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CONCEPTS OF METROLOGY AND IMPORTANCE OF


CALIBRATION

Nihal Gunasekara
Sri Lanka

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KEY WORDS

CALIBRATION Comparison
METROLOGY Science of Measurement
TRACEABILITY Unbroken Chain of Comparisons
UNCERTAINTITY Error in Measurement
ACCREDITATION Third Party Ascertain
CALIBRATION INTERVAL Equipment Remains Reliable

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WHAT IS METROLOGY
SCIENCE OF MEASUREMENTS

Everything has
to do with
measurement

Experiment
or test
Designing
Conducting
Analyzing Results

CAN BE SEEN
EVERYWHERE

Allowing people
to plan their lives
and make
commercial
exchange with
confidence

within the Metrology realm


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METROLOGY

Metrology Covers Three Main Tasks:


The definition of internationally accepted units of measurement
The realization of units of measurement by scientific method
Establishment of traceability chain in documenting the accuracy
of a measurement
Metrology is essential in scientific
research

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CATEGORIES OF METROLOGY
Scientific Metrology Development of measurement
standards
Industrial Metrology To ensure the adequate
functioning
instruments used in

of measurement
industry,

production & testing


laboratories
Legal Metrology or
Weights & Measures
where these

Accuracy of measurement
have influence on the

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AREAS OF INDUSTRIAL METROLOGY


Mechanical Metrology Realises , maintains and
disseminates the national measurement standards in the areas of
Mass, Volume, Pressure and Dimension
Electrical Metrology Realises , maintains and
disseminates the national measurement standards in the areas of
AC/DC, low frequency, time & frequency and temperature

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LEGAL METROLOGY

Services offered by legal metrology are:


Mass measurements verification: verification of all
mass measuring instruments (balances, trade masses etc.)
Volume measuring instruments : verification of fuel
dispensers, tankers , meters etc.
Prepackaging control :verification of quantities in
prepackaged products (mass, volume, length, number etc.)

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Calibration (Old Definition)


Calibration

is the comparing of an
unknown measurement device against
equal or better known standard under
specified conditions

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Calibration

Operation that, under specified conditions, in a first step,


establishes a relation between the quantity values with
measurement uncertainties provided by measurement
standards and corresponding indications with associated
measurement uncertainties, and in a second step, uses this
information to establish a relation for obtaining a measurement
result from an indication International Vocabulary of Metrology )
( JCGM 200:2012 International Vocabulary of Metrology )

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Units of Measurement

SI Units published by BIPM(Bureau of Weights and Measures)


Base Units

Quantity

Unit

Symbol

Length

metre

Mass

kilogram

kg

Time

second

Temperature

kelvin

Electric current

ampere

Luminous intensity

candela

cd
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Metrology Laboratories
Primary Laboratories NML, NMI, NPL etc
Reference Laboratories
Calibration Laboratories

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Measurement Uncertainty
non-negative parameter characterizing the dispersion
of the quantity values being attributed to a measurand,
based on the information used
It arises due to the imperfections in the measurement
system
No measurement system is perfect !!!!!

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Uncertainty

An estimate of the possible error in a measurement


Type A evaluation
A series of repeated observations is obtained to determine
the standard deviation of the measurement result.
Type B evaluation
The evaluation is carried out using available information
found in calibration reports, certificates, specifications etc.

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Expanded Uncertainty
Calculate combined standard uncertainties
Type A
Type B

Exp. Unc. U = Combined Uncertainty X Coverage factor

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Ishikawa diagram

Reference T/C
Calibration (B)

Digital
Thermometer
Resolution (B)
Scatter (A)
CJC (B)

Uncertainty
of an oven
Test oven
Resolution (B)
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Confidence Level

Gaussian probability distribution

68%
95%
99%

-k

+k
Within 1 of mean
Within 2 of mean
Within 3 of mean
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Metrological Traceability

property of a measurement result


whereby the result can be related to a
reference through a documented unbroken
chain of calibrations, each contributing to the
measurement uncertainty
or
HOW TO ENSURE THAT TWO MEASUREMENTS OF THE SAME
QUANTITIES ARE COMPATIBLE

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How Do We Get Traceability ?


