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Machines&Machining
Issues
DepartmentofMechanicalEngineering,TheOhioStateUniversity
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MaterialRemovalProcess
Mechanical Machining
Turning
Milling
Drilling
Grinding
All hard materials

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MachiningDOF(DegreesofFreedom)
DOF- # of independently controllable axes of motion-- excluding spindle
rotation or tool translation responsible for cutting.

1 DOF- Drill Press


2 DOF- Lathe
3 DOF- 3 independent axis motions between tool & table
Can use a ball end mill w/ 3 axis machine- for smoothest contour
Following a true 3-D contour requires a minimum of 3 DOF

2 1/2 DOF- 3 independent axes, but can only move 2 at a time


> 3 DOF- Generally allows rotation of spindle wrist or table
Helps keep tool normal to workpiece/ fewer separate fixtures
5 DOF- Minimum to follow any normal at any point
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TurningOperations

Turning(Performedonlathe)
Partismovingandtoolisstationary.

Usedtomakepartsofroundcrosssection
Screws,shafts,pistons....

Numberofvariouslatheoperations
Turning,facing,boring,drilling,parting,threading
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LatheComponents
MachineComponents(Mainitems)
Bed:Supportsallothermachineparts
Carriage:Slidesalongthemachineways
Headstock:Powertrainofsystem(spindleincluded)
TailStock:Fixespieceatendoppositetothehead
stock
Swing:Maximumdiameterofthemachinablepiece
Leadscrew:controlsthefeedperrevolutionwitha
greatdealofprecision
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Lathe
Spindle
Speed
Selector

Headstock
Spindle

Ways

Tool Post

Cross Slide
Carriage (saddle)
Center Tailstock quill

Feed change
gear box

Compound
Rest &
Slide (swivels)

Tailstock

Apron Bed
Lead
Screw

Feed
Rod

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Ref: Fig. 8.52, Kalpakjian. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials 2nd Ed, Addison-Wesley 1991.

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LatheTools
Lathetools
Lefthanded
Righthanded
Threading
Boring
Groove
Parting(CutOff)
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LatheOperations

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Ref: Fig. 8.51, Kalpakjian. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials 2nd Ed, Addison-Wesley 1991.

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CuttingSpeeds
TypicalLatheCuttingSpeeds
Nominally30800ft./min.
Roughingcuts
Depthofcutgreaterthen.02in
Feedspeedof.008.08in/rev.
FinishingCuts
Lowerthanroughingcuts.
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Milling
TypesofMillingMachines

HorizontalMillingMachine
VerticalMillingMachine

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MillCuttingDirection
Cutting direction- Depending on the orientation of the workpiece
feed w.r.t. the rotation of the cutting tool.
Conventional (Up) Milling- Maximum thickness of chip at end of cut
Ref: Figure J-48, Kibbe ,et al. Machine Tool
Practices 5th Ed, Prentice Hall,1995.

Climb (Down) Milling- Maximum thickness of chip at start of cut.


Ref: Figure J-48, Kibbe ,et al. Machine Tool
Practices 5th Ed, Prentice Hall,1995.

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VerticalKneeMillingMachine
Base and Column- support structure
Knee- Connected to slide on column- can
move up and down
Saddle- Engages slide on top of knee- can
be moved in and out.
Table- Engages slide atop of saddlemoved lengthwise. Holds workpiece.
Ram- Engages swiveling slide atop
column.
Toolhead- Attached to end of ram,
contains motor and quill.
Quill- Non rotating, but contains rotating
spindle. Can be moved up and down.

Ref: Figure 8.69, Kalpakjian. Manufacturing Processes for


Engineering Materials 2nd Ed, Addison-Wesley 1991.

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Ref: Kibbe ,et al. Machine Tool Practices 5th Ed, Prentice Hall,1995, p 550-551

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VerticalMillingMachine
Flexible
Versatile
Newermachines
moreDOF

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BedMill

Similartoverticalkneemillingmachines

Lessversatilethankneemill

NokneeBeddoesnotmoveupanddown

Verticalmotionpossibleinheadonly

Controllablerangeofmotionofheadlargerthanin
kneemill(totalrangeofmotionless)

Bedmillstifferthankneemill
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VerticalMillingApplications

Collet

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Ref:ProcessSelection,KGSwiftandJDBooker,p.98.

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ScallopHeightw/BallNosedEndMill
R
y

h
s

d
x

Basic Equation for a circle


- x2 +( Ry)2 =R2
Solving for y.... y=R R2 x2
Max height for
x=( s2)

s 2

2
Thus h=R R 2
(if hd)

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ScallopHeightBallNoseonanIncline
Edge of cutter described by
x12 +y12 =R2
On previous pass it was

s 2 2
x2 +
+y2 =R2
cos(
)

Setx1 =x2 =x andy1 =y2 =y

s
x=

2cos(
)
h=R

x
R

h
s

(if hd)

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s
y= R2

2cos(
)

2
s

2cos(
)

R2

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HorizontalMillingMachine
COMPONENTS
Base & Column
Knee
Saddle
Table
Spindle
Overarm & Arbor Support

DepartmentofMechanicalEngineering,TheOhioStateUniversity
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Ref: Figure 8.68, Kalpakjian. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials 2nd Ed, Addison-Wesley 1991.

