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Chapter VIII

Community organizing process


By PhD. Ponh OUDAM

Contents

STAGE ONE: ENTRY INTO THE COMMUNITY


STAGE TWO: COMMUNITY IMMERSION
STAGE THREE:
CORE GROUP FORMATION
STAGE FOUR: FORMATION OF THE
COMMUNITY BASED ORGANIZATION (CBO)
STAGE FIVE: COMMUNITY CAPACITY BUILDING
STAGE SIX: PARTICIPATORY COMMUNITY REASEARCH
STAGE SEVEN: COMMUNITY PLANNING FOR PROBLEM
SOLVING
STAGE EIGHT: COMMUNITY RESOURCE MOBILIZATION
STAGE NINE: PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION
STAGE TEN: EXIT FROM THE COMMUNITY

STAGE ONE: ENTRY INTO THE


COMMUNITY
1. Definition:
Community entry is the process where the
Community Organizer (CO) officially enters the
community
2. Importance:
During community entry, the Community
Organizer (CO) is introduced to local
authorities and other key people in the
community. It is the first step by the
Community Organizer (CO) towards
integration into the community

STAGE ONE: ENTRY INTO THE


COMMUNITY Cont.
3. Process
A. Preparation
a. Role of the NGO
Clarify its purpose why it wants to work in the
community.
Develop criteria for recruiting Community
Organizer (CO). Recruit a Community
Organizer (CO) who will stay and work with the
people in the community.
Develop criteria for target community. Select
target community using the criteria.
Develop criteria for contact person and host
family.

STAGE ONE: ENTRY INTO THE


COMMUNITY Cont.
3. Process
A. Preparation
b. Role of the Community Organizer (CO)
Collect information about the community from
government and non-government
organizations working in the target community.
Select contact person using criteria.
Stay temporarily with a family recommended
by contact person.
Prepare and bring personal items needed to
stay in the community.

STAGE ONE: ENTRY INTO THE


COMMUNITY Cont.
3. Process

B. Community Entry
a. Tasks of the Community Organizer (CO)
Visit the house of contact person.
Together with the contact person, pay
courtesy call to local authorities and key
people in the community.
Stay temporarily with host family
recommended by contact person.

STAGE TWO:
COMMUNITY IMMERSION
1. Definition
Community Immersion is the process of
staying and living together with the people in the
community and experience their way of life.
2. Importance
Through community immersion, the Community
Organizer (CO) will gain better understanding of
the people and their situation. The people will
also be able to know the Community Organizer
(CO) better and mutually develop good
relationships with each other.

STAGE TWO:
COMMUNITY IMMERSION Cont.
3. Process
Identify host family using criteria earlier
developed.
Stay with host family.
Go out and meet as many people as possible.
Participate in household and livelihood
activities of the host family.
Participate in community celebrations, activities
and meetings.
Document observations and experiences using
a CO Diary.

STAGE TWO:
COMMUNITY IMMERSION Cont.
4. Important advice for the Community Organizer
(CO)
Be humble.
Be polite.
Respect local belief, religion and culture.
Do not get drunk.
Do not make promises that will not be fulfilled.
Do not flirt.
Do not talk about political parties.

STAGE THREE:
CORE GROUP FORMATION
1. Definition
A Core Group is made up of 5-7 individuals
from the community selected and recruited by
the Community Organizer (CO) to help facilitate
the formation of the Community Based
Organization (CBO).
2. Importance
The Core Group works together with the
Community Organizer (CO) and provides
community leadership towards the formation of
the Community Based Organization (CBO).

STAGE THREE:
CORE GROUP FORMATION cont.
3. Process
A. The NGO develops criteria for recruiting
Core Group members which may
include the following:
Leadership
Integrity
Availability
Commitment
Knowledge and skills

STAGE THREE:
CORE GROUP FORMATION cont.
3. Process
B. Tasks of Community Organizer (CO)
Observe and talk to people in the community.
Identify potential Core Group members using
criteria.
Select and recruit 5-7 potential Core Group
members. Women should be included.
Conduct orientation meeting with all Core
Group members. Introduce and explain the
work of the NGO. Explain and clarify
responsibilities of Core Group members.

STAGE FOUR: FORMATION OF THE


COMMUNITY BASED ORGANIZATION (CBO)
1. Definition
A Community Based Organization (CBO) is
an association of people living in the same
geographic location.
2. Importance
The Community Based Organization (CBO)
is a structure that provides people with
opportunities to work together to solve
common problems affecting their lives.

STAGE FOUR: FORMATION OF THE


COMMUNITY BASED ORGANIZATION (CBO)
cont.
3. Process
The task of Community Organizer (CO) in CBO
formation is to help the Core Group members
to:
Identify and analyze community problems.
Brainstorm and prioritize solutions.
Discuss and determine the importance of CBO
formation.
Identify steps for CBO formation.
Develop criteria for CBO leaders.

