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SALADS & SALAD

DRESSINGS

SALAD COMPONENTS
Foundation
Body
Garnish
Dressing

SALAD COMPONENTS
Foundation

is the base ingredient of a


salad. Leafy greens such as romaine,
bibb, Boston, or iceberg lettuce often
serve as a salads foundation.
Used whole or cut into a chiffonade, the
lettuce leaves provide a base for other
salad ingredients. Specially prepared
vegetables or fruits, such as a julienne
of red pepper or a poached and sliced
pear, sometimes function as a salads
foundation.

SALAD COMPONENTS
Body

- main ingredients of a salad

make up its body. The body creates


the salads identity and often gives
the salad its name. Garden-fresh
vegetables, for example, form the
body of a garden salad. The body
of a protein salad might be meat,
poultry, fish, or legumes.

SALAD COMPONENTS
Garnish - contributes to a salads visual
appeal and very often to its flavor. A garnish
should be colorful, edible, and the same
temperature as the salad itself.
Most important, the garnish should be simple
so that it does not overpower the
presentation of the salad.
Common salad garnishes include herbs, hardcooked eggs, olives, fruits, cheese, and nuts.
Some salads, such as fruit salads, do not
require a garnish or dressing.

SALAD COMPONENTS
Dressing

- is a sauce that complements

a salads flavor and sometimes binds the


salad ingredients together. Salad
dressings fall into three groups:
Vinaigrettes - Temporary emulsion.
Cream-style or fatty Permanent
emulsion.
Simple - oil and vinegar, flavored oils.

Salad Dressing
EMULSION A mixture of two unmixable ingredients.
Emulsification is another method of thickening sauces.
Emulsions are made by mixing two or more liquid ingredients
that normally do not combine, with the aid of an emulsifying
agent.

Three kinds of Emulsion

Permanent - A permanent emulsion usually lasts several days


or more.
Ex: Mayonaise
Semi-permanent - A semi-permanent emulsion lasts a
shorter period of time than a permanent emulsion, usually
several hours.
Ex: Hollandaise
Temporary - A temporary emulsion lasts the shortest period
of time, usually only several minutes. A temporary emulsion is
classified as such because it does not contain an emulsifying
agent.
Ex: Vinaigrette

Salad Dressing
Vinaigrette

Dressings

(Temporary)

is a temporary emulsion of oil and vinegar.


The mixture is temporary because oil and
vinegar have a natural tendency to separate.

Cream-style or fatty

(Permanent)

Is a permanent emulsion of creamy dressing


such as; mayonnaise, yoghurt, cream or
cheese base.

Salad Dressing

Simple Dressings - The simplest salad

dressings are not emulsions or blended


mixtures. They are simple liquids that
contribute moisture and flavor to salads.
Lemon juice - on its own, freshly squeezed
lemon juice is an acidic dressing that gives a
tang to salad.
Olive oil - more flavorful than vegetable oils,
olive oil is a fruity, aromatic dressing when
used alone on a salad.
Flavored vinegars - vinegars flavored with fruit,
herbs, or garlic are popular dressings because
they add vivid flavor to salads but no fat.

Salad Greens
A variety of greens are available for use in salads.
Although all are leafy vegetables, not all are green.
More tender greens such as arugula and butterhead
are preferred over greens such as collards and
chard that require cooking to make them more
palatable.
Baby varieties of sturdier greens not usually used in
salads, such as beet greens and mustard greens,
also make excellent additions.
Salad greens can be classified into two general
categories:
mild greens and flavor-adding greens.
flavor-adding greens can be either spicy or bitter.

Types of Salad Greens


Traditional

Greens: Have a mild


flavor; can be used by themselves or
combined with other greens.
Flavor-Adding Greens: Classified as
greens although they may be red,
yellow, brown, or white.

Herbs & Other Specialty Items


Radicchio:

A cabbage like plant


with a slightly bitter, red leaf;
adds color and flavor to fresh
salads.
Mesclun: A popular mix of baby
leaves of lettuces and other more
flavorful greens.
Edible Flowers: Add unusual
flavors, dashes of bright color, and
interesting textures to salads.

Salad Greens
OAK LEAF

LOLLO ROSSO

GREEN ICE

ROMAINE OR COS LETTUCE

Salad Greens
ESCAROLE

SPINACH

BUTTERHEAD
LETTUCE

LOOSE-LEAF
LETTUCE

Salad Greens
SORREL

MIZUNA

DANDELION

ARUGULA

Salad Greens

TREVISO RADICCHIO
BELGIAN ENDIVE

RADICCHIO
ICEBERG LETTUCE

Salad Greens
Boston lettuce

Bibb or limestone lettuce

FRISE

CURLY ENDIVE

Salad Greens
MESCLUN

TAT-SOI

CRESS

MCHE

Cleaning Greens

Salad Dressings
A dressing is both a sauce and a
seasoning. As such, it should complement
the flavors and textures of the salad
ingredients, not dominate them.

Preparing Greens
1.

2.

3.

Separate the leaves and


submerge them in cold water
several times to rinse off all dirt
and grit.
Lift greens out of the water and
dry the leaves thoroughly with
paper towels.
Cut or tear the greens into bitesize pieces.

Storing Greens
Keep

greens in their original


packaging.
Store greens 3 to 4 degrees
above freezing.
Keep greens away from
ripening fruits.

TYPES OF SALAD
Green

Salads leafy greens


Side Salads - made from vegetables,
potatoes, grains, pastas, legumes.
Composed Salads are made by
carefully arranging items on a plate,
rather than tossing them together.
Desserts Salads - salads served as
dessert are often sweet and usually
contain fruits, nuts, and/or gelatin.
Dressings for dessert salads may
incorporate cream or liqueur.

TYPE OF SALADS
Appetizer

(By Serving)

Salad Served as the first dish


of the course or before the entre.
Accompaniment Salad Served with the
main dish or entre. Usually made from,
pasta, legumes and potatoes.
Main-course Salad Served as a main
dish.
Separate Course Salad Served after the
main dish.
Dessert Salad Served as a dessert
usually contains fruit and syrup.

TYPES OF SALAD

(By method of preparation)


Simple

Salad / Green Salads leafy

greens
Composed Salads are made by carefully
arranging items on a plate, rather than
tossing them together.
Tossed Salad The salad that the chef
would combine all ingredients in the bowl
with the dressing.

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