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The Cell Theory

and
Structure
ENGR. YVONNE LIGAYA F. MUSICO

Cytology and Cell


Cytology the study of cell structure and its
functions
Cell - the basic functioning unit of living
things.

ENGR. YVONNE LIGAYA F. MUSICO

The Development of Cell Theory

ENGR. YVONNE LIGAYA F. MUSICO

Rorbert Hooke
(18 July 1635 - 3 March 1703)
He discovered cells in cork in
1665
Described elements of
magnified cork as cells.
Wrote Micrographia

ENGR. YVONNE LIGAYA F. MUSICO

Robert Hookes drawing of the cells of cork as seen on


early light microscope. The cells of cork are not living,
and only the cell walls remain to outline the cell.
ENGR. YVONNE LIGAYA F. MUSICO

Anton Von Leeuwenhoek

(1632-1723)
He had a specific way of
creating lenses that gave him
the advantage of having
microscopes with few
aberrations, and clearer
pictures.
He could get his lenses up to
270x.

ENGR. YVONNE LIGAYA F. MUSICO

Theodore Schwann
(18101882)
He stated that cells are elementary
particles of both plants and animals
(1830).
He also believed that fermentation
granules (yeasts) were cells, and
that cells were units of metabolism.

ENGR. YVONNE LIGAYA F. MUSICO

Schwanns illustrations of various kinds of


animal cells.
The figure shows bronchial cartilage of
the tadpole (top left), mature cartilage
from pig embryo (top center), fibers
(top right), columnar cells (bottom
left), collection of muscle and other
connective tissue cells (bottom center),
and nerve fiber (bottom right), (from
Schwanns "Untersuchungen"

ENGR. YVONNE LIGAYA F. MUSICO

Rudolf Virchow
First wrote that Every animal appears as
a sum of vital units, each of which bears
in itself the complete characteristics of
life.
He also predicted in the 1850s that all
cells come from cells.
He proposed cellular pathology, and
described tumors, healing of tissues etc.
He described all diseases as diseases of
cells, and that it is merely modified life,
or modified cellular function.

ENGR. YVONNE LIGAYA F. MUSICO

Three Principles of Cell Theory


Every living organism is made up of one or more
cells
The smallest living organisms are single cells, and
cells are the functional units of multicellular
organisms
All cells arise from preexisting cells.

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Microscope
Light Microscope the most common type of
microscope that is used in the study of cell structures.
Electron Microscope use beams of electrons instead
of light. The negatively charged electrons are focused
by magnetic fields rather than conventional lenses.

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Two Kinds of Electron Microscope


1. Transmission Electron
Microscope (TEM) passes
electrons through a thin
specimen, and can reveal minute
subcellular structures including
organelles and cell membranes.

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Two Kinds of Electron Microscope


2. Scanning Electron
Microscope (SEM)
bounces electrons off
specimen that have been
coated with metals, and
provide three dimensional
images. SEMs can be used
to view structures ranging in
size from entire insects down
to cells and even organelles.

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Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

Prokaryotic Cell
Mostly bacteria
They are usually very small (less than 5m in length)
with relatively simple structure.
have no nuclei (prokaryotic means before a nucleus)

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Eukaryotic Cell
Plants, animals, protists, and fungi cells
Larger cells (usually more than 10m in diameter)
Contains variety of membranous organelles that lend
structural and functional organization to the cell
interior.
cells do have true nuclei ("eukaryotic" means
"possessing a true nucleus." )

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Simple visual comparison between a Prokaryotic Cell


and a Eukaryotic cell:

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The animal cell

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Three Components of Eukaryotic


Cells
Plasma Membrane
Nucleus
Cytoplasm

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Plasma Membrane
Also called the cell membrane
A double layer (bilayer) of phospholipids
in which embedded different kinds of
proteins
It separates the cell from the surrounding
environment and act as selective filter for
materials attempting to pass into or out of
the cell
In some, such as nerve cells, the plasma
membrane also is involved in intercellular
communications.

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Nucleus
The most prominent organelle which is
spherical or ovoid in shape enclosed
within two membranes to form the
double-layered nuclear envelope, the
NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
It contains CHROMATIN and one or
more dense, granular structure, the
NUCLEOLI.
The nucleus regulates all cell activity.

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Nucleolus
Within the nucleus are found
chromatin and a structure called the
nucleolus.
Chromatin is DNA in its active
form.
It consists of DNA looped around
histone proteins.
The nucleolus is a knot of
chromatin.
It is the nucleolus that manufactures
ribosomes
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Cytoplasm
The substance between the cell membrane and the
nucleus.
Two Main Components
1. Cytosol - A jellylike mixture that consists mostly of
water, along with proteins, carbohydrates and other
organic compouds.
2. Organelles - Membrane bound structures that work
like miniature organs, carrying out specific functions
in the cell.
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Organelles

Mitochondria
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Ribosomes
Golgi Complex
Lysosomes
Cytoskeleton
Specialty structures

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Mitochondria
Powerhouse of the
cell because of the
enzymes located on
the CRISTAE carry
out the energy
yielding steps of
anaerobic
metabolism.
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Endoplasmic Reticulum
A series of interconnected
membranous tubes and
channels in the cytoplasm.
Synthesize proteins and lipids
There are two forms of ER:
1. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
2. Smooth Endoplasmic
Reticulum

ROUGH ER has RIBOSOMES

SMOOTH ER has no RIBOSOMES


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Ribosomes
The rough E.R. has
ribosomes attached to it.
This gives it its texture.
These ribosomes
manufacture proteins for
the cell.

