressing (cont.)

(cont.)

IPv6 addresses in URL:

In a URL the IPv6-Address is enclosed in brackets.

http://[2001:0db8:85a3:08d3:1319:8a2e:0370:7344]/ https://[2001:0db8:85a3:08d3:1319:8a2e:0370:7344]:443/

‘A’ record of DNS(IPv4)

www.talals.net A 203.178.141.212

‘Qaud A’ “AAAA” record of DNS(IPv6)

www.talals.net AAAA 3ffe:501:4819:2000:5254:ff:fedc:50d2

IPv6 Addressing IPv6 Addressing (cont.) (cont.)  Kinds of IPv6 addresses:  Unicast Addresses:  One
IPv6 Addressing IPv6 Addressing (cont.) (cont.)  Kinds of IPv6 addresses:  Unicast Addresses:  One

IPv6 Addressing

IPv6

Addressing (cont.)

(cont.)

Kinds of IPv6 addresses:

Unicast Addresses:

One to One.

Multicast Addresses:

One to Many.

Anycast Addresses:

One to Nearest.

There is no Broadcast in IPv6.

Transition Mechanisms Transition Mechanisms  Transition mechanisms are needed for IPv6 only host to reach IPv4
Transition Mechanisms Transition Mechanisms  Transition mechanisms are needed for IPv6 only host to reach IPv4

Transition Mechanisms

Transition

Mechanisms

Transition mechanisms are needed for IPv6 only host to reach IPv4 services.

Dual stack. Tunneling. Translation.

Transition Mechanisms Transition Mechanisms ◦ Dual Stack:  Dual stack host can speak both IPv4 and
Transition Mechanisms Transition Mechanisms ◦ Dual Stack:  Dual stack host can speak both IPv4 and

Transition Mechanisms

Transition

Mechanisms

Dual Stack:

Dual stack host can speak both IPv4 and

IPv6

communicate with IPv4 host by IPv4 communicate with IPv6 host by IPv6

Transition Mechanisms Transition Mechanisms ◦ Dual Stack:  Dual stack host can speak both IPv4 and
Transition Mechanisms Transition Mechanisms ◦ Dual Stack: Access Access
Transition Mechanisms Transition Mechanisms ◦ Dual Stack: Access Access

Transition Mechanisms

Transition

Mechanisms

Dual Stack:

Access Access
Access
Access
Transition Mechanisms Transition Mechanisms ◦ Tunneling:  Encapsulates some data inside some packets.  Automatic tunneling:
Transition Mechanisms Transition Mechanisms ◦ Tunneling:  Encapsulates some data inside some packets.  Automatic tunneling:

Transition Mechanisms

Transition

Mechanisms

Tunneling:

Encapsulates some data inside some packets.

Automatic tunneling:

(6-To-4). (Enabled in Windows Vista)

Teredo.

(Enabled in Windows Vista)

 Configured:  Tunneling is configured manually via human or software service. IPv6/Dual IPv6/Dual IPv4 IPv4
 Configured:
 Tunneling is configured manually via human or software
service.
IPv6/Dual
IPv6/Dual
IPv4
IPv4 Core
Core
IPv6/Dual
IPv6/Dual
Network
Network
Network
Network
Generation
6to4 Router
Adds v4 header
IPv4 Router
Forwards as Usual
Destination 6to4 router
removes IPv4 header
Delivery
Transition Mechanisms Transition Mechanisms  Tunneling: IPv6 Packet IPv4 Packet IPv6 over IPv4 tunneling
Transition Mechanisms Transition Mechanisms  Tunneling: IPv6 Packet IPv4 Packet IPv6 over IPv4 tunneling

Transition Mechanisms

Transition

Mechanisms

Tunneling:

IPv6 Packet
IPv6 Packet
IPv4 Packet
IPv4 Packet

IPv6 over IPv4 tunneling

Transition Mechanisms Transition Mechanisms  Translation:  This is a simple extension to NAT techniques, to
Transition Mechanisms Transition Mechanisms  Translation:  This is a simple extension to NAT techniques, to

Transition Mechanisms

Transition

Mechanisms

Translation:

This is a simple extension to NAT techniques, to translate header format as well as addresses

Translate IPv6 only host to IPv4 only host(vice versa)

1.protocol translation 2.mapping address Unreliable

Software Software Support Support  Any modern O/S has IPv6 support  Most common applications and
Software Software Support Support  Any modern O/S has IPv6 support  Most common applications and

Software

Software Support

Support

Any modern O/S has IPv6 support

Most common applications and tools have IPv6 support:

Apache IIS FTP Ping Telnet IE Mozilla Firefox Opera Outlook Windows Media Player and more

Some applications need to be recompiled.

IPv6 Market IPv6 Market  Home Networking.  Gaming.  Mobile Devices.  Enterprise PC’s. 
IPv6 Market IPv6 Market  Home Networking.  Gaming.  Mobile Devices.  Enterprise PC’s. 

IPv6 Market

IPv6

Market

Home Networking. Gaming. Mobile Devices. Enterprise PC’s. Consumer Devices.

 

i.e. Sony.

ISP.

 

IPv6 Market IPv6 Market  Home Networking.  Gaming.  Mobile Devices.  Enterprise PC’s. 
Conclusion  IPv6 is NEW … – built on the experiences learned from IPv4 – new
Conclusion  IPv6 is NEW … – built on the experiences learned from IPv4 – new

Conclusion

IPv6 is NEW … – built on the experiences learned from IPv4 – new features – large address space – autoconfiguration … and OLD – still IP – build on a solid base

– started in 1995, a lot of implementations and tests done