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LTE FDD Coverage Planning - Cell Range

Index

LTE/EPC Overview
LTE Air Interface
Air Interface Overheads
RRM overview
LTE Link Budget
Radio Planning Coverage Planning Cell Range
Radio Planning Capacity
LTE Performance Simulations
Nokia LTE Solution
Initial Parameters Planning

Module Objectives

After completing this module, the participant will be able to:


Describe the main propagation models
Calculate the cell range
Compare the cell range of LTE with other technologies

Coverage Dimensioning

Propagation Models/ Cell Range Calculation


Coverage Calculation
Example: Service Dependent Coverage
Comparison: LTE vs. other technologies

Propagation Modelling
Propagation modeling belongs to the technology independent area. Good propagation modeling is
crucial for exact network planning and dimensioning. Nokia recommendations:
Checks should be made to ensure that the digital terrain map (DTM) is up-to-date and is accurate in
terms of clutter, vectors, and ground height. The DTM resolution should be about 20 m for urban and
suburban areas and about 50 m for rural areas.
The number of clutter categories should be approximately 10.
If an operator specifies the propagation model, then the results should be compared with those
generated by an Nokia model to identify any significant differences.
Building vectors should be used if the radio network plan includes micro cells with antenna which are
below the roof-top.
RF measurements used to tune a propagation model should be based upon at least eight sites, with a
further two sites measured for subsequent model validation. Drive routes should be planned to remain
within the 3 dB beam width of the antenna and should avoid elevated sections of road, tunnels or
cuttings. The drive route should include a balance of line-of-site and non-line-of-site locations.
Measurement data should be filtered, binned and analyzed prior to completing tuning. Each clutter type
should have at least 400 data samples after binning. The most appropriate type of propagation models
should be determined during the tuning procedure. After tuning, the models should be validated and
periodically audited.
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Propagation Models

Empirical

An equation based on extensive empirical measurements is created.


Those models can be used only in the environments similar to the
examined one. The small changes in the environment characteristic can
cause enormous errors in the prediction of wave propagation.

Semi-empirical

Combination of empirical and


deterministic models (e.g. empirical
COST Hata can be combined with the
theoretical knife edge model).

Deterministic
Wave propagation is described by means of rays travelling between transmitted and
receiving antenna and coming in to reflections, scattering, diffractions, etc . Those
methods, generally based on ray optical techniques, give a very accurate description of the
wave propagation but require a large computation time.
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Propagation Models used in Nokia tools


Okumura-Hata
- The most commonly used statistical model

Walfish-Ikegami
- Statistical model especially for urban environments

Juul-Nyholm
- Same kind of a prediction tool as Hata, but with
different equation for predictions beyond radio
horizon (~20km)

Ray-tracing
- Deterministic prediction tool for
microcellular environments

Deterministic

Statistical to be tuned!

Applicability of the Okumura-Hata and Walfisch-Ikegami propagation models

Okumura-Hata

Walfisch-Ikegami

Frequency Range

150 MHz to 1.0 GHz


1.5 to 2.0 GHz

800 MHz to 2.0 GHz

eNodeB Antenna
Height

30 to 200 m
above roof-top

UE Antenna Height

1 to 10 m

Range
Applicable to

1 to 20 km
Macrocells

4 to 50 m
Applicability
of the
Okumura-Hata
above
roof-top

and Walfisch-Ikegami propagation


models 1 to 3 m

30 m to 6 km
Macrocells

Propagation Models Okumura-Hata & COST Hata model


In order to fit the Okumura-Hata model into the operation frequencies of 3G, some additional measurements
and adjustments were done in the framework of European Cooperation in the Field of Scientific & Technical
Research (COST)
The validity range for the extended model:
- Frequency f: 150 MHz 2000 MHz
- Distance R:

1-20 km

- BS height hBS: 10-200m


- MS height hMS: 1-10m
The correction factor c present in the model depends on area type
Correction
Factor

2
2 log10

f
5.4
28

4.78 log 2 f
10

for suburban areas

18.33 log10 f

44.94

for rural areas

area type

correction
factor [dB]

dense urban areas

-3

city center areas

suburban areas
rural areas

12,27
32,52

Propagation Models Okumura-Hata & COST Hata model


L = A + B log10 (f) - 13.82 log10 (h BS ) - a(h MS ) [44.9 - 6.55 log10 (h BS )] log(R)
+ CorrectionFactor MorphoCorrection