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Golgi Complex or Golgi Apparatus


A specialized set of membranous sacs
derived from ER
3 MAJOR FUNCTIONS
1. Separates proteins and lipids received
from ER according to their destinations.
2. It modifies some molecules
3. It packages these materials into vesicles
that are transported to other parts of the
cell or the plasma membrane for export

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Lysosomes
Membranous vesicles that
contain enzymes for digestion of
food.
The major function of lysosomes
is to digest food particles, which
range from individual proteins to
complete microorganisms.

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Cytoskeleton
Network of protein fibers wherein
most of the organelles are attached.
Several types of protein fibers,
including thick MICROTUBULES,
medium-sized INTERMEDIATE
FILAMENTS, and thin
MICROFILAMENTS make up the
skeleton.
These provide support and maintain
the form of the cell, and in many
cells, they provide a means of
locomotion and translocation of
organelles within the cells.

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Microfilaments
Thin linear structures, first observed distinctly in
muscle cells, where they are responsible for the
ability of the cell to contract.
They are made of protein called ACTIN
Some proteins bind with actin and determine the
configuration and behavior in particular cells. One of
these is MYOSIN, the interaction of which with actin
causes contraction in muscle and other cells.

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Microtubules
Larger than microfilaments.
Tubular structures composed of proteins called TUBULIN.
They play a vital role in moving the chromosomes toward the
daughter cells during cell division.
They are important intracellular architecture, organization and
transport.
Essential parts of the structures of CILIA and FLAGELLA.
They radiate out from a microtuble organizing center called
the CENTROSOME. Within the centrosome are found pair of
CENTRIOLES, which are themselves composed of
microtubules.

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Intermediate Filament
Normally found in only one or a few cell types
It anchors the microfilaments of actin muscle cells,
ensuring that the cells do not tear themselves apart
during strong contractions.

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Specialty Structures

Centrioles
Vacuoles
Cell Wall
Plastids
Cilia and Flagella

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Centrioles
Centrioles are found
only in animal cells.
They function in cell
division.

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Vacuoles
Sacs bounded by single
membrane
They serve a variety of
functions including
storing of food or
wastes, eliminating
water and supporting
the cell

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Cell Walls
Cell walls are the rigid
structure found
surrounding plant cells.
They provide support
for the plant .

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Plastids
Plastids are large organelles found on plants
and some protists but not in animals or fungi.
They can easily be seem through a light
microscope.
Chloroplasts represent one group of plastids
called chromoplasts (colored plastids).
The other class of plastid are called
leucoplasts (colorless plastids); they usually
store food molecules. Included in this group
are amyloplasts or starch plastids shown
here in potato root cell.

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Cilia and Flagella


These are hair like extensions off of the
cell membrane.
Their structures are similar except that
cilia tend to be small and numerous and
flagella tent to be large and fewer.
Their they beat back and forth rythmically.
In unicellular organisms their job is
locomotion.
In large multicell organisms their role is to
move fluid past the cell.
Notice the 9+2 arrangement of the
microtubles.

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Prokaryotic VS Eukaryotic Cells


PROKARYOTES

EUKARYOTES

SIZE

1 - 2 m

5 - 100 m

NUCLEUS

Absent

Present: bounded by
nuclear envelope

DNA

Single,
circular

Multiple, linear, associated


withprotein(chromatin)

CELL DIVISION

Simple
fission

INTERNAL
MEMBRANES

Rare

Complex (Golgi apparatus,


ER, etc.)

RIBOSOMES

70S

80S (70S in organelles)

CYTOSKELETON

Absent

Microtubules,
microfilaments,
intermediate filaments

MOTILITY

Flagella (9+2)

Cilia and Flagella

FIRST APPEARED

3.5 billion years

1.5 billion years ago

Mitosis or meiosis

Membrane Structure and


Function

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Functions of cell membrane


Isolates the cell cytoplasm from the external
environment
Regulates the exchange of essential substances
between the cytoplasm and the external environment
to maintain internal balance called homeostasis.
Communicates with other cells
Identifies the cell as belonging to a particular species
and particular individual member of that species.

