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The Code of

Ethics for
Teachers in Their
Dual Role as
Educator and

Code of Ethics for Professional

Teachers adopted and promulgated
by the Board for Professional
Teachers through Board Resolution
No. 435, series of 1997, pursuant to
the provisions of paragraph (e),
Article II of RA No. 7836, otherwise
known as the Philippine Teachers
Professionalization Act of 1994


Article XII, Section 1--

Any violation x x x
shall be sufficient
ground for the x x x
revocation of x x x
license x x x

Duly licensed professionals who
possess dignity and reputation with
high moral values as well as technical
and professional competence. In the
practice of their noble profession, they
strictly adhere to observe, and practice
this set of ethical and moral principles,
standard and values.
(Preamble, Code of Ethics for
Professional Teachers)

A teacher shall maintain at all times a

dignified personality which could serve as
model worthy of emulation by learners,
peers, and others.
(Code of Ethics, Article XI, Section 3)

Joseph Santos vs. NLRC, Hagonoy Institute, Inc.

As teacher, (one) serves as an example to
his/her pupils xxx.
Consequently xxx teachers must adhere to the
exacting standards of morality and decency. xxx
A teacher both in his official and personal
conduct must display exemplary behavior.
He must freely and willingly accept
restrictions on his conduct that might be viewed
irksome xxx the personal behavior of teachers, IN
beyond reproach xxx they must observe a high
standard of integrity and honesty.


To strictly honor contractual obligation
with the School

Art. VI, Sec. 6, Code of Ethics:

A teacher who accepts a
position assumes a contractual
obligation to live up to his contract,
assuming full knowledge of the
employment terms and

(Based on Law)

1987 Constitution states:

x x x The State shall protect
and promote the right of all
citizens to quality education at all
levels and shall take appropriate
steps to make such education
accessible to all.
(Article XIV, Section 1)


Article 218 of the Family Code provides

The school, its administrators and
teachers, x x x engaged in child care shall
have special parental authority and
responsibility over the minor child while
under their supervision, instruction or

Article 219 of the Family Code provides

Those given the authority and
responsibility under (Article 218) shall
principally and solidarily liable for
damages caused by acts or omissions of
the unemancipated minor.

Principal Duty or Obligation is To

Ensure Quality Education

x x x making sure that basic education

is really solid, because if it is not solid, it
affects the quality of secondary education.
If secondary education is poor, then the
person goes to college unprepared for
college work. And if he is allowed to
graduate again with a poor quality college
- Rev. Fr. Joaquin Bernas, SJ

In short

A school, before promoting or

graduating a student, must be sure
functionally literate to go through
next higher level.

To ensure Quality Education:


Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers,

Article IV, Section 2

Every teacher shall uphold the

highest possible standards of
quality education, shall make the
best preparation for the career of
teaching, and shall be at his best at
all times in the practice of his

BP 232 (Education Act of 1982), Section 16 (2)

The teacher shall xxx be accountable
for efficient and effective attainment of
specified learning objectives xxx.
Code of Ethics further mandates that
Every teacher shall participate in the
continuing professional education (CPE)
program of the PRC, and shall pursue such
other studies as will improve his efficiency,
enhance the prestige of the profession, and
strengthen his competence, virtue and
productivity in order to be nationally and
internationally competitive.

A teacher shall ensure

that conditions contributive
to the maximum
development of learners
are adequate and shall
extend assistance in
preventing or solving
learners problems and
difficulties.(Article IV, Section 3)

In short

A teacher is expected to be efficient and

competent in the performance of his academic
duties at all times.
A teacher who has consistently shows his
inability to efficiently perform his duties and
responsibilities, within a common performance
standards should not be allowed to stay in school
The MRPS provides as just cause of
terminating a faculty

Gross inefficiency and incompetence in the

performance of his duties xxx.

Hence, the SC held in Evelyn Pea vs. NLRC


x x x schools can set

high standards of
efficiency for its
teachers since quality
education is a mandate
of the Constitution xxx
security of tenure xxx
cannot be used to shield


(i) Duty to give grades/evaluation
Section 16(3) of BP 232, TEACHER

performance of each student and to the
latter and to the latters parents and
guardians with specific suggestions for
Must promptly render or give
grades. Otherwise, the unjustified or
unreasonable delay in giving grades
constitutes gross neglect of duty.

In the case of University of the East vs. Romeo A.

Jader, the SC declared
It is the contractual obligation of the
school (through the teachers) to TIMELY
INFORM AND FURNISH sufficient notice and
information to each and every student as to
whether he/she had already complied with
all the requirements xxx.
The negligent act of a teacher who fails
to observe the rules of the school, for
instance, by not promptly submitting a
students grade is not only imputable to the
teacher but is an act of the school being
his/her employer xxx.

In evaluating/giving grades the following

rules of conduct must be observed
Code of Ethics provides

A teacher has the duty to determine

the academic marks and the promotion of
learners in the subject they handle. Such
determination shall be in accordance with
evaluation and measurement on case of
any complaint, teachers concerned shall
immediately take appropriate action,
observing the process.