STAGE FOUR: FORMATION OF THE


COMMUNITY BASED ORGANIZATION (CBO)
cont.
3. Process
Steps in Community Based Organization (CBO)
formation the Core Group should be
responsible for the following activities:
a. Planning for the Community Meeting
Determine the purpose of the community
meeting.
Determine suitable place and time for the
community meeting.
Plan the agenda and clarify responsibilities.
Announce the schedule, purpose and
participants of the meeting.

STAGE FOUR: FORMATION OF THE


COMMUNITY BASED ORGANIZATION (CBO)
cont.
b. Activities during the Community Meeting

Clearly explain the purpose and agenda of the


community meeting.
Present community problems affecting community
and the need to solve problems by working
together.
Present the idea and get approval for the
formation of the Community Based Organization
(CBO).
Present the idea of the need to elect 5-7 CBO
leaders. Discuss the process for nomination and
election.
Present the responsibilities of CBO leaders and
their term of office.

STAGE FOUR: FORMATION OF THE


COMMUNITY BASED ORGANIZATION (CBO)
cont.
b. Activities during the Community Meeting Cont.

Start the nomination process. Allow candidates to


respond to their nomination.
Conduct election in clear and transparent manner.
Tally votes and announce election results.
Allow newly elected CBO leaders to respond to
their election.
Meeting should end on time after the election.
Decide on the place, time and agenda for next
meeting.
Record minutes in writing.

STAGE FOUR: FORMATION OF THE


COMMUNITY BASED ORGANIZATION (CBO)
cont.
C. Activities after the Community Meeting

The CO should meet with the newly elected


CBO leaders after the community meeting.
The CO will arrange the time, place and
agenda for the first formal meeting of the
CBO leaders.

STAGE FIVE: COMMUNITY CAPACITY


BUILDING
1. Definition
Community Capacity Building is the process
of developing and strengthening knowledge,
skills and experience of the CBO leaders and
members.
2. Importance
Developing the capacity of the CBO leaders
and members will ensure greater community
participation, self-reliance and sustainability of
the organization.

STAGE FIVE: COMMUNITY CAPACITY


BUILDING cont.
3. Process
Tasks of the CBO leaders:
Conduct assessment of training needs of CBO
leaders and members.
Develop plan based on training needs.
Identify available internal and external
resources to meet training needs.
Training of first line and second line of CBO
leaders.

STAGE FIVE: COMMUNITY CAPACITY


BUILDING cont.
4. Basic skills needed by the Community Based
Organization (CBO)
Facilitating CBO and community meeting
Recording of minutes of the meeting
Research and data gathering
Planning
Monitoring and evaluation
Communication skills
Management skills
Financial skills
Project proposal making

STAGE SIX: PARTICIPATORY COMMUNITY


REASEARCH
1. Definition
Participatory Community Research (PCR) is
the process of identifying, analyzing and
prioritizing community problems and their
possible solutions.
2. Importance
The PCR enables community members to
identify community needs, resources and
priorities towards problem solving.

STAGE SIX: PARTICIPATORY COMMUNITY


REASEARCH

Cont.

3. Process

The CBO leaders will call for a community meeting. The


agenda for community meeting is the formation and election
of the members of the Participatory Research Committee
(PCR).
Formation of the Participatory Research Committee (PCR)
during community meeting.
The CO will train CBO leaders and PCR on how to use
participatory research tools.
After the training, the PCR will conduct the community
research together with community members.
Community data tabulation and analysis. The CO will train
the PCR on how to do this.
The CBO leaders will call for a community meeting for data
presentation and validation.
Formation of the Community Planning Committee during
the community meeting.

STAGE SEVEN: COMMUNITY


PLANNING FOR PROBLEM SOLVING
1. Definition
Community Planning is the process of
developing a community action plan based on
priorities, objectives and resources towards
community problem solving.
2. Importance
Community planning provides opportunities for
the community members to participate in
decision making, thus ensuring ownership of the
problem solving process. It also enables them to
identify and formulate solutions to their common
problems together.

STAGE SEVEN: COMMUNITY PLANNING


FOR PROBLEM SOLVING Cont.
3. Process
The tasks of the Planning Committee are:
Review community priorities based on the
result of the PCR and develop community
action plan:

Identify possible project/s.


Set up project objectives.
Identify target groups.
Identify activities and persons responsible.
Identify resources needed.
Develop budget.
Develop strategy on how to access to resources
needed.

STAGE SEVEN: COMMUNITY PLANNING


FOR PROBLEM SOLVING Cont.
3. Process
The tasks of the Planning Committee are:
Review community priorities based on the
result of the PCR and Call a community
meeting to present community action plan.
Presentation, validation and approval of
community action plan by community
members.
Finalize community action plan based on
suggestions and recommendation of
community members.

