Está en la página 1de 35

BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES

Elements found in living organism :


The
earths
crust
contains
approximately
100
chemical
elements but only 16 of these are
essential for life.
The four most common elements in
living organism are hydrogen,
carbon, oxygen and nitrogen.
These amount make up about 99%
of the mass and numbers of atoms
found in all living organism.

Organization of
life :
Complex
structure

Simple / smallest
units

Living organism is made up by a


limited types of
atom, which in
turn combine to form molecules, the
building Simple
block of life.Complex
molecules

molecules

Carbon dioxide
Carbohydrates
Oxygen
Proteins
Water
Lipid
DNA
Of the smaller molecules, water is
the most abundant. It constitutes
about 60 % 95 % of the fresh mass
of an organism.

Importance of water :
Vital chemical
living cells.

constituent

of

Provide living environment for


marine and aquatic organism.
Provide medium for biochemical
reactions to take place in our
cells.
Act as an excellent solvent.
Other substances can easily
dissolve into it.

Unique physical properties of water :


Pure
water
is
an
tasteless, clear liquid.

odorless,

The only substance on Earth that


can exist in solid, liquid and gas
forms at room temperature.
The freezing point of water is 0 C
(32 F), and its boiling point is 100
C (212 F).
Water
reaches
its
maximum
density at 4 C (39 F) and expands

Unique physical properties of water :


Once frozen water becomes less
dense.
Water combines with salts to form
hydrates and reacts with metal
oxides to form acids.

Unique
water :

physical

properties

of

Water molecule is made up of two


hydrogen atoms and an oxygen
atom.

Water molecule is polar / dipole.


One part of the molecule is
slightly positive in
charge and
the other slightly negative in
charge.

Due to its polarity,


Water can be used as a an
excellent solvent to dissolve polar
substance such as electrolytes and
other
hydrophilic
organic
compounds that have OH, -COOH
and NH2.
On contact with water, the ions and
the polar group are surrounded by
water molecules which separate
the ions and molecules from each

Cl-

Na+
Water
molecules

On contact with water, what happen


to the chloride and sodium ions ?

Water molecules have week


attraction for each other, with
opposite
charges
coming
together.
This attraction is not as strong
as normal ionic or covalent bond
and it is called hydrogen bond.
Hydrogen bonds between water
molecules are constantly being
formed, broken and reformed in
water.

Unique physical properties of water


due to the presence of hydrogen
bond between its molecules:
High Specific Heat Capacity An
increase in heat energy will result in
a
relatively
small
rise
in
temperature.
Most of the energy absorbed is
used to break the hydrogen bonds
which have restricted the movement
of
water molecules.
the Water
provides a constant
external and internal environment
for
many
cells
and
organism

Describe how sea breeze is formed.

Unique physical properties of water


due to the presence of hydrogen
bond between its molecules:
High Latent Heat Of Vaporization
A large amount of energy is needed
to vaporize water into gas.
Water has a high boiling point for
such a small molecule.
The energy absorbed by water
molecules will result in a loss of
energy
from
their
surrounding
(cooling effect).

Unique physical properties of water


due to the presence of hydrogen
bond between its molecules:
A large amount of heat can be
lost with minimal loss of water from
the body.

Unique physical properties of water


due to the presence of hydrogen
bond between its molecules:
High Heat Of Fusion A lot of heat
energy is required to fuse water
molecules.

To melt an ice lots of heat


energy
is
absorbed
from
its
surrounding and conversely water
must lose lots of heat energy to
freeze.

Unique physical properties of water


due to the presence of hydrogen
bond between its molecules:
Low Viscosity Water can easily
flow because of the small size of
water molecules enable them to
slide over one another.
Water provides a suitable medium
for transportation of blood in the
circulatory system of an animal or
translocation in plant.

Other physical properties of water :


High surface tension On the
surface of a liquid, a force called
surface tension exists as a result of
cohesive forces between water
molecules.

Cohesive and Adhesive force ?


Cohesive
force is the
force of
attraction
between
molecules of
the same
substance.
Adhesive
force is the
force of
attraction

Q : Relate surface tension to the


cohesive and adhesive forces.

Q : Explain the above


phenomenon ?

The meniscus formed in a glass


tube containing water is due to the
existence
of
adhesive
forces
between
the
glass
and
water
molecules and the cohesive forces
between water molecules.

The adhesive forces between


water molecules and the walls of the
glass tube are stronger than the
cohesive
forces
between
water
molecules.

This leads to an upward turning

The presence of these forces is


vital for transportation of water
through xylem tissues in plants
through capillary action.

Why is ice able to float on water while


other solids cannot float on their liquid
forms?
A) The orientation of hydrogen bonds
pushes molecules closer together, making
ice denser than water.
B) The orientation of hydrogen bonds
pushes molecules farther apart, making
ice less dense than water.
C) The kinetic energy in other solids
increases with temperature, making them
denser than ice.
D) The molecules in other solids are
packed less tightly, making them denser

Which property of water helps to maintain


body temperature?
A) lower density of ice than water
B) polarity
C) cohesion
D) high specific heat capacity

A molecule with a high heat of


vaporization will have a high:
A) boiling point
B) solubility
C) density
D) melting point

Which property of water allows water


droplets to form on a surface?
A) adhesion
B) solubility
C) cohesion
D) polarity

What buffers blood to maintain its pH


between 7.35 to 7.45?
A) carbon dioxide
B) oxygen pressure
C) water
D) carbonic acid and bicarbonate

This diagram shows the body's


buffering of blood pH levels:
The blue arrows show the process
of raising pH as more CO2 is
made; the purple arrows indicate
the reverse process, lowering pH
as more bicarbonate is created.