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Curso

RESERVORIOS
I

CARACTERISTICAS DE
ROCAS RESERVORIO

-Porosidad
-Permeabilidad

POROSIDAD
-Es una medida que indica la relacin entre el
espacio poral de la roca reservorio y el
volumen total de la roca reservorio.
-Se expresa en porcentaje.

Arenas consolidadas

PERMEABILIDAD
Es una medida que indica la facilidad de
un fluido a fluir en una roca porosa.
La unidad que la representa es el
Darcy.

FLUIDOS DEL
RESERVORIO

Fluidos
en el reservorio
Gas
Petrleo
Agua

Petrleo
Densidad (API)
Gradiente (psi / ft)
Viscosidad (cp)
Factor de volmen de formacin
(Bo)
Temperatura (F)

Agua de formacin
Corte de agua (%)
Salinidad (ppm Cl)
Gradiente (psi / ft)
Viscosidad (cp)
Factor de volmen de formacin
(Bw)
Temperatura (F)

Gas Natural
Composicin
Relacin Gas Petrleo (GOR)
Gradiente (psi / ft)
Factor de volmen de formacin
(Bg)
Temperatura (F)

Formacion productiva
-Son aquellas rocas reservorio
que mantienen fludos
hidrocarburos entrampados en
su interior.

Trampa para petrleo y


gas
Condiciones.Roca fuente.
Porosidad y permeabilidad.
Tope y fondo con roca impermeable.

Tipos de reservorio

-Reservorio de arenisca
-Reservorio de caliza

Porosity Determination from Logs Porosity Determination from Logs


Most log interpretation techniques in use today
use a bulk volume rock approach
Quantitative rock data must be input into equations to
derive values of phi and Sw. For example:
Db = x Df + (1 - ) Dm
Porosity is then derived:
= (Dma - Db)/(Dma - Df)
Values of matrix density are normally assumed:
Dma = 2.65 for clean sand
= 2.68 for limy sands or sandy limes
= 2.71 for limestone
= 2.87 for dolomite
Fluid density is that of the mud filtrate:
Df = 1.0 (fresh)
= 1.0 = 0.73N (salt)
Where: N = NaCl concentration, ppm x 10-6
Accurate knowledge
of grain density is
essential

Porosity at Net Overburden (NOB)


Increase in NOB can reduce porosity. Generally
the reduction is <10% of total porosity.
Less severe in consolidated rocks, more severe
in unconsolidated rocks
Grain Density
Measure the bulk volume of the sample. Weigh
the sample. GD = Dry weight/Grain volume
Most rocks are mixtures of minerals. The grain
density of any rock is variable and is dependent
on the mineralogy:
1.25gm/cc -- volcanic ash, some coals
2.65gm/cc -- clean, quartz sandstone
2.68gm/cc -- shaly sandstone with some carbonate
2.71gm/cc -- clean limestone
2.87 - >3.0gm/cc dolomite
2.32gm/cc -- gypsum
2.96gm/cc -- anhydrite
3.89gm/cc -- siderite
Accurate values of grain density are important
because grain density is used to correct wireline
logs for potential sources of error

Fluid Saturations from Cores


Through knowledge of porosity, permeability
and residual fluid saturations (oil, water and
gas), it is possible to predict with a high
degree of accuracy the probable type of fluid
which will be produced from a given interval.
Review of the core fluorescence can also be
an indicator of oil gravity and should be
factored when type of production is predicted.
DATA USE

Use of Routine Core Data of Routine Core Data


Laboratory measurements of routine core
properties (phi, k, saturation) are commonly used
for the following purposes:
to define pay,
to interpret gas/oil and oil/water contacts,
to estimate rate of production,
to determine storage capacity and evaluate vertical
sweep efficiency by secondary and tertiary recovery
methods
Wettability : Definitions :
Water Wet the water phase is preferentially attracted to
the surfaces of the grains and water occupies most of the
small pores. Common in sandstones, especially those that
contain some shale
Oil Wet the oil phase is preferentially attracted to the grain
surfaces and the oil occupies most of the small pores. Can
occur in carbonates (particularly those with abundant small
pores) and in some very clean (shale-free) sandstones
Neutral Wet no preference for either water or oil
Fractional Wettability certain areas of the rock are oil wet,
others are water wet due to mineralogical changes or to
changes in adsorption of the oil
Mixed Wettability the larger pores contain oil (oil wet) and
the smaller pores contain water (water wet). Common in
carbonate reservoirs with heterogeneous pore geometry
Formations generally increase in their degree of water
wetness above 200C

Capillary Pressure (1)