Under no circumstances shall a

teacher be prejudiced nor discriminatory
against any learner.
A teacher shall not accept favors or
gifts from learners, their parents or others
in their behalf in exchange for requested
concessions, especially if undeserved.
A teacher shall base the evaluation of
the learners work on merit and quality of
academic performance.

(i) In computing the grades

Section 16 (5) of BP 232 mandates
that a teacher shall

Refrain from making deductions or

additions in students scholastic ratings for
acts that are clearly not manifestations of xxx
Hence, Section 79 of the MRPS

Basis for Grading. The xxx grade or

rating xxx in a student should be based
SOLELY on his scholastic performance. Any
addition or diminution to the grade in a
subject for co-curricular activities, attendance,
or misconduct shall NOT be allowed xxx.

Code of Ethics provides

A teacher shall not xxx make deductions

from their scholastic ratings as a punishment
for acts which are clearly not manifestations of
poor scholarship.
Thus, it is not a matter of discretion on the part
of the teachers in the giving of the students
grades, but rather it is a clear obligation for the
teachers to determine student academic marks
solely based on scholastic performance. For a
teacher to do otherwise, would be serious
academic malpractice or grave misconduct in
the performance of his/her duties.

In Padilla vs. NLRC, SBC the Supreme Court


This Court is convinced that

the pressure and influence
exerted by (a teacher) on his
colleague to change a failing
grade to passing one xxx
constitute serious misconduct
which is a valid ground for
dismissing an employee.

B. As a PARENT: Principal Duty to Exercise

Parental Authority and Responsibility

Article 218, Family Code provides

The school, its administrators

and teachers xxx engaged in child
care shall have special parental
authority and responsibility over the
minor child while under their
supervision, instruction or custody.

Code of Ethics states

A teacher shall recognize that

the interest and welfare of learners
are his first and foremost concern,
and shall handle each learner justly
and impartially.

Parental Authority to Discipline

As parents, the teachers shall use

discipline not to punish but to correct,
not to force, but to motivate; and not to
obey with rigid cadence, but to choose
to follow the right way.
Hence, teachers cannot generally
use methods of punishing or such
degree of penalties that a good mother
or a good father would not likely use on
her/his own children.

Corporal Punishment - Article 233 (2nd par.)

In no case x x x inflict corporal

punishment upon the child.

Definition: An act that inflict pain or

harm upon a childs body as punishment
for wrong doing usually through beating
and spanking
(a) physical contact
(b) to inflict pain


8. A teacher shall
not inflict corporal
punishment on
offending learners nor
make deductions
from their scholastic
ratings as a
punishment for acts
which are clearly not
manifestations of
poor scholarship.

Sale of Tickets; Collection of Contribution/

Donations from Pupils / Parents

BP 232, Sec. 9 (9) - students have right to

be free from (voluntary) involuntary

Improper or unauthorized
solicitation of contributions from
subordinate employees and by
teachers or school officials from
school children
VIII, 5. A teacher shall not accept,
directly or indirectly, any remuneration
from tutorials other than what is
authorized for such service.

Anita Y. Salvarria vs. Letran College, et al.

(296 SCRA 184)
The Supreme Court declared-Petitioner contended that her
dismissal was arbitrarily xxx, having
been effected without just cause, on
the premise that the solicitation of
funds xxx was initiated by the
students and that her participation
was merely limited to approving the
same. xxx

If there is one person more

knowledgeable of xxx policy against
illegal exactions from students, it
would be xxx Salavarria.
Hence, regardless of who initiated
the collections, the fact that the
same was approved or indorsed by
petitioner, made her in effect the
author of the project.

xxx (Department of Education)

considers the act of teachers in xxx
contracting loans from parents of their
students xxx not only serious
misconduct but xxx violation of
students right to be free from
involuntary contribution xxx.
- USEC Nachura, 13 Feb.

Parental Responsibility

The student / pupil while in school,

is in the custody and hence, the
responsibility of the school authorities
as long as he is under the control and
influence of the school,
whether the semester
has not yet begun
or has already ended.

In Amadora vs. CA, the

Supreme Court said-Even if the student is just relaxing
in the campus in the company of his
classmates, x x x the student is still
within the custody and subject to the
discipline and responsibility of the
teachers x x x.

Hence-A teacher required to exercise

special parental authority but who
fails to observe all the diligence of
a good father of a family in the
custody and care of the pupils and
students, shall be held liable for
gross neglect of duty.

The Court takes this opportunity to

pay a sincere tribute to the school
teachers, who are always at the forefront
in the battle against illiteracy and
ignorance. If only because it is they who
open the minds of their pupils to an
unexplored world awash will the magic of
letters and numbers, which is an
extraordinary feat indeed, these humble
mentors deserve all our respect and

Chiang Kai Sh
G.R. No. 580