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Find the Citation Error:

A Quick Quiz on APA Style

Adapted from:
UW School of Social Work
Kevin Kawamoto

Directions
All of the following slides marked, Catch the
Error, break one or more APA citation rule.
See if you can find the error(s), and then
revise the citation so that it is in conformity
with APA style.

Catch the Error #1


Hollingshead

measured aggressiveness in
children before and after exposure to violent
videogames (2002, p. 15).

Revised
Hollingshead

(2000) measured
aggressiveness in children before and after
exposure to violent videogames.
Explanation: The year comes after the
researchers name. No page number is
needed if there is no direct quote.

Catch the Error #2


Neither

group showed any significant growth


(Wong and Tuttle 2005).

Revised
Neither

group showed any significant growth


(Wong & Tuttle, 2005).
Explanation: Use an ampersand (&) when
citing parenthetically and put a comma
between author(s) and year of publication.

Catch the Error #3


Duffy

& Petronius (2002, p. 23) found that


none of the subjects showed improvement.

Revised
Duffy

and Petronius (2002) found that none


of the subjects showed improvement.
Explanation: Use and -- not ampersand -when citing authors outside of parentheses.
No page number needed since there was no
direct quote.

Catch the Error #4


Boyle

(1998, 1998, 1998) found in three


separate studies that the rats had higher
stress hormone levels after exposure.

[Assume the three studies were done in 1998


and each was published separately that
year.]

Revised
Boyle

(1998a, 1998b, 1998c) found in three


separate studies that the rats had higher
stress hormone levels after exposure.
Explanation: To avoid confusion, each study
will be designated by a different letter a, b,
c, etc. Items are listed in the reference
section alphabetically by title.

Catch the Error #5


Parker

(2003) found that there was no


significant difference between the treatment
group and the control group.

Revision
Parker

(2003) found that there was no


significant difference between the treatment
group and the control group (p. 12).
Explanation: Since a direct quote was used,
a page number must be provided after the
quote.

Catch the Error #6


When

contacted, Habbib had no useful


explanation except that mistakes were
made (phone call, 2005).

Revised
When

contacted, C. S. Habbib had no useful


explanation except that mistakes were
made (personal communication, December
1, 2005).
Explanation: Use personal communication
and exact date when citing telephone calls,
letters, memos, personal interviews, etc. You
do not need to put this in the References
section since the data is non-recoverable.

Catch the Error #7

Bretschneider, John Garrett and McCoy, Nancy


Lewis, 1968. Sexual Interest and Behavior in
Healthy 80- 102-Year-Olds. Archives of Sexual
Behavior, Vol. 14, pp. 343-350.

Revised
Bretschneider, J. G., & McCoy, N. L. (1968).
Sexual interest and behavior in healthy 80- 102year-olds. Archives of Sexual
Behavior, 14,
343-350.
Explanation:
1) only initials for first names;
2) year in parentheses followed by period;
3) lower case in article title;
4) italicize journal name and capitalize first letters;
5) no Vol., just italicize;
6) no pp.;
7) hanging indent.

Catch the Error #8


Hashimoto, Thomas. (March 13, 2000, p. 23).
Seeing Red in November. Newsweek, vol. 199.

Revised
Hashimoto, T. (2000, March 13). Seeing red
in November. Newsweek, 199, 23.
Explanation:
For a magazine:
Year comes first, then comma, then month and day, all in
parentheses. Title of magazine is italicized, followed by comma,
volume number italicized, then page number(s). Hanging indent

Catch the Error #9


Most

experts believed the effects would be


disastrous (NIMH 2000).

(Assume

time.)

NIMH is introduced here for the first

Revised
Most experts believed the effects will be
disastrous (National Institutes of Mental Health
[NIMH], 2000).
Explanation: Abbreviation rules.

Proper APA citation format for a book.

1. Jenkins, Henry. Fans, bloggers, and gamers: exploring


participatory cultures. New York: New York University
Press, 2006.
2. Jenkins, H. Fans, bloggers, and gamers: exploring participatory
cultures. New York University Press, New York. 2006.
3. Jenkins, H. (2006). Fans, bloggers, and gamers: exploring
participatory culture. New York: New York University Press.
4. Jenkins, Henry. (2006). Fans, Bloggers, and Gamers: Exploring
Participatory Culture. New York UP: New York.

Choose the correct APA citation for a


newspaper article
Yonke, D. (2008, September 13). Monks on the road for peace:
Tibetan
Buddhists bring message that 'happiness is an
internal event'.
The Blade (Toledo, OH), p. B7.
Yonke, David. (2008). "Monks on the road for peace: Tibetan
Buddhists bring message that 'happiness is an internal
event'." The Blade (Toledo, OH), pp. B7.
Yonke, D. Monks on the road for peace: Tibetan Buddhists bring
message
that 'happiness is an internal event'. The Blade,
September 13,
2008. p. B7.
Yonke, David. "Monks on the road for peace: Tibetan Buddhists
bring
message that 'happiness is an internal event'."
The Blade 13
Sept. 2008: B7.

Create an APA citation for this publication:


Article Title: Truly, Madly, Depp-ly
Author: Frank DeCaro
Publication: Advocate
Volume number: 906
Date: January 20, 2004
Pages: 76-77
Source: Gender Studies Database
Date of access: October 31, 2008
hyperlink:<http://0search.ebscohost.com.maurice.bgsu.edu/login.aspx?
direct=true&db=fmh&AN=GSD0048
DeCaro, F. (2004, January 20). Truly, madly, depp-ly. Advocate, 906, 76-77. Retrieved
October 31, 2008, from General Studies Database.

Reminders
You

dont have to memorize all the rules.


There are hundreds of APA style rules and
lots of exceptions to the rules. Use reference
sheets.
Take it in slowly, not all at once. (Preserve
your sanity.)

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