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## Surface Water Flow Options

1. Specified river, tributary flows (net flow)
2. Specified lake, estuary flows (separate
flows)
3. Calculated flows using internal kinematic
wave equations
4. Calculated flows from external
hydrodynamic model

## Transport Flow Fields

Type 1 - Water Column flow carries both
dissolved and particulate material
Type 2 - Pore Water flow carries dissolved
material only
Type 3,4,5 Solids i settling/resuspension
carries particulate fraction only
Type 6 Water evaporation/precipitation

## WASP Transport Scheme

Each Flow Field can have multiple flow
patterns and time functions.
WASP sums the individual flows for each
segment to determine overall transport

## Surface Flow Options

1. Net Flow Option
10 cms

5 cms

5 cms

## WASP sums and uses net flow

2. Gross Flow Option
10 cms

5 cms

10 cms

5 cms

## Surface Flow Options

3. Kinematic Wave

## WASP internally calculates

flows, volumes, depths, widths

Hydrodynamic
Interface

Hydro

WASP

## Flow through Simple Pond

Flow Path
Continuity Function

Time, days

## Upstream Flow Through River

0

Flow Path
Continuity Function

Time, days

## Flow through River with Tributary

Flow Path
Continuity Functions

Time, days

4

Time, days

## Kinematic Wave Option

Applicable to 1-dimensional, branching
streams, rivers
Calculates flow wave propagation and
resulting variable flows, volumes, depths,
and velocities throughout the network
Default rectangular channel shape unless
user specifies hydraulic coefficients

## Kinematic Wave Equations

Continuity equation (mass balance):

Q
x

A
t

g S0 S f
gravity

friction

## Kinematic Wave Equations

Substitute in Mannings equation:

1
n

5/3

A
B

2/3

1/ 2
0

Q
x

Q
t

nB

S
2/3

where 3 / 5 ,

1/ 2
0

0
3/ 5

## Kinematic Wave Input Data

Time-variable upstream and tributary
inflows (m3/sec)
Continuity flow paths for main stem and
each tributary (IQ, JQ, BQ)
Channel properties:
length (m), width (m), initial depth (m)
hydraulic exponents set to 0
bottom slope (m/m)
Mannings roughness coefficient

## Watershed & Water Quality Modeling Technical Support Center

Kinematic Wave
Dynamic Response Profiles

## Chapra Kinematic Wave, Example 14.6

Channel Width,
"B", m

Channel Bottom
Slope, "S", m/m

Manning's
Roughness
Coefficient, "n"

15

0.004

0.07

Boundary Pulse
Flow Period, day

Boundary Pulse
Flow Range, m3/sec

Duration of
Boundary Pulse,
day

0.5

2.5

0.25

m

1000

0.007

## Watershed & Water Quality Modeling Technical Support Center

Kinematic Wave
Response to Stepwise Flows

Segment
Lengths
m

Channel
Width
m

Channel
Bottom
Slope
m/m

Manning's
Roughness
Coefficient

1000

0.0001

0.04

Annuminas
Flow Pattern
Average Flow,
m3/sec

Flow Pattern
Average Flow,
m3/sec