R .............
69.99 150 MHz f 1500 MHz

46.30 1500 MHz f 2000 MHz

A=

26.16 150 MHz f 1500 MHz

33.90 1500 MHz f < 2000 MHz

B=

a(h MS ) = [1,1 log10 (f) - 0,7] h MS - 1.56 log10 ( f ) 0.8

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Link Budget
Propagation Model: Modified Cost231-Hata

hBS
hMS
d
13.82 log
a
s log
Lclutter
MHz
km
m
m

L A B log
Frequency

150-1500 MHz

69.55

26.16

1500-2000MHz

46.3

33.9

Clutter correction
Term Lclutter

3
0

Lclutter

5.4
2 lg 28

2
4.78 lg f 18.33 log f

4.78 lg f 2 18.33 log f

UE Height Correction Factors a(hMS)


3.2[lg(11. 75hMS )]2 4.97

a(hMS )

DU, U

[1.1lg( f ) 0.7]hMS [1.56 lg( f ) 0.8]

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DU
U

SU

SU

35.94
40.94

RURAL
ROAD

Link Budget Propagation Model: Modified Cost231-Hata


Slopes: 1 or 2 slopes model
1 slope for d 1km & 2 slopes for d < 1km
2 slope is an extension of 1 slope model for d < 1km
If cell range > 1 km results are the same for 1 slope & 2
slope models ( same formula used)
If cell range < 1 km then 2-slope model provides better
results
Recommended: 2 slopes model for all clutter types

hBS
,
44.9 6.55 log
m

s
f

47.88 13.9 log


MHz

12

d 1km
hBS
13.82 log

m

1
,
log50

d 1km

Propagation Models Walfish-Ikegami


Model for urban macrocellular propagation
- Antenna close to roof-top level
Assumes regular city layout (Manhattan grid)
Total path loss consists of two parts:
NLOS
roof-to-street diffraction and scatter loss
mobile environment losses

LOS
line-of-sight loss

h
w
b
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Propagation Models COST Walfish-Ikegami model


This semi empirical model is the special adaptation of Walfish-Bertoni model,
prepared especially for the typical antennas placement in 3G (below the roof top).
The validity range:
- Frequency: 800 MHz- 2000 MHz
- BS height: 4 50 m (above roof-top)
- MS height: 1 3 m
- Distance:

0.02 5 km

Path loss with LOS between MS & BS

LLOS 42.6 20 log10 ( f ) 26 log10 ( R )


LOS: Line-off-sight

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R .............

Propagation Models Walfish-Ikegami


Line-of-sight path (LOS)
- Use free space propagation
- Applicable for microwave & satellite links
Non-line-of-sight path (NLOS)
- Heavy diffraction, refraction situations
- Great uncertainties in modelling
- COST Walfish-Ikegami model includes model for NLOS prediction
- Use ray-tracing models
Needs detailed building databases (vectorial information)

Manhattan grid
model

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Propagation Models COST Walfish-Ikegami model


Path loss without LOS between MS & BS (continue)
L1 L11 k a k d lg(d ) k f lg( f ) 9 lg(b)
hBS h

18 lg(1 hBS h ),
0,

L11

hBS h

54,

k a 54 0.8 ( hBS h),

d
54 0.8 ( hBS h) 0.5 ,
18,

kd
hBS h
,
18 15
h

4 0.7 f
1 ,

925

kf
4 0.7 f
1 ,
925

Mean building spacing: b [m]


Mean building height: h [m]

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hBS h
hBS h
hBS h

and
and

d 0.5
d 0.5

hBS h
hBS h

Medium sized cities and suburban centres


Metropolitan centres

Propagation Models Microcell

Ray tracing

Ray
launching

Rx

Tx

Tx
Very accurate methods, but due to the complexity of the algorithms computer power
consuming.
Digital maps with a high accuracy are required.