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Basic Structure of Cell Membrane


Outside of cell
Proteins

Lipid
Bilayer
Transport
Protein

Carbohydrate
chains

Phospholipids

Inside of cell
(cytoplasm)
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Basic Structure of Cell Membrane


Phospoholipids
Proteins
Steroids

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Phospholipids
Lipid Bilayer -2 layers of
phospholipids
a. Phosphate head is polar
(water loving)
b. Fatty acid tails non-polar
(water fearing)
c. Proteins embedded in
membrane

Phospholipid

Lipid Bilayer
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Polar heads
love water
& dissolve.
Non-polar
tails hide
from water.
Carbohydrate cell
markers

Proteins

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PROTEINS
Floating around in the
cell membrane are
different kinds of
proteins.
These are generally
globular proteins.
They are not held in any
fixed pattern but instead
float around in the
phospholipid layer.
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Generally these proteins structurally fall into three


catagories...
TRANSPORT PROTEINS Proteins that regulate
transport and diffusion
RECECEPTOR PROTEINS allow the cell to receive
instructions
RECOGNITION PROTEINS serve as identification tags and cellsurface attachment sites.
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Steroids
Steriods are sometimes a component of cell
membranes in the form of cholesterol.
When it is present it reduces the fluidity of the
membrane.
Not all membranes contain cholesterol.

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Transport Across Membrane

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About the Cell Membrane


Cell membranes have pores (holes) in it
a. Selectively permeable: Allows some
molecules in and keeps other molecules out
b.The structure helps it be selective!

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Types of Cellular Transport

1.
2.
3.

1.
2.
3.

Passive Transport
cell doesnt use energy (ATP)
Diffusion
Facilitated Diffusion
Osmosis
Active Transport
cell does use energy (ATP)
Protein Pumps
Endocytosis
Exocytosis
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1. Passive Transport

cell uses no energy


molecules move randomly
Molecules spread out from an area of high
concentration to an area of low concentration.

(HighLow)

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3 Types of Passive Transport


Diffusion
Facilitated Diffusion
Osmosis

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1. 1 Diffusion
Diffusion: random movement of
particles from an area of high
concentration to an area of
low concentration.

(High to Low)

Diffusion continues until all


molecules are evenly spaced
(equilibrium is reached)-

Note: molecules will still move


around but stay spread out.
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1.2 Facilitated Diffusion


Facilitated diffusion:
diffusion of specific
particles through
transport proteins
found in the membrane
a. Transport Proteins are
specific they select
only certain molecules
to cross the membrane
b. Transports larger or
charged molecules

Facilitated
diffusion
(Channel
Protein)

Diffusion
(Lipid
Bilayer)

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

Carrier Protein
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Facilitated diffusion
Cellular Transport From aHigh Concentration

Glucose
molecules

High

Cell Membrane

Low Concentration

Through a
Go to
Section:

Protein
channel

Low

Transport
Protein
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1.3 Osmosis
The diffusion of water across semipermeable membrane
OSMOTIC PRESSURE - the
physical pressure that exactly
balances the osmosis of water due
to the concentration difference
between a solution and pure
water.

TONICITY - Refers to the


strength of a solution in
relation to osmosis.

Water moves freely


through pores.
Solute (green) to
large to move across.

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Hypotonic Solution
Hypotonic: The solution has a lower concentration of
solutes and a higher concentration of water than inside
the cell. (Low solute; High water)

Result: Water moves from the solution to


inside the cell): Cell Swells and bursts open
(cytolysis)!
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Hypertonic Solution
Hypertonic: The solution has a higher concentration of
solutes and a lower concentration of water than inside the
cell. (High solute; Low water)

Result: Water moves from inside the cell into the


solution: Cell shrinks (Plasmolysis)!
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Isotonic solution
Isotonic: The concentration of solutes in the solution
is equal to the concentration of solutes inside the cell.

Result: Water moves equally in both directions and


the cell remains same size! (Dynamic Equilibrium)
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tonicity

Hypertonic

Isotonic

Hypotonic

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2. Active Transport
cell uses energy (ATP)
actively moves molecules to where they are needed
Movement from an area of low concentration to
an area of high concentration

(Low High)

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Types of Active Transport


Protein Pumps
Endocytosis
Exocytosis

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2.1 Protein Pumps


. Protein Pumps -transport
proteins that require energy
to do work
Example: Sodium /
Potassium Pumps are
important in nerve
responses.

Protein changes
shape to move
molecules: this
requires energy!

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2.2 Endocytosis
The process wherein large molecules enter the cell
Three Types (pinocytosis, phagocytosis and carrier
mediated endocytosis),

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2.2.1 Pinocytosis
Pinocytosis (Cell Drinking) the tiny droplets of
extra cellular fluid with all its contained solutes
are taken in by engulfing.

http://student.ccbcmd.edu/~gkaiser/biotutorials/eustruct/pinocyt.html

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2.2.2 Phagocytosis
Phagocytosis (Cell Eating) the large particles of whole
cells are ingested

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2.2.3 Receptor Mediated Endocytosis


Receptor Mediated Endocytosis the specific
substance are ingested by binding to receptor proteins
located in coated its on the membrane. Included in this
type of receptors are hormones, enzymes, and blood
materials.

http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/biology/bio4fv/page/rectpr.htm
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2.3 Exocytosis
Forces material out of cell in bulk
membrane surrounding the
material fuses with cell
membrane
Cell changes shape requires
energy
EX: Hormones or wastes
released from cell

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