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Dr.

Sanmuga Nathan Jeganathan


(Faculty of Exercise Science and Coaching)
(drsanmuganathan@yahoo.com or
sanmuga@fssk.upsi.edu.my)

SULTAN IDRIS EDUCATION


UNIVERSITY OF MALAYSIA

RESEARCH QUESTION
Adakah terdapat kesan perbezaan
antara latihan litar dengan latihan
pilometrik dalam pencapaian masa
100m pada peringkat pascaujian
Hipotesis nol
----- Bagaimanakah?
Hipotesis kajian .
Bagaimanakah?

KULIAH
REKA BENTUK EKSPERIMEN

Sumber
Campbell, D. T. and J.C. Stanley (1963).
Experimental and Quasi-Experimental
Designs for Research. Chicago: Rand
McNally College Publishing Company.
Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research Design:
Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed
Methods Approaches, LA: Sage

Hypotheses
Null hypotheses (making prediction
no relationship no significant difference
exist between groups of variables
Alternative Hypotheses (Research
Hypotheses)/making prediction about
expected outcome based on prior
studies
Directional
Nondirectional

In descriptive studies, we
We may simply wish to describe who
participants in a study and how they
act, believe, perceive the world, or
look.
We use a research question rather
than a hypothesis.

Hypotheses Definitions
Hypotheses are tentative predictions about the
relationship among two or more variables or
groups based on a theory or previous research
Hypotheses are assumptions or theories that a
researcher makes and tests.
Refer to populations
Hypotheses help researchers infer that
results of a sample will translate to a
population
Hypotheses are essential to quantitative
research studies, exception of some
descriptive study
7

Hypotheses
H0(1): There is no significant difference between
treatment group and control group in terms of
shoulder injury of volleyball players after
rehabilitation program
Ha (1) Treatment group will have less injury
compared to control groups in terms of shoulder
injury of volleyball players after rehabilitation
program
Ha (1) There will be significant difference between
treatment group and control group in terms of
shoulder injury of volleyball players after
rehabilitation program

Ralat (Type 1 & Type II error)


Ho true / betul
Terima/
Accept
Tolak / Reject

H0(1):

Ho false /salah

Correct Decision

Type II error

Type 1 error

Correct decision

Tidak terdapat perbezaan yang signifikan antara latihan litar dan

pliometrik dalam prestasi larian pecut 50 ela.

Alfa: 0.05
t(28) = -.613, p =.002, p<0.05 (terdapat perbezaan signifikan)
Group
Litar

M
38.03

SD
2.87

N
15

Objektif Penyelidikan
Mencari Kebenaran?
Falsafah Positivism
Eksperimen Mempunyai unsur
cause dan effect (David Hume)
Manipulation of IV towards DV
IV treatment
DV.. Effect/outcome measures

Peringatan
Konstruk: Idea or konsep yang
hendak diukur
IV - dimanipulasi unuk melihat
kesan
DV diperhatikan keputusan
akibat causation
Hypothesis: Kenyataan cause and
efect (bagi reka bentuk
eksperimen)

Controlling factor?
The power of experiment
Validity (kesahan)
Reliability ( kebolehpercayaan)

Jenis Kesahan (Types of


validity)
Internal Validity: Adakah hubungan iv dan dv
(example results of experiment due to
independent variable /treatment variable)
External Validity: Bolehkah kita buat generalisasi
kepada populasi atau setting yang lain?
Kesahan Konstruk (Construct Validity):
Sejauhmanakah kita hendak ukur konstruk yang
dirancangkan?
Kesahan Kesimpulan Statistik: Adakah kita
gunakan ujian statistik yang tepat?

Internal Validity
Results must due to treatment (IV)
Realistic measurement (Ex. Skin fold)
Subject history (need to taken care of:
Ex injured sports person)
Subject mortality (for control and
treatment group)
Regression to the mean (abnormal
score/talented subjects)

External Validity
Results/Findings can apply to wide
range of task, condition and
population

Kerlinger (1980)

Most Control

Least Control

Types of Experiments
(Jenis Reka Bentuk Eksperimen)
1. Pre-experimental designs: one group
(Pra-eksperimen)
2. Quasi-experimental designs:
- No random sampling & Assignment
- Follow Experiment procedures as the true
experiment
3. True/Pure experimental designs:
- Random sampling, measurements, high validity
- Eksperimen mempunyai rawatan, ukuran data,
keadaan eksperimen, pemilihan rawak,
pengagihan rawak. Reka bentuk ini mempunyai
kesahan dalaman dan kesahan luaran yang tinggi.

Pre-Experimental Designs
(Pra-eksperimen)
Design 1: One-Shot Case Study:
Contoh latihan beban diberi dan diuji
dalam pascaujian.