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Coverage Dimensioning
Propagation Models/ Cell Range Calculation
Coverage Calculation
Example: Service Dependent Coverage
Comparison: LTE vs. other technologies

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Coverage Area Coverage Area in Dimensioning


After cell radius has been determined, cell area can be calculated
When calculating cell area, traditional hexagonal model is taken into account

Omni- or
6-sectored Site
2

A = 2,6 R1

Tri-sector

Bi-sector
2

A = 1,73 R2

A = 1,95 R23

Please note that for one hexagon the radius R is equal to the site length !!

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Capacity Dimensioning Process Overview


Site Area

Area Size

Subscribers
Subscribers
Density

Traffic Model

Site Capacity

Subscriber
Data Volume in
BH

Total Offered Traffic

# Coverage
Sites

Max

# Capacity
Sites
BH = Busy Hour

# Sites

Outputs:
Site count for capacity and coverage
The final number of sites is the bigger number from capacity and coverage point of view
The calculation could be done for each clutter type and for different phases (for example years)
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The Number of Sites due to Coverage


Site Area

Area Size

Subscribers

Subscribers
Density

Traffic Model

Subscriber Data
Volume in BH

Total Offered Traffic

# Coverage
Sites

# Capacity
Sites
Max
# Sites

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Site Capacity

The Number of Sites due to Coverage


Area Size (Km)
this is the planned area
typically defined for each clutter type
the customer may provide this value
Site Area (Km)
this is the site area calculated from the link budget and using the propagation model
depends on the number of cells per site (typical 3 cells per site)
Number of sites due to coverage:
# Sites due to Coverage = Roundup (Area Size / Site Area)
Example:
Planned area is 100 Km
Site Area is 10 Km
The number of sites due to coverage is 100 Km/ 10 Km = 10

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Coverage Area Hexagons vs. Cells

Three hexagons

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Three cells

Coverage Area DL simulation

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Coverage Area UL simulation

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Tools
There are definitely not a large number of commercial radio network planning
tools which may be used for either the path loss based approach or the LTE
simulation based approach.
However, almost any planning tool might be used for LTE DL coverage estimation
as propagation phenomenon is more or less technology independent. Trying to
simulate UL or even DL/UL throughput presents a bigger challenge, but certain
workarounds are feasible.
Currently, there are three LTE RF planning tools commercially available:
Atoll (www.forsk.com)
Mentum Planet (www.infovista.com)
Asset (www.aircominternational.com)

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Coverage Dimensioning

Propagation Models/ Cell Range Calculation


Coverage Calculation
Example: Service Dependent Coverage
Comparison: LTE vs. other technologies

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Exercise
Compare the UL & DL Pathloss and Cell Range for the following services:
DL: VoIP 12,2 Kbps
1024 Kbps, 2048 Kbps and 4096 Kbps
UL: VoIP 12,2 Kbps
64 Kbps, 384 Kbps and 1024 Kbps
For the pathloss use the results and the assumptions from chapter 5: LTE Link Budget
Building Penetration Loss, Shadowing Margin & Gain Against Shadowing are considered
For Coverage assume:
BTS Antenna Height: 30 m
UE Antenna Height: 1,5 m
Propagation Model: Modified Cost 231-Hata with 2 slopes

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Solution DL

VoIP
1024 kbps data:
12.2 kbps:
L = 144.52 dB
L = 148.06 dB 2.85 km
3.60 km

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2048 kbps data:


L = 140.79 dB
2.24 km

4096 kbps data:


L = 134.02 dB
1.43 km

Solution UL

VoIp
12,2 kbps data:
64 kbps:
L = 135.24 dB
L = 138.14 dB 1.55 km
1.88 km

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384 kbps data:


L = 132.46 dB
1.30 km

1024 kbps data:


L = 128.37 dB
0.99 km

Coverage Dimensioning

Propagation Models/ Cell Range Calculation


Coverage Calculation
Example: Service Dependent Coverage
Comparison: LTE vs. other technologies

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Comparison: LTE vs. other technologies --- Assumptions

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Comparison: LTE vs. other technologies

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Comparison: LTE vs. other technologies

- LTE deployment on existing grid should allow to achieve:


1024 kbps in DL & 64 kbps in UL at the cell-edge
- LTE has an additional potential for improvement:
UL limitation can be reduced by features such as:
- TTI bundling
- enhanced frequency-selective scheduling
- interference rejection/cancellation
- enhanced/optimized power control

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