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Advective Flows

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Surface Water Flow Options


1. Specified river, tributary flows (net flow)
2. Specified lake, estuary flows (separate
flows)
3. Calculated flows using internal kinematic
wave equations
4. Calculated flows from external
hydrodynamic model

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Surface Water Flow Options WASP Screen

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Transport Flow Fields


Type 1 - Water Column flow carries both
dissolved and particulate material
Type 2 - Pore Water flow carries dissolved
material only
Type 3,4,5 Solids i settling/resuspension
carries particulate fraction only
Type 6 Water evaporation/precipitation
adjusts water volume only

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Transport Fields WASP Screen

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WASP Transport Scheme


Each Flow Field can have multiple flow
patterns and time functions.
WASP sums the individual flows for each
segment to determine overall transport

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Flow Patterns WASP Screen

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Flow Time Functions WASP Screen

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Surface Flow Options


1. Net Flow Option
10 cms

5 cms

5 cms

WASP sums and uses net flow


2. Gross Flow Option
10 cms

5 cms

10 cms

WASP uses each flow separately

5 cms

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Surface Flow Options


3. Kinematic Wave

WASP internally calculates


flows, volumes, depths, widths

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Surface Flow Options


4. Hydrodynamic Linkage

Hydrodynamic
Interface

Hydro

WASP

Examples of Specifying Flows

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Flow through Simple Pond

Flow Path
Continuity Function

Flow Time Function

Time, days

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Upstream Flow Through River


0

Flow Path
Continuity Function

Flow Time Function

Time, days

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Flow through River with Tributary


Flow Path
Continuity Functions

Flow Time Function

Time, days

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Branched Flow through River


4

Flow Path Continuity Function

Flow Time Function

Time, days

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Kinematic Wave Option


Applicable to 1-dimensional, branching
streams, rivers
Calculates flow wave propagation and
resulting variable flows, volumes, depths,
and velocities throughout the network
Default rectangular channel shape unless
user specifies hydraulic coefficients

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Kinematic Wave Equations


Continuity equation (mass balance):

Q
x

A
t

Momentum equation (momentum balance):

g S0 S f
gravity

friction

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Kinematic Wave Equations


Substitute in Mannings equation:

1
n

5/3

A
B

2/3

1/ 2
0

Kinematic wave differential equation:

Q
x

Q
t

nB

S
2/3

where 3 / 5 ,

1/ 2
0

0
3/ 5

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Kinematic Wave Input Data


Time-variable upstream and tributary
inflows (m3/sec)
Continuity flow paths for main stem and
each tributary (IQ, JQ, BQ)
Channel properties:
length (m), width (m), initial depth (m)
hydraulic exponents set to 0
bottom slope (m/m)
Mannings roughness coefficient

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Kinematic Wave
Dynamic Response Profiles

Chapra Kinematic Wave, Example 14.6

Channel Width,
"B", m

Channel Bottom
Slope, "S", m/m

Manning's
Roughness
Coefficient, "n"

15

0.004

0.07

Boundary Pulse
Flow Period, day

Boundary Pulse
Flow Range, m3/sec

Duration of
Boundary Pulse,
day

0.5

2.5

0.25

Spatial Step, dx,


m

Time Step, dt, day

1000

0.007

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Kinematic Wave
Response to Stepwise Flows

Small Stream, Gentle Slope


Segment
Lengths
m

Channel
Width
m

Channel
Bottom
Slope
m/m

Manning's
Roughness
Coefficient

1000

0.0001

0.04

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River Brandywine Flows


Annuminas
Flow Pattern
Average Flow,
m3/sec

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River Brandywine Flows Hobbiton


Flow Pattern
Average Flow,
m3/sec