Está en la página 1de 9

3- Induction motors

Presented by:
Ankita Arora
B.Tech ( Jamia Millia Islamia,
New Delhi), M.Tech
(NSIT, DU)

(Assistant Professor)

Department of Electrical and Electronics


Engineering
Delhi Technical Campus, Greater Noida
Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha

Overview
Introduction
Types of Induction Motor
Principle of 3- IM
Slip and Rotor speed
Torque-Slip Characteristics
Effect of Rotor Resistance on Torque-slip characteristics
Applications

3- Induction motor
Singly excited ac machine

Rotor

Work-horse of the industry


3 phase

Types:

IM

Squirrel cage type:

Squirrel Cage Rotor

Wound rotor type:

Slip ring or Wound Rotor

Principle of

3-

3-

Induction motor

balanced winding excited with 3- balanced supply produces a

constant amplitude rotating magnetic field.

Ns

120 f
P

Rotating magnetic flux cuts the stationary rotor


conductors. Therefore emf and current induced in
the rotor winding
The speed of stator field with respect to rotor winding

Rotor

= Ns-0=Ns

Rotor current opposes the cause (i.e flux cutting action) Therefore
Rotor begins to rotate in the direction of magnetic field
The speed of stator field with respect to rotor winding
=Ns-Nr =sNs i.e self starting

Hence IM is self starting motor.

3 phase IM

Slip and Rotor speed


Can IM run at synchronous speed ? NO
If Ns=Nr Relative speed= Ns-Ns =0
Emf induced in rotor=0 V I = 0A
Hence no developed torque.
Hence IM always run at a speed less than synchronous
speed .

Slip: The difference between the synchronous speed (Ns)


and actual speed (N) of the rotor is called as slip.
s

Ns Nr
3-

Ns

IM can never

run at Ns

i.e if rotor is stationary s=1 and if the rotor runs at


synchronous speed s=0
induction motor

Torque slip characteristics of IM

V12
2

R2'

3
syn ( R2' / s ) ( X 2' ) 2 s

1
s

T s

Case 1:
2 :At
Atlow
highslip
slips=
s large
small (close
' 0) to 1)
(close
to
R
R2
'
'
2
2
X X

2 2
1
2 V1
'
s
s
V1
R2
1
T
T

syn
(

T
T

'
X
syn
2

s
s

'
s
)( R2 )
2

Effect of Rotor Resistance on Torque Slip


Characteristics
1. Starting torque increases with addition of rotor
circuit resistance .

3 V12 R2'
Tst
syn ( X 2' ) 2 1
2. During running conditions resistance is cut in
steps to obtain maximum torque

3 V12 s
T
syn ( R2' ) 1
3. To obtain maximum Starting torque put s=1
sT max

R2'
X 2'

R2' X 2'

4. The maximum torque is independent of rotor circuit


resistance
3 V2

T max

1
'
2

2 syn ( X )

Applications of Induction Motor

Squirrel Cage motors with


(a) low rotor resistance are used for fans, centrifugal
pumps, machinery tools and wood working tools
(b) High rotor resistance are used for compressors, crushers and
reciprocating pumps

Wound Rotor IM also called slip ring IM are used for hoists,
cranes, elevators and compressors.

Thank you