Common point of reference

My laboratory

Your laboratory

Their laboratory

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NMI: The Link Organisation to the International Arena


International standards

National Metrology Institute

National community that is using


measurements
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HIERACHY OF MEASUREMENT STANDARDS


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HIERARCHY OF
Primary Standards
MEASUREMENTS
Traceable to BIPM
Secondary
Standards
Working
Standards

Instruments
Used in Lab/
Industry

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Metal fixed-point
Number

Defining temperature

Substances

State

Hg

234.3156

-38.8344

H20

273.16

0.01

Ga

302.9146

29.7646

In

429.7485

156.5985

Sn

505.078

231.928

Zn

692.677

419.527

Al

933.473

660.323

Ag

1234.93

961.78

Au

1337.33

1064.18

Cu

1357.77

1084.62

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CALIBRATION
HIERARCHY OF MASS STANDARDS
BIPM Kilogram
National Kilogram
Class E1, E2,F1, F2
Masses

Analytical &Top loading


Precision
Balances

OIML M1,M2,M3

OIML R47

Masses

Masses

TRADE
MASSES

Platform & Top


loading balances

Weighing
Bridges

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EXAMPLE

MASS COMPARATOR

Traceable to

BIPM Prototype 1kg

USE

Transfer

Prototype 1kg

Traceab
le to
SI Units

Calibrate

Analytical Balance

Set of Classes E2, F1, F2, and M1


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GAUGE BLOCK COMPARATOR


Primary Standard
Traceable to

Laser interferometer

Compare
USE

Grade K set

Calibrate

Grade 1 set
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Examples

1. Performance Test on a Incubator at 35 +


0.5 oC
Set Temp.
o

Indicator Value
C

Expanded
Uncertainty

34.5

Measured Mean value


o

Min

Max

Near
Sensor

Upper

Middle

Lower

34.5

34.6

34.9

34.7

34.5

34.2

0.2

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2. Performance Test on a Water Bath at 50 oC


Set Temp.

Indicator Value

Measurement

Locations

48.0

P
C
R

Min

Max

49.5

50.0

50.1

50.2

50.1

50.1

50.0

Uniformity : 0.61 C
o

Stability

Measured
Mean
Value

Expanded
Uncertainty
C

: 0.33 oC
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MASS

Reference and Auxiliary Equipment


COMPARATOR BALANCES
CLASS E1 1 kg
CLASS E1 SET
CLASS E2 SET
CLASS F1 SET
CLASS F2 SET
CLASS M1 SET

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CALBRATION INTERVALS

What is Calibration interval ???


Period of time of use to ensure the equipment remains reliable
Interval is too short : Calibration $$$$$
Interval too long

: Risk of bad measurements

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CALBRATION INTERVALS

ISO 17025 Requirements:


Capable of achieving required accuracy
Comply with specifications relevant to test/calibration method
Use under established calibration programme
Therefore need to :
Define required accuracy
Identify the equipment that can affect it
Manage all equipment under a calibration programme
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RECOMMENDED CALBRATION INTERVALS


N No single correct answer

Calibration represents an
instantaneous snapshot of actual
condition
Depend upon

Level of stress - subjected


Stability of past calibration
Allowable tolerance range
Required accuracy
Quality Assurance Requirements

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RECOMMENDED CALBRATION INTERVALS

Final Analysis

Period between two calibrations


Determined & Monitored

USER HIMSELF

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HOW TO ESTABLISH CALIBRATION INTERVAL


Consider influencing factors and existing knowledge : eg
Accuracy sought & consequences of error
Manufactures recommendations
Accommodation & environment
Purpose and usage
Maintenance & servicing
Trends from previous calibration
Frequency of checks
Etc. etc. etc. .