STAGE EIGHT: COMMUNITY RESOURCE


MOBILIZATION
1. Definition

Community Resource Mobilization is the process


of utilizing people and their resources towards
accomplishing desired changes in the community.
2. Importance
The community needs resources in order to
implement its projects and activities. Community
Resource Mobilization enables the community to
maximize the use of available local resources
towards achieving problem solving objectives.
External resources should only be utilized if local
resources are not available.

STAGE EIGHT: COMMUNITY RESOURCE


MOBILIZATION Cont.

3. Process
Role of the CBO Leaders in mobilizing
community resources:
Establish clear and regular communication and
feedback system with community members.
Secure commitments of community members
towards a particular cause.
Follow-up and monitor commitments of
community members.
Delegate responsibilities in problem solving to
maximize participation of community members.

STAGE NINE: PROJECT


IMPLEMENTATION
1. Definition
A. Project implementation
It is the process of carrying out projects and
activities towards achieving the desired change.
Through implementation, plans are mobilized into a
series of actions that will lead toward
accomplishment of the goals and objectives.
B. Project Monitoring
Monitoring is the assessment of the project
implementation process and activities and to check,
whether the results are achieving the objectives of
the desired change. Monitoring should be regularly
done during the implementation process.

STAGE NINE: PROJECT


IMPLEMENTATION cont.
1. Definition
C. Evaluation
Evaluation is the process of assessing the impact
of the projects and activities of the community. It is
concerned with determining the accomplishments
of goals and objectives. The community members
should conduct the evaluation themselves at the
completion of a project or activity.
2. Importance
The Community Action Plan is the vehicle to
achieve desired community changes. A regular
monitoring and evaluation process will ensure
effective achievement of activities and desired
results.

STAGE NINE: PROJECT


IMPLEMENTATION cont.
3. Process: the tasks of the CBO leaders during project
implementation are the following:
A. Project Implementation

Oversee and direct the implementation of projects and


activities.

Clarify roles of each member in projects or activities.

Motivate the community members to contribute to the


projects and activities. Mobilize the use of community
resources for the projects or activities.

Conduct regular consultation and feedback with


community members.

Manage inter-personal relationships and conflict


management. Facilitate team building activities.

Conduct an information and advocacy campaign on the


Community Action Plan.

STAGE NINE: PROJECT


IMPLEMENTATION cont.
3. Process: the tasks of the CBO leaders during
project implementation are the following:
B. Monitoring and Evaluation
Formation of the Monitoring and Evaluation
Committee.
Development of the monitoring & evaluation plan.
Develop participatory tools for monitoring and
evaluation.
Preparation of the evaluation report.
Presentation and validation of evaluation report
during community meeting.
Finalization of the evaluation report after
community meeting.

STAGE TEN: EXIT FROM THE


COMMUNITY
1. Definition:
Community Exit is the process whereby
the Community Organizer (CO) gradually
leaves the community as the
Community Based Organization (CBO)
moves towards independence and selfreliance

STAGE TEN: EXIT FROM THE


COMMUNITY cont.

2. Importance
The Community Exit strategy enables the Community
Based Organization (CBO) to grow and gradually develop
into a mature self-governing and self-reliant association
independent. The CBO needs to grow and develop into a selfgoverning and self- reliant institution at its own pace and on
its own time. At the initial stage of Community Organizing
process, the CO takes a major role in leading the CBO in the
problem solving process. As the capacity of the CBO leaders
and members gradually develop, they should assume more
responsibilities and move towards becoming independent and
self-reliant. The role of the CO should then change from
initiating, leading and managing to facilitating and
coordinating of development activities.
The Community Organizer (CO) should already start
thinking about the exit strategy before entering the
community. At the final stage, the CO should eventually leave
the community.

STAGE TEN: EXIT FROM THE


COMMUNITY cont.
3. Process
The Community Based Organization
(CBO) needs to establish federations,
actively participate in networks and build
strategic alliances with other groups and
organizations in a continuing basis. These
partnerships will enable the CBO to give
and receive support from other CBOs,
groups and organizations.
The tasks of the Community Organizer
(CO) in enabling CBO leaders to move
towards becoming an independent CBO:

STAGE TEN: EXIT FROM THE


COMMUNITY cont.
3. Process

Continuing education for CBO leaders and


members, especially developing second and third
line of leaders.
Strengthening communication and resource
mobilization skills, especially local fundraising.
Establishing strong support system through
networking and building alliances with government
and non-government organizations.
Establish linkages and networking with other
organizations at the village, commune, district,
province and national level.
Join CBO federations with similar values and
objectives for mutual benefit where appropriate.

Questions
What is community organizing process in your organization?
Please describe.