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Data vs.

Information
Data
raw facts
no context
just numbers and text

Information
data with context
processed data
value-added to data

summarized
organized
analyzed

Data vs. Information

Data: 51007
Information:

5/10/07 The date of your final exam.


$51,007 The average starting salary of an
accounting major.
51007 Zip code of Bronson Iowa.

Data vs. Information

6.34
6.45
6.39
6.62
6.57
6.64
6.71
6.82
7.12
7.06

Information
SIRIUS SATELLITE RADIO INC.
$7.20
$7.00
$6.80
Stock Price

Data

$6.60
$6.40
$6.20
$6.00
$5.80
1

Last 10 Days

10

Data Information Knowledge


Data
Summarizing the data
Averaging the data
Selecting part of the data
Graphing the data
Adding context
Adding value
Information

Data Information Knowledge


Information
How is the info tied to outcomes?
Are there any patterns in the info?
What info is relevant to the problem?
How does this info effect the system?
What is the best way to use the info?
How can we add more value to the info?
Knowledge

Information Systems
Generic Goal:
Transform Data into Information

At the Core of an Information System is a


Database (raw data).

Information Systems (TSP and PCS)

Data doesnt just appear,


Capturing Data is really the first step

These systems help capture data but


they also have other purposes (goals):
1.
2.

Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)


Process Control Systems (PCS)

Capturing Data

What are some examples of real TPSs?

What kind of data is being capture?

How is this data transformed into


Information?

Data Processing

Recall that a basic system is composed of


5 components

Input, Output, Processing, Feedback, Control

Typically processing helps transform data


into information.
Input
Raw Data

Processing

Output
Information

Processing

Summarizing
Computing Averages
Graphing
Creating Charts
Visualizing Data

Processing: Great Example

Navigation System

Input: Maps, Addresses, Points of Interest,


Yellow Pages
Processing:

Specialized Geographic Information System

Computing Shortest Paths;


Finding the Nearest Chinese Restaurant

Output:

Directions (each turn + a map with arrows)


List of nearby Chinese Restaurants (sorted by dist.)

Analysis Navigation System

Recall that Information Systems have five


more specific components:
People, Data, Communication Network,
Hardware, Software.
In a Navigation System

what is the Communication Network?


what is the Hardware?
who are the People?

Course Goal: Help you analyze systems?

Step 1: Always ask yourselfWhat is the


purpose of the system?
Step 2: Identify People, Data, Hardware,
Software, Communication Network.
Step 3: Identify Input, Output, Processing,
Feedback, Control.

Navigation System Feedback

So what is the feedback in a navigation system?


Feedback is information about how the system
is performing.

Feedback can help you identify problems with the


systemso you can improve it.

Feedback helps you determine if the system is


achieving its goal.

In a heating system, the feedback was the actual


temperature.

Navigation System Control

So what are some of the controls in a


navigation system?
Control: Changing a variable to help the
system reach its goal or to set a new goal.
In a heating system, the control was the
desired temperature.

Navigation System Control

Obviously, entering a new destination


Not so obvious

zooming in
changing the map view
selecting an alternative route

Key Points

A Navigation System takes raw data


(maps, locations) and displays it visually
(data information) so that it is
easier to drive to a location. Goal
The feedback (your current location) is
perhaps the most important feature.
Paper maps can NOT show your location.

Geographic Information Systems (GIS

In lab we are going to learn more


about
1.

GIS systems

2.

Data more informational (more valuable) if you


visualize it on a map.

Attributes that make information more


valuable

Information is more valuable if it helps you


achieve your goal.