Ref. - ILAC G 24 : Guidelines for determination of calibration interval of


measuring instruments
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RECOMMENDED PRACTICES
Calibration at (planned) periodic intervals to
ensure acceptable accuracy & reliability
Shorten the intervals when results of previous
calibration suggest it
May lengthen intervals on basis of demonstrated
performance
Documented procedure for assigning and adjusting
calibration intervals
Fully documented re-calibration system
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CALIBRATION OF VOLUMETRIC GLASSWARE

FLASKS

CYLINDERS

BURETTES

PIPETTES

ACCURACY CLASSES
grade
grade

CLASS A Higher
CLASS B Lower
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Example - Pipettes

Nominal
capacity(ml)

Limit of Error (ml)


Class A

Class B

0.008

0.015

25

0.03

0.06

100

0.08

0.15

200

0.1

0.2

METHOD
Gravimetric Method IS0 4787 -2010
(Laboratory Glassware- Volumetric instrumentsMethod of Testing of capacity and for use)
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IN-HOUSE PERFORMANCE CHECKS


(During Calibration Interval)

ANALYTICAL BALANCES Using a Calibrated


Weight
INCUBATORS -

Using a Calibrated
Thermocouple

GLASS THERMOMETERS-

Ice Point

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Importance of Calibration
Assurance of accurate of measurements
Ability to trace measurements to International
standards
International acceptance of test/calibration reports
Correct diagnosis of illness (medical reports)
Consumer protection (legal metrology)
Meeting the requirements of ISO 9000 and 17025

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How we ensure

Technical Competence of
Calibration Laboratories
&
Measurements are
traceable to SI Units
ACCREDITATION
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Defined
Criteria for Laboratory Accreditation
Metrology Laboratory

Organization

Laboratory Quality System

Qualified personnel

Range of the work capabilities and test methods

Laboratory practices and management system

Reliable standards and measuring devices

Laboratory facilities

Adequate measuring capabilities

Traceability maintenance

Calibration records

Satisfactory completion of internal audits

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QUALITY SYSTEM ISO/IEC 17025

QUALITY MANUAL
PROCEDURE MANUAL
METHOD MANUAL
FACILITIES MANUAL
SAFETY MANUAL
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ACCREDITED

IMPLEMENTATION OF ISO 17025


MANAGEMENT REQUIREMENTS
TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS

TRACEABILITY

MAINTENANCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL
CONDITIONS
TRAINED STAFF

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ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
TEMPERATURE
HUMIDITY
AIR VELOCITY
FREE OF VIBRATION
ILLUMINANCE

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ACCREDITED MASS LABORATORY

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS: TEMPERATURE: 23 0.5 0C , HUMIDITY

: 50 10%

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ACCREDITED TEMPERATURE LABORATORY

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS: TEMPERATURE: 23 1 0C , HUMIDITY : 50 10%


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CONTENTS OF CALIBRATION CERTIFICATE

NAME AND ADDRESS : CUSTOMER/ LABORATORY


METHOD
CONDITION RECEIVED
IDENTIFICATION
DATE OF CALIBRATION
DATE OF RECALIBRATION ?
CALIBRATION RESULTS
UNCERTAINTY OF MEASUREMENT
TRACEABILITY
ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION
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SAMPLE OFSCOPE OF ACCREDITATION


CALIBRATION

RANGE

C.M.C
mL

mL
ONE MARK PIPETTE

0 to 200

0.01
GRADUATED PIPETTE
BURETTE

0 to 25

0.001
0 to 200

0.01
VOLUMETRIC FLASK

0 to 2000

0.01
GRADUATED MEASURING CYLINDER

0 to 2000

0.01

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Accredited Metrology
Facilities
Ensure

Traceable
Measurements
Technical Competency
Industries
ISO Certified QMS

Better Place
in Global
Market

Products

Quality
Life
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Calibration of
laboratory
equipment is
important to obtain
reliable test
results

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