Está en la página 1de 26

Energy efficient lining

design for small capacity


reheating furnaces
P. Chintaiah
AGM, Refractory Technology Group
RDCIS, SAIL, Ranchi
Email: pchintaiah@sail-rdcis.com

Introduction
RDCIS,SAIL

Steel Industry is highly Energy Intensive


Continuous increase in energy cost
Energy cost of Steel is 1/3rd of Total Cost
Increase in Competition
NSR is decreasing
More than 1450 re-rolling mills in Small and
Medium Sector in India
Employment to about 70,000 unskilled &
semi-skilled workers

UNDP-GEF/Sujana Vizag. 09-11 to 13-11-09

Introduction

RDCIS,SAIL

Low capital investment of Rs. 200 lakh for


every 10,000T/year capacity against Rs. 1000
lakh
Reduction of GHG emissions in Re-heating
Furnace

Hence, it is necessary to adopt new


technologies in re-heating furnaces to
improve product quality and reduce energy
cost
UNDP-GEF/Sujana Vizag. 09-11 to 13-11-09

Effect of operating conditions on


refractories

RDCIS,SAIL

Stress due to load on hearth


Thermal stress due to temperature
variation
Chemical stress due to corrosive
action of flue gases, dust, mill scale
etc.
Gas and scale penetration in the
refractory
Abrasive action on side walls
UNDP-GEF/Sujana Vizag. 09-11 to 13-11-09

Parameters for selection of


hearth refractories.

RDCIS,SAIL

Operating parameters

Size of billets

Pusher practice

Rate of scale formation

Flame practice

Operating temperature

UNDP-GEF/Sujana Vizag. 09-11 to 13-11-09

Parameters for selection of


hearth refractories.

RDCIS,SAIL

Refractory parameters

Joints should be minimum

Mortars should be avoided

Size should be uniform

Volume stability

Low porosity and uniform pore


distribution
Chemical stability

UNDP-GEF/Sujana Vizag. 09-11 to 13-11-09

Problems with conventional


soaking zone hearth refractories

RDCIS,SAIL

Very high porosity


Poor abrasion resistance
Poor chemical resistance
Poor hot load bearing capacity
Poor spalling resistance
High reheat shrinkage

Indicative lining pattern

RDCIS,SAIL

Furnace Roof :
Soaking Zone: 250 mm thick special shaped
bricks (60% Alumina) backed by 50 mm thick
Insulating castable
Heating Zone: 250 mm thick special shaped
Refractories (60% Alumina) backed by 50 mm
thick Insulating castable
Pre-Heating Zone: 250 mm thick special
shaped Refractories (40% Alumina) backed by 50
mm thick Insulating castable.

Indicative lining pattern of


Furnace side walls and end walls

RDCIS,SAIL

Discharge end: 230 mm, 60% Alumina bricks backed


by 115 mm hot face insulation bricks, 115 mm thick
Mica Insulation bricks (IS-2042) and 75 mm thick
Calcium silicate blocks insulation and 5 mm thick
asbestos sheet
Side walls (Heating & Soaking zones): 230 mm thick
60% Alumina bricks backed by 115 mm thick hot
face insulation bricks, 115 mm thick Mica Insulation
bricks / Cold face insulation bricks, 75 mm thick
Calcium silicate block insulation and 5 mm thick
asbestos sheet
Side walls (Preheating Zone): 230 mm thick 40%
Alumina (IS-8) bricks backed by 115 mm thick Hot
face insulation bricks, 115 mm thick Mica Insulation
bricks, 75 mm thick calcium silicate block insulation
and 5 mm thick asbestos sheet.

RDCIS,SAIL

RDCIS,SAIL

RDCIS,SAIL

End wall (Charging side): 230 mm thick 40%


Alumina quality ( IS-8) bricks backed by 115 mm
thick Hot face insulation bricks, 115 mm thick Mica
Insulation bricks, 75 mm thick calcium silicate
block insulation and 5 mm thick asbestos sheet
Flue Off take/down comers: 150 mm thick ceramic
fibre blanket to be held in position by heat
resisting (SS-310) studs and washers in case of
flue port at roof. If the flue line is below the
hearth, lining pattern will be same as that of
charging side end wall
Soaking Zone of Hearth: 150 mm thick High
Alumina fire bricks (60% Alumina) backed by 75
mm thick 40% Alumina firebricks, 230 mm thick
cold face insulation bricks and 5 mm thick
asbestos sheet.

