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Concepts and their application in architecture

What is Virtual Environment

A computer generated world with which the user can


Interaction can vary from looking

interactively modifying the world.



Virtual Environments and Virtual


representations of real or

imaginary environments; Experienced as threedimensional via a number of senses - visual, aural

and/or tactile;

within these environments are independent of

the user and can display real world behavior;


user or users have autonomous control - the

freedom to navigate and interact with objects, using a

number of different viewpoints;

occurs in real-time; and the users

What is Virtual Reality

Virtual Reality refers to a high interface that involves

simulation and interactions through multiple sensorial
A computer generated, immersive (or wide field), multisensory information program which tracks a user in real
Virtual Reality isabout creating reproductions of real
objects or environments for training, entertainment
ordesign purposes.
It gives an environment that not real but one can feel it
as a realenvironment.
Virtual Reality uses computers to create 3D
environments in which we can navigate and interact.

Why Virtual Reality

VR is able to immerse you in a computer-generated world

of your own making: a room, a city, the interior of human
With VR, you can explore any uncharted territory of the
human imagination.
Visualize and manipulate things that you cannot see in
the real world.
Take on different perspectives
Visualize 3D concepts
Interact in real time
Explore dangerous situations
Present realistic or abstract scenarios
Promote different learning styles and teaching methods


Person(s) Responsible

Why it was important


Ivan Sutherland

The beginnings of VR


Dan Sandin, Richard Sayre and

Thomas Defanti

Interaction through body movement


Bonnie MacBird (Writer)

The first computer- generated movie


Myron Krueger

First virtual environment


William Gibson (His assistant)

The term 'Cyberspace'


Michael Piller (Writer)

The Holodeck, idea of immersive VR


Stephen King (Official Website)

A look at the possible negative side of



Silicon Graphics

Virtual Reality Modeling Language


Larry and Andy Wachowski

Virtual Reality movie grosses $750M


Types Of Virtual Reality

Desktop (Window on a World)
Video Mapping

Immersive VR

A type of VR in which the user becomes

completely immersed (deeply involved) in a
virtual world.
It is also a form of VR that uses computer related
The user has no visual contact with the physical
Often equipped with a Head Mounted Display

Mixed Reality (Augmented VR)

The seamless merging of

real space and virtual
Integrate the computergenerated virtual objects
physical world which
become in a sense an
equal part of our natural
the idea of taking what is
real and adding to it in
some way so that user
obtains more information
from their environment.

Text-based VR

When a reader of a certain text form a

mental model of this virtual world in
their head from the description of people
, places and things.

Windows on A World

Also known as Desktop VR

Use of a monitor to display the 3D virtual
Does not require special hardware
Low Cost
Low Performance
Less Immersion


A variation of visualizing
complete computer
generated worlds.
Links remote sensors in the
real world with the senses
of a human operator. The
remote sensors might be
located on a robot.
Useful for performing
operations in dangerous

Distributed VR

A simulated world runs on several computers which are

connected over network and the people are able to
interact in real time, sharing the same virtual world.

Virtual Reality in Architecture

An area in which virtual reality has tremendous potential is

in architectural design. Already being created are
architectural "walk-throughs" that allow designers and
clients to examine homes and office buildings, inside and
out, before they're built. With virtual reality, designers can
interactively test a building before construction begins.

It enables heritage sites to be recreated extremely

accurately, so that recreations can be published in various

Virtual replicas of caves , natural environment , old towns,

monuments, sculptures and archaeological elements can be

Devices For Virtual Reality

Head Mounted Display (HMD)

A head-mounted display (HMD) is a pair

of goggles that is strapped on head for a
fully immersive VR experience.

Each eye is shown a slightly different

view, fooling your brain into thinking you
are inside a virtual 3D world. Wearers
presence, scale and depth.

The virtual world can be explored from

any angle, simply by moving your head
or eyes.

Movements are tracked by the HMD and

the view of the virtual world adjusts

As a result, the viewer can look around

and walk through the surrounding virtual

Binocular Omni-Orientation Monitor


BOOM is a head
coupled stereoscopic
display device. Screens
and optical system are
housed in a box that is
attached to a multi-link

Cave Automatic Virtual Environment


A room with projections

on all walls, floor and
The users wear shutter
glasses to get a 3D view
of the world.
The users are able to
move and control the
environment with some
kind of input mechanism
Device in hand

Data Glove

Outfitted with sensors on

the fingers as well as an
tracking equipment.
Enables natural
interaction with virtual
objects by hand gesture

Virtual Reality-its application in architecture

VR head-mounted displays (HMDs) such as the Oculus Rift
and HTC Vive have the power to change the way architects
design and communicate buildings before they are built.
The wearer is instantly immersed in a true three dimensional
environment that gives an incredible sense of scale, depth
and spatial awareness that simply cannot be matched by
traditional renders, animations or physical-scale models.
This sensation of actually being inside a building also makes
VR an incredibly powerful tool for communicating design.
Clients in particular, often dont have the ability to
understand spatial relationships and scale simply by looking
at a 2D plan or 3D model.
VR can evoke a visceral response in exactly the same way
that physical architecture can.