X
Petunjuk:
X : treatment/rawatan
Pemerhatian

O: Observation:

Pre-Experimental Designs
Pra-eksperimen)
Design 2: One group (Satu Kumpulan
sahaja).
Praujian & Pascaujian. (Pre and posttest
measure)
Praujian dan Pascaujian l
Contoh diberi latihan beban bagi kumpulan
GRU 6014

O1

O2

Pre-Experimental Designs
Pra-eksperimen
Design 3: The Static-Group Comparison:
Satu kumpulan (X) diberi rawatan dan dibandingkan
dengan satu kumpulan yang lain tanpa rawatan.
Kedua-dua kumpulan tidak mengamalkan pemilihan
rawak dan agihan secara rawak
Contoh satu kumpulan menggunakan latihan
beban dan satu kumpulan mengikuti latihan biasa
. Kedua-duanya diberi satu pascaujian.
X1 O
X2 O

(treatment: X1)
(no treatment: X2)

True Experimental Designs


(Eksperimen Tulin)
Reka Bentuk 4: Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design:
Satu kumpulan menerima rawatan, dan satu lagi
kumpulan tidak menerima rawatan. Kedua-dua
kumpulan diperhatikan sebelum dan selepas rawartan.
Contoh, 50 pelajar FSSKj dipilih secara rambang untuk
rawatan kaedah mengajar TGfU. Separuh diagihkan secara
rambang kepada kumpulan rawatan dan sebahagian lagi
kepada kumpulan kawalan (control group) . Kedua-dua
kumpulan diberi praujian dan pascaujian untuk mengukur
prestasi permainan bola sepak

R
R

O1
O1

X
-

O2
O2

(Exp group)
(Control group)

Quasi-Experimental Designs
Design 5: The Time-Series Experiment: This
design involves periodic measurements of
some group or individuals and the
introduction of a change into the conditions
during the series.
For example, studying a group of UPSI 100m
over time and taking several measures of
performance during this period. At some point
a new training is introduced and measures of
performance are taken over several weeks
following the intervention.

O1

O2

O3

O4

O5

O6

Quasi-Experimental Designs
Design 6: Nonequivalent Control Group: This
design involves an experimental and control
group with both given pretests and posttest;
however, these groups are not randomly selected
(e.g. classrooms). The assignment of X (the
treatment)
For example, group 1 given Teaching Games for
Understanding method and the other one, control group
undergone traditional method of teaching in games

O X
O
O O
- Sampel tidak sama mengikut kumpulan

Single Subject Design


(Reka bentuk subjek
individu)

A researcher is looking for the impact


of intervention on a single subject
Example:
(i)Quasi experimental time series
O1 O2 O3 X
O4 O5 O6
(ii) A-B-A-B
A: base line condition
B: treatment

Cabaran kepada kesahan dalaman


(Threats to Internal Validity)
(Campbell & Stanley)
Sejarah (History): Peristiwa antara ukuran
pertama dan kedua boleh mempengaruhi
keputusan kajian
Kematangan (Maturation): Perubahan kepada
sampel bukan kerana eksperimen.
Ujian: Pentadbiran ujian pertama dan kedua
Alat Ukur (Instrumentation): Perubahan alat ukur
Statistical regression : Kumpulan yang mencatat
skor yang melampau peringkat praujian akan
menyebabkan pencapaian skor dekat min pada
pascaujian
Pemilihan: Biases
Mortaliti Eksperimen: sampel tarik diri

Cabaran kepada kesahan luaran


(Threats to External Validity)
Kesan praujian kepada pascaujian contoh
kesan pembelajara/kesan latihan
Respond yang berbeza mengikut
kumpulan kepada kesan pembolehubah
eksperimen (contoh motivas: Hawthorne
effecti)
Respond berbeza kerana mereka
mengetahui, mereka adalah sampel
eksperimen dan sampel kawalan
Multiple treatment akan memberi kesan
intervensi awal tidak boleh
dipadamkan/dihilangkan
Halo effect (Observer biases)

Controlling Threats to internal


validity
(Mengawal Cabaran kesahan
dalaman)
Internal Validity
Randomization
Placebo (for control group)
Blind setup (participates blind to
treatment)
Double-blind setup (neither participants
or tester know which treatment the
participants are receiving)

Controlling Threats to external


validity
(Mengawal Cabaran kesahan
luaran)
Selection of participants
Treatment
Selection represent larger
popul;ation

Problem Statement
Fitness training is important for sports and
games performance , especially for
cardiovascular (V02 max) fitness (Cooper, 2002)
Long slow distance (LSD) and Interval training
shown have significant improvement for players
V02 (Bompa, 1999; Dick, 1988, Thompson, 2010)
Limited research investigated the effect of mini
game training compared to LSD, and Interval
training with Malaysian Junior hockey players
Therefore, This study intended to investigate
the effect of mini game compared to LSD and
Interval training in V02 max and speed among
Malaysian junior hockey players

HYPOTHESES
H0(1) There would be no significant
deference between mini game compared
to LSD and Interval training in V02 and
speed performance among Malaysian junior
hockey players.
H1 : There would be significant deference
between mini game compared to LSD and
Interval training in V02 and speed
performance among Malaysian junior
hockey players

SELAMAT MALAM