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TypesHorizontalMillingOperations
Slab- Axis of cutter //
to workpiece surface

Figure 8.63a, Kalpakjian. Manufacturing Processes for


Engineering Materials 2nd Ed, Addison-Wesley 1991.

Face- Axis of rotation |


to workpiece surface

Figure 8.63b, Kalpakjian. Manufacturing Processes for


Engineering Materials 2nd Ed, Addison-Wesley 1991.

Side- Axis of cutter //


to workpiece surface

Figure 8.67c, Kalpakjian. Manufacturing Processes for


Engineering Materials 2nd Ed, Addison-Wesley 1991.

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Drilling
Any component requiring cylindrical holes.
Engine Blocks, Machine Components

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Ref:ProcessSelection,KGSwiftandJDBooker,p.104.

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GrindingandAbrasiveProcesses
Abrasive Processes- Generally slower (more
expensive) than other traditional machining
processes. Used on very hard materials, and can
achieve HIGH (virtually unmatched) levels of
precision and finish.

Grinding
Deburring
Honing
Polishing
Lapping
Superfinishing

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GrindingMachines
Pedestal Grinder
Surface Grinder
Type I- Horizontal spindle w/ reciprocating table
Type II- Horizontal spindle w/ rotary table
Type III- Vertical spindle, table either reciprocates or rotates (blanchard)

Cylindrical Grinder
Center-type
Roll-type- workpiece in bearings rather than on centers
Centerless Grinder- workpiece supported on rest blade, grinding wheel
on one side, regulating wheel on the other
Internal Cylindrical Grinder
Tool Cutting Grinders

Specialty Grinders
Form Grinders and Generating Types
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SurfaceGrinders
Type I

Type II

Reciprocating
Table

Type III

Rotating
Table

DepartmentofMechanicalEngineering,TheOhioStateUniversity
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Ref:

Figures N-1, N-3,N-4, & N-5, Kibbe ,et al. Machine Tool Practices 5th Ed, Prentice Hall,1995.

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CylindricalGrinders
Centerless Type
Center/Roll Type

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Ref: Figures N-8, N-17, N-18, Kibbe ,et al. Machine Tool Practices 5th Ed, Prentice Hall,1995.

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SurfaceRoughness
Surface roughness is generally described with 1 of 2 methods
Ra- Arithmetic Mean Value- the average of the absolute values
of the deviations from the center line of the surface

(n

Ra= |a|+|b|+|c|+|d|+

Rq (formerly RMS)- Root Mean Squared2


2
2
2
Rq = a +b +c +d +...
n

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RoughnessUnits
Both generally given in micrometers (microns) or
microinches

1Micrometer=1m=1micron=106meters
1Microinch=1in=106inches
1in=0.025m
1m=40in
Humanhair~40m

DepartmentofMechanicalEngineering,TheOhioStateUniversity
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TypicalArithmeticAverageRoughness
Process

micrometers
microinches

Flame Cutting
Snagging (Coarse Grinding)
Sawing
Planing, Shaping

50
25
12.5
2000 1000 500

6.3
250

3.2
125

1.6
63

0.8
32

0.4
16

0.2
8

0.1
4

0.05 .025 .012


2
1
0.5

Average Application
Less Frequent Application

Drilling
Chemical Machining
Electrical-discharge Machining
Milling
Broaching
Reaming
Electron-beam Machining
Laser Machining
Electrochemical Machining
Turning, Boring
Barrel Finishing
Electrochemical Grinding
Roller Burnishing
Grinding
Honing
Electropolishing
Polishing
Lapping
Superfinishing

DepartmentofMechanicalEngineering,TheOhioStateUniversity
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Ref: Fig. 8.35, Kalpakjian. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials 2nd Ed, Addison-Wesley 1991.

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Summary

Fourtypesofmechanicalremoval
processes

Turning
Milling
Drilling
Grinding

Finishofworkpiece

DepartmentofMechanicalEngineering,TheOhioStateUniversity
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Credits

Thismoduleisintendedasasupplementtodesignclassesinmechanical
engineering.ItwasdevelopedatTheOhioStateUniversityundertheNSF
sponsoredGatewayCoalition(grantEEC9109794).Contributingmembers
include:

GaryKinzel..Projectsupervisor
ChrisHubertandAlanBonifas.....Primaryauthors
PhuongPhamandMattDetrick...Modulerevisions
L.Pham....Audiovoice

References:
Kalpakjian, Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials 2nd Ed,
Addison-Wesley 1991
Kibbe ,et al. Machine Tool Practices 5th Ed, Prentice Hall,1995
Swift,KGandJDBooker, ProcessSelection,Arnold/JohnWiley&SonsInc.,
NewYork,1997

DepartmentofMechanicalEngineering,TheOhioStateUniversity
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Disclaimer
This information is provided as is for general educational purposes; it can
change over time and should be interpreted with regards to this particular
circumstance. While much effort is made to provide complete information,
Ohio State University and Gateway do not guarantee the accuracy and
reliability of any information contained or displayed in the presentation. We
disclaim any warranty, expressed or implied, including the warranties of
fitness for a particular purpose. We do not assume any legal liability or
responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, reliability, timeliness or
usefulness of any information, or processes disclosed. Nor will Ohio State
University or Gateway be held liable for any improper or incorrect use of the
information described and/or contain herein and assumes no responsibility for
anyones use of the information. Reference to any specific commercial
product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacture, or
otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement.

DepartmentofMechanicalEngineering,TheOhioStateUniversity
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