Capillary pressure exists in a hydrocarbon reservoir
fundamentally because of differences in the density of
various fluids that affect the pressure gradients:
Pressure gradient of water = 0.44 psi/ft (density =
1gm/cc)
Pressure gradient of oil = 0.33 psi/ft (density =
0.8gm/cc)*
Pressure gradient of gas = 0.09 psi/ft (density =
0.2gm/cc)**
* 30O API
** 5000psi
As hydrocarbons accumulate in a trap, the difference in
density between the fluids results in a vertical segregation
of the fluids: gas on oil, oil on water
For example, at 10,000ft, oil pressure = 3300 psi and
water pressure = 4400 psi

Capillary Pressure
Capillary pressure in reservoirs can be defined as
the difference between the force acting
downwards (hydrostatic head, related to density
contrasts) and the force acting upwards
(buoyancy, related to pore throat size, interfacial
tension and contact angle)
Capillary pressure is measured in the laboratory
generally using plug samples or rotary sidewall
cores. Occasionally cuttings samples are used
In the most common type of test, a non-wetting
phase fluid (e.g. mercury) is injected into the rock
at slowly increasing values of pressure. The
amount of fluid injected at each increment of
pressure is recorded and is presented as a
capillary curve

Capillary Pressure and


Water Saturation (2)
Reservoir Sw decreases with increasing height
above the free water level (the level at which the
reservoir produces only water)
Zones that are at irreducible water saturation
(Swirr) produce only hydrocarbons. Swirr occurs
where sufficient closure and hydrocarbon column
exist
The transition zone occurs between the free water
level and the Swirr level. Formations in this zone
produce water and hydrocarbons
The magnitude of the Swirr and the thickness of
the transition zone are a function of the pore size
distribution
Small pore throats = low permeability = high Swirr

Initial Reservoir Fluid Distribution


The amount of Sw at any height in the reservoir is
a function of:
Pore throat size, wettability, interfacial tension,
saturation history and differences in fluid densities
These variables control capillary pressure,
therefore there is a relationship between Sw, h,
Pc and pore throat size
Laboratory measurements of capillary pressure
are used to relate Sw to height above the free
water level as long as appropriate values of
laboratory and reservoir interfacial tension and
contact angle are used
Laboratory tests can be made with different fluids
oil, brine, mercury

Capillary Pressure: :
Static Measurement
Static Method Mercury injection
Widely used, rapid, economic and simple. Mercury is
the non-wetting phase and is injected into a cleaned and
evacuated core plug at successively increasing
pressures from 0 to 60,000psi
The core plug cannot be used for further testing
because of residual Hg saturation
Hg capillary pressure data must be scaled to reservoir
conditions using the following formula:
. Conversion factor = Mercury Pc = Sm Cos m
Water-Air Pc Sw Cos w
Where:
Sm = surface tension of mercury
Sw = surface tension of water
m = contact angle of mercury against a solid (140 degrees)
w = contact angle of water against a solid (0 degrees)

Capillary Pressure:
Dynamic Measurement
Dynamic Method -- Centrifuge
Generally uses oil-brine fluid system but actual
reservoir fluids can also be used
Rapid, more complicated and more expensive than
mercury Pc measurements
Requires preserved or restored-state core plugs
Large (2 inch) plugs are required. These can be used for
further analysis
Brine saturated samples are centrifuged at ever
increasing speeds under oil to obtain a relationship
between capillary pressure and saturation

Capillary Pressure: Rock Controls


Pore geometry is a fundamental control on
capillary pressure, in particular the size of the
pore throats: the capillary pressure
characteristics change with changes in Rock
Type (pore geometry)
In heterogeneous reservoirs, it is essential to
collect capillary pressure data for each Rock
Type that is present in the reservoir
All other factors being equal, the lower the
permeability the smaller the pore throats the
higher the Pce and the higher the Swirr
Capillary pressure data is used to determine the
height above free water (column height) for each
Rock Type and to improve the prediction of the
type of fluid produced (hydrocarbon/water)

Use of Pc in Reservoir Simulation


and Reservoir Characterization
For purposes of simulation and characterization, it is
necessary to know the Free Water Level (FWL)
When FWL is known it is possible to predict Sw at any
height in the reservoir even in areas that lack well
penetrations
This is particularly important in the following cases:
Areas with long transition zones and no obvious FWL
Areas with misidentified or unknown FWL
Areas with unknown or incorrect Rw
Areas where a, m and/or n are incorrect or unknown
Areas with multiple Rock Types (where a, m,n and Sw
vary as a function of Rock Type)
In these situations, it is possible to solve for Sw using
either the Pc curves or the Leverett J Function.

Clculo de Reservas de
Petrleo y Gas

Definicin de Reservas

Petrleo crudo
Gas: Gas Natural, Gas
condensado
Lquidos del Gas Natural
Sustancias asociadas

Estimacin de Reservas

Basados en:
Interpretacin de Datos de
Ingeniera y/o Geologa
disponibles a la fecha.
Condiciones econmicas
existentes como precios , costos
y mercado.