RDCIS,SAIL

Heating Zone of Hearth: 150 mm thick High


Alumina fire bricks (60% Alumina) backed
by 75 mm thick 40% Alumina (IS-8)
Firebrick, 115 mm thick Hot face insulation
bricks, 115 mm thick cold face insulation
bricks and 5 mm thick asbestos sheet
Pre-Heating Zone of Hearth: 150 mm thick
High Alumina fire bricks (45% Alumina)
backed by 75 mm thick 40% Alumina
firebricks, 115 mm thick Hot face insulation
bricks, 115 mm thick cold face insulation
bricks and 5 mm thick asbestos sheet
Charging end Doors: 175 mm thick ceramic
fibre module backed by 25 mm thick mineral
wool insulation blanket.

RDCIS,SAIL

Discharge end Doors: 225 mm thick


ceramic fibre module backed by 25 mm
thick mineral wool insulation blanket
Recuperator area: 115 mm thick IS-8
quality firebricks backed by115 mm thick
Mica insulating bricks and 50 mm thick
calcium silicate block insulation
Flue duct from Recuperator up to
chimney: 115 mm thick IS-6 quality
firebricks backed by 115 mm thick Mica
insulating bricks.

Properties of refractories used


in reheating furnaces
Type of

RDCIS,SAIL

A.P.(%)

BD(gm/cc)

CCS
(kg/cm2)

PLCR(%)

Thermal
shock
resistance

35-36%
alumina
brick

20-25

1.9-2.0

200-250

0.3-0.5 at
1450oC for
1 hr.

good

40-45%
alumina
brick

16-20

2.0-2.2

300-350

0.1-0.5 at
1500oC for
2 hrs.

good

50-60%
alumina
brick

18-20

2.15- 2.2

300-350

0.5 at
1450oC for 2
hrs.

good

Insulation
bricks

60

0.9

25-30

+/- 1.3

refractories

New material for lining of


reheating furnaces

Low and ultra low moisture castable


having 70% and 80% alumina
Zero cement castable
Ceramic fibre of different grades
Ceramic fibre boards for back up lining
Calcium silicate boards

RDCIS,SAIL

Energy efficient refractory lining in


reheating furnaces

RDCIS,SAIL

Rational lining design to minimise refractory


failure
Optimum lining thickness based on operating
temperature to minimise heat load
Use of high fired volume stable dense brick
to reduce leakage
Use of thermally stable brick to reduce
spalling
Use of proper insulating material in lining
design to reduce heat loss
Use of ceramic fibre based material in lining
to minimise heat loss and quick heat up

Specification of ultra low moisture


castable based prefired block

RDCIS,SAIL

Al2O3% , min 80
Fe2O3% , max
0.6
CaO% , max
0.5
Water requirement %,max
5
B.D.,kg/cm3, min 2.85
A.P.(%) , max
15
CCS,kg/cm2,at 1500oC/3 hrs.,min1200
PLC(%) ,at 1600oC/2 hrs. ,max +0.5
HMOR, kg/cm2,at 1400oC/30 min., min- 60

Specification of ZCC blocks

Al2O3% , min
- 80
Fe2O3% , max
- 0.6
CaO% , max
- 0.5
B.D.,gm/cc - 3.19-3.22
A.P.,% - 12-12.7
CCS,kg/cm2 - 1300-1400
PLC at 1600oC/ 2 hrs. (%) - 0.04- 0.05
HMOR at 1400oC/30 min, kg/cm2 , min.
100
Avg. pore diameter, micron - 1 - 2
Thermal spalling at 1300 oC/water, cycles-

RDCIS,SAIL

+25

Advantage of ceramic fibre


lining

Low capital cost


Fast and easy installation
No drying and heat up required
Thinner lining leading to increase
of furnace working volume
Low thermal mass
Faster cycling time

RDCIS,SAIL

Disadvantage of ceramic fibre


Not suitable for high temperature
application
Load bearing capacity very poor
Slow deterioration of insulation
properties on prolong use
Affects human body and causes itching
on direct contact

RDCIS,SAIL

Specification of different grades


of ceramic fibres

RDCIS,SAIL

Ceramic fibres

HTZ grade

STD grade

Al2O3%
ZrO2%

33-36
44-48
16-19

45-48
52-55
--

Bulk density,kg/m3

128

96,64

Fibre diameter,micron, max.

2.5

3.0

Shot content, %,max.

15

15

Tensile strength,kPa, min.

60

40

SiO2%

Shrinkage,%max,after 24hrs. at 1400oC-3.0


of firing.

at 1200oC-3.0

View of fresh ceramic fibre

RDCIS,SAIL

View of fibre after 20 months


operation at 1000oC

RDCIS,SAIL

Conclusion
RDCIS,SAIL

Effective lining design of reheating furnace is a


must to reduce energy consumption
Wall lining thickness should be optimized to
reduce heat load on walls by adopting newer
materials
Leakage points in the lining should be reduced
Heat loss through flue pipe should be reduced
by proper insulation
Frequent refractory failure particularly in the
burner port area and soaking zone hearth
should be reduced by selection of proper
refractory