Virtual Reality-its application in architecture

VR can play an important role at all stages of the designto-construction process, from evaluating design options
and showcasing proposals, to designing out errors and
ironing out construction and serviceability issues before
breaking ground on site.
Even at the conceptual phase, VR can be an effective
means of exploring the relationships between spaces
the impact of light on a room at different times of the day
or year, or views from mezzanine floors.
With a physical scale model or BIM model on screen, you
still have to imagine what it would be like to exist inside
the space. With VR, you actually experience the
proportion and scale.

Virtual Reality-its application in architecture

Enabling architects to effortlessly move between BIM

and VR can truly revolutionise the way buildings are
designed. At any stage of the design process, the
architect can pop on a headset and instantly get a
feeling of being inside the building. This simply cannot
be matched by viewing a BIM model on screen.
Autodesk is also working on making VR much more
accessible to architects
Project Expo is a technology preview that uses the cloud
to bring BIM models from Revit into Stingray at the push
of a button.

Virtual Reality- Health and Safety

Feelings of nausea or motion sickness caused by HMDs used to be quite

common. However, with new-generation headsets, better tracking and
powerful workstations to maintain frame rates, this is now less of an issue.
In saying that, VR should still be used sparingly, as some wearers report
stress, anxiety, disorientation and eyestrain due to focusing on a
pixellated screen. Oculus Rift recommends at least a 10- to 15-minute
break for every 30 mins of use.

The other potential health and safety issue is physical injury. When you are
immersed in a virtual world, it is very easy to forget where you are. While
architectural visualisation shouldnt encourage the same kind of reckless
abandon you might get from shooting aliens, you still need to be careful.

VR can also have a positive effect on health and safety. Human Condition
Safety is developing a fully immersive VR platform designed to increase
safety of construction workers and reduce workplace risk. The companys
SafeScan software will help workers learn the correct ways to perform
tasks, especially dangerous ones, in a hyper-real gaming environment
that uses BIM model data.


What is Parametric Design

Parametric design is a
process controlled by
parameters, in which
multiple design solutions
can be developed in
It supports the creation,
organization of complex
digital design models.

What is Parametric Design

Using parametric design

tools, designers can make
rules according to the
requirements of a design.
A parameter is a value
or measurement of a
variable that can be
altered or changed. In
architecture, parameters
related to building or
environmental factors.

What is Parametric Design

A parametric design model will have some rules

embedded in the system and when one
parameter changes, other parameters will
adapt automatically.
By controlling parameters, particular design
instances can be created from a potentially
infinite range of possibilities.


Exploration of Generative forms

Evolution of Parametric Design

Antonio Gaudi, Kiesler and other artists and architects

including Erich Mendelsohn, Frei Otto and Kiyonori
Kikutakehad conceived and modeled complex
structures and forms.

Blobwall by Greg Lynn

Los Angeles architect Greg Lynn- first theorist and designer to use the
computer. Blob and Fold architecture.(1991-Animate Form)

Evolution of Parametric Design

Besides Lynn and UN Studio, several architects began to

use parametrics in different forms.
William Massie
Mark Burry,
Jesse Reiser
Mark Goulthorpe,
Zaha Hadid
Office dA, SHoP,
Ocean North
Coop Himmelb(l)au
Frank Gehry

Walt Disney Concert Hall by

Frank O. Gehry & Partners

BMW Welt by COOP


Shenzhen Bao'an International Airport

Shenzhen Bao'an
International Airport's
new Terminal 3, finished
in 2013, designed by
Italian architect
Massimiliano Fuksas,
with parametric design
support by the
engineering firm
Knippers Helbig, is an
example for use of
parametric design and
production technologies
in a large scale building.

Parametricism in Architecture

Parametricism is an avant-garde architecture and

design movement growing and maturing over the last
15 years
The tendency started in architecture but now
encompasses all design disciplines, from urban design
to fashion.
In architecture, the style has an international following
and is currently progressing beyond its experimental
roots to make an impact on a broader scale, with
practices like Zaha Hadid Architects (ZHA) winning and
completing large-scale architectural projects worldwide.