RESERVAS FACTIBLES DE
RECUPERAR

ENERGIA NATURAL (RECUPERACION


PRIMARIA)
METODOS DE RECUPERACION
MEJORADA

Los Clculos de Reservas se pueden


realizar:

Mtodos Volumtricos
Balance de materiales
Anlisis de Curva de
Declinacin
Simulacin de Reservorios

Mtodo Volumetrico
Mapa de curvas de nivel de
la zona productiva (arena neta
productiva).

Se emplean dos mtodos para


determinar el volumen bruto:
Trapezoidal V = h*( 0.5*A0 + A1+A2+A3+0.5*A4)
Piramidal
V = h (A0 + 4*A1+2*A2+4*A3+A4)
3

Mtodo Volumtrico - Reservorios


de Petrleo
Para el clculo de petrleo insitu:
N = 7758*V**(1-Swi) / Boi
Para STB
el petrleo remanente:
Nf = 7758*V**(1-Swg) /
Bo
Nf = 7758*V**(1-Sw
El Factor de recobro F.R.
-Sg) /: Bo
F.R. = Np/N = 1 - Nf/N
V = Volumen bruto en Acres*ft
= Porosidad en fraccin
Swi = Saturacin inicial de agua Fraccin
Boi = Factor de volumen de formacin de petrleo inicial
Bo = factor de volumen de formacin de petrleo final

Mtodo Volumtrico Reservorios de Gas


Para el clculo de gas insitu:
G = 43560*V**(1-Swi) / Bgi
ParaSCF
el gas remanente:
Ga = 43560*V**(Sgr) / Bga
El Factor de recobro F.R. :
F.R. = Gp/G =(Bga-Bgi)/Bgi

Mtodo Volumtrico - Reservorios de Gas


Condensado
Mtodo 1.
o = 141.5 / (131.5 +
API)
Mo= 6084/(API-5.9)
mw = R g 28.97 + 350
o
379
nw = R + 350 o
379
Mo
Mw = 0.07636 Rg +
350 o
0.002636 R +
350 o
Mo
w = Mw/28.97=Rg
4584 o
R+
132800o

Encontramos la Tr y Pr y
luego el valor de Z luego
determinamos:
Gw = 379 PV/ ZRT
V = 43560 AH (1-Swi)
R = 10.73 Psia-ft3 / lb-mol
Fraccin de gas:
fg = R /(R + 132800o/Mo
Cantidad de gas:
G = Gw* fg
Cantidad de lquidos
N = Gw fg/R

Mtodo Volumtrico - Reservorios de Gas


Condensado
Mtodo 2.
avg gas prod. = gt ;
gt = qps ps + qst st
qps + qst
Conociendo STB
cond./MMSCF y
utilizando una grfica
desarrollada por
Standing podemos
determinar una relacin
(R)= u/ gt y mediante la
correlacin emprica
desarrollada por
Standing podemos
encontrar Bo para
reservorio de
condensado.

Existe una grfica de Bo es


funcin de:
R SCF/STB, gt , st ,
Temperatura reserv.
P reservorio ,
a altas relaciones gas/petr
Cantidad de lquidos
N = 7758Ah (1-Swi)/ Bo
Cantidad de gas :
G = Rsi* N

Anlisis de Curvas de declinacin

CARACTERISTICAS

EXPONENTE

Exponencial

Hiperblica

Armnica

Declinacin es Constante

Declinacin vara con


rate instantaneo

Declinacin es directamente
proporcional a la rate instantneo

b=0

b <> 0 , b <> 1

b=1

q=q

Tiempo de Abandono

b=1

ei -a t q = q i ( 1 + b ai t )-1/b q = q i ( 1 + ai t )-1

RELACION: Rate - Tiempo

RELACION: Rate - Cumulative

Lineal

qi - q
Np = a
i

ta =ln r
a

qib 1-b
(qi - q1-b)
Np (1-b)a
=
i

b
ta =r - 1

bai

qi ln qi
Np =a (q
i

ta =r - 1
ai

q =qi(1 - ai t )

(q1 - q2) t
Np = 2

1
ta =1 - /r

ai

Anlisis de Curvas de declinacin


Aplicaciones

Mecanismo

PLOT

Hiperblico

Gas Solucin

log (Np) vs log (q)

Exponencial

Gas Solucin

Np vs q

Intrusion agua con


corte agua = 0

Np vs q

Intrusion agua con


corte agua <> 0

Np vs corte (petroleo/agua)

Intrusion agua, donde


produccion de fluido
total permanece cte.