Explored Geometries

Evolution of Facade

Parametricism in Architecture

Parametricism implies that all elements and aspects

of an architectural composition or product are
parametrically malleable; and the style owes its
original, unmistakable physiognomy to its
unprecedented use of computational design tools and
fabrication methods.
All design parameters are conceived as variables that
allow the design to vary and adapt to the diverse,
complex and dynamic requirements of contemporary
Parametricism is a methodologically justified style that
takes the concept of using parametric form design from
the production of a one-off building and applying it to a

Evolution of form using Parametric


Process Structure using Parametric Design

Parametricism and Urbanism

Architecture and urbanism should be tackled as a set of

linked design criteria which form a complete system
in a building, from urbanism down to the smallest
Parametric design links all this information in a way
similar to a spreadsheet so that a change in one value
creates a corresponding change in all other values.
biological systems, organisms, from the microscopic to
the macroscopic, topological patterns . these kinds of
inputs stay in the repertoire.
Looking through these new tools theres a kind of
intricacy of overall arrangement with a very high
degree of coherence. Theres a lot of internal laws of
correlation; everything relates to everything else. Its a

Parametricism and Urbanism

Parametric Softwares

CATIA (Computer Aided three-dimensional
Interactive Application) was used by architectFrank
Gehryto design some of his award-winning
curvilinear buildings such as Guggenheim Museum.

Parametric Softwares

Autodesk 3ds Max

Autodesk Maya
Grasshopper 3D- a plug in of Rhino 3d
Autodesk Revit
Autodesk Dynamo
Generative Components by Bentley Systems

Buildings using Parametric Design

Few more buildings that use parametric

design either as a whole, or on part of
the building.
The use of this tool has allowed for more
complex free form shapes as well as
multiple reactive yet repeating elements
to be created.

Beijing National Stadium by

Herzog & de Meuron

Burnham Pavilion by

Son-O-House by NOX

Gunagzhou Opera by
Zaha Hadid Architects

Yas Hotel by Asymptote

Kaohsiung Port and Cruise

Service Center by Reiser

Water Cube by PTW Architects

In the architectural design industry,

parametric design tools are utilised
mainly for complex building form
generation, multiple design solution
optimisation, as well as structural and
sustainability control.
Parametric design, in comparison with
conventional design, is quite different
not only because it offers a new design
tool but also a new way of thinking.


What is Program generated


Within the realm of architecture and design, technology

interactions are becoming more sophisticated.
Traditionally, computer/architect interaction centered on
models of efficiency and documentation.
Recently, this interaction has shifted away from
productivity tools and moved towards design
exploration and experimentation. One of these fields of
exploration is Program generated architecture.
Program generated architecture can be defined as
the approach of developing applications, or systems
which can develop, evolve, or design architectural
structures, objects, or spaces more or less
autonomously depending on the circumstance.

What is Program generated


Architecture generated by computer programs

definitely seems a futuristic way to deal with
architectural design.
It is entirely probable that the design studios of the
future would comprise of computer programs that
accomplish most of the logical, calculative and
repetitive tasks replacing the manpower.
The architect only have to intervene when a
subjective decision is to be made which can be
conceived only by the human mind, such as
These ideas finally lead toProgram Generated
Architecture( PGA ) by the Japanese Architect

Program generated Architecture

Watanabe uses Program

Generated Architecture in
his Induction Cities
projects in a variety of
ways including programs
to place building blocks
based on sunlight
exposure, program to plan
the streets in a city,
program to create towns
according to the
relationships between
different necessities,
program which does

Makoto Sei Watanabe

used the Program of Flow
to design the facade of

Program of Flow

The design process

involved two parts- the
human part and the
program part.
The human part feeds a
graded design input into
the program which the
program then analyses
and produces an output
which it believes to be a
better design.
The designer grades the output and feeds it back. This
process is repeated till the desired best design is

Program of Flow

Genetic algorithm basically represents

the algorithm in which a living
organism propagates.
The steps in genetic algorithm
represent steps in biological evolution
such as natural selection, cross
breeding, survival of the fittest etc.
In the beginning, the design produced
is a primitive one. After each iteration,
the program develops an artificial
intelligence and becomes able to
differentiate a good design from a poor

Program of Flow

A new generation of design is developed after each

iteration which consists of the best qualities of the
previous generation. In this way the design evolves, like
a living organism.
The generative role of new digital techniques is
accomplished through the designer's simultaneous
interpretation and manipulation of a computational
construct... The capacity of digital, computational
architectures to generate ''new" designs is, therefore,
highly dependent on the designer's perceptual and
cognitive abilities, as continuous, dynamic processes
around the emergent form.