Np vs q

Lineal

Exponencial

Armnica

Intrusin de agua de flanco Np vs q

Impulsin capa gas


con bajo GOR,
gas solucion = 0

Np vs 1/p

Impulsin capa gas


con bajo GOR bajo
gas en solucin

log (Np) vs log (q)

Lineal

Hiperblico

b = 2,0

Impulsin capa gas


Np vs GOR
despues que GOC alcance
Np vs Profundidad del GOC
a los pozos productores

Ecuacin de Balance de Materiales Reservorios


de Gas
Para el clculo tenemos:
masa inicial- masa final final = masa
P /z
removida
ni - nf = n producido del reservorio
i

P/z
PiVi/ziRT - PfVf/zfRT = PscGp/RTsc
Vf = Vi - We + WpBw
GBgi -(G -Gp) Bgf = We + WpBw
Reservorio volumtrico, no hay
intrusin de agua entonces Vi=Vf
Pf/zf = Pi/zi - Psc TGp/Tsc = b - m Gp

Gi

Gp MMM SCF

Ecuacin de Balance de Materiales Reservorios


de Petrleo
Reservorios No saturado, produccin
PETROLEO
cerca al punto de Burbuja no hay intrusin
de agua, Compresibilidad de la formacin
AGUA
y agua=0
Pi

PETROLEO
AGUA

Pb

Reservorios No saturado,
Vi = Vf ; Vi = N Boi ;
Vf = Nf Bof = (N - Np) Bof produccin
Luego: N Boi = (N - Np) Bof cerca al punto de Burbuja
no hay intrusin agua , si
N = Np Bof / (Bof - Boi )
efectos compresibilidades
F.R. = (Bof - Boi )/ Bof
Cf +w = Cf +CwSwi/ (1-Swi)
N = Np Bof / (Bof - Boi (1Cw+f P))
F.R. = Bof - Boi (1- Cw+f
P)/ Bof

Ecuacin de Balance de Materiales Reservorios


de Petrleo
Pb
GAS

PETROLEO

PETROLEO

AGUA

AGUA

Pi
Reservorios No saturado, produccin
debajo al punto de Burbuja no hay
intrusin de agua
Vi = Vf = Vo + Vg;
N Boi = (N - Np) Bof + Gf Bgf

Pf

Gf = Nrsi - (N-Np)Rs - NpRp siendo Rp = Gp/Np

N = Np [Bof + Bg (Rp- Rs)]/ [Bof - Boi + Bg(Rsi-Rs)]


F.R.= [Bof - Boi + Bg(Rsi-Rs)]/ [ Bof + Bg (Rp- Rs)]
Si hay intrusin de agua:

Vi = Vf = Vo + Vg+ Vw
Vw = We-BwWp
N ={ Np [Bof + Bg (Rp- Rs)]- (We-BwWp)}/ [Bof - Boi + Bg(R

Ecuacin de Balance de Materiales Reservorios


de Petrleo
Pb
GAS

PETROLEO

PETROLEO

AGUA

AGUA

Pi

Pf

Reservorios No saturado, produccin


debajo al punto de Burbuja no hay
intrusin de agua, considerando la
expansin del volumen poroso

N = Np [Bof + Bg (Rp- Rs)]/ [Bof - Boi + Bg(Rsi-Rs) + Cf+w Boi


F.R.= [Bof - Boi + Bg(Rsi-Rs) + Cf+w Boi P ]/ [ Bof + Bg (R

Ecuacin de Balance de Materiales Reservorios


de Petrleo
Pb
GAS

GAS

PETROLEO

PETROLEO

AGUA

AGUA

Pi

Pf

Intrusin de agua.
Reservorios saturado, produccin
debajo al punto de Burbuja , intrusin
de agua, considerando la
expansin del volumen poroso
m= Vgli/Voi
V = V = Vo + Vgd + Vgl + Vw;
Vgl = m N Boi [Bg - Bgi] / Bgi
N = Np [Bof + Bg (Rp- Rs) - (We-BwWp) ]/ [Bof - Boi + B (R -R ) + m B
i

si

oi

[Bg -

Simulacin de Reservorios
Fundamentalmente se basa en los principios fsicos de
conservacin de masa, flujo de fluido y la conservacin
de energa.
Contiene un juego de ecuaciones que permiten describir
el comportamiento de los fluidos en un reservorio.
Los tipos de simuladores existentes: Black Oil ,
Composicional, Recuperacin Mejorada entre otros..
Es un estudio planeado y organizado para obtener
buenos resultados, teniendo en consideracin:
Geometra del reservorio
Propiedades de roca y fluido
Pruebas de presin
Datos de produccin y completacin
Diseo del modelo del reservorio
Inicializacin del modelo del reservorio.
Anlisis de sensibilidad del modelo
Ajuste de historia
Performance del reservorio