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CHEMISTRY OF LIFE

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

"You are chemistry" - all life develops from and consists


of (bio)chemical processes. Chemistry constitutes the
basis for life. From the first moment and in every
second of our life complex bio-chemical reactions go
on in our body.

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

THE NATURE OF MOLECULES

ATOMS: make up all matter


Protons (+) and neutrons (0) in nucleus
Electrons (-) in orbits around nucleus

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

Atomic number = number of protons


Atomic mass = mass of protons + neutrons
Subatomic particles seen indirectly via collisions
Charge Neutral atoms: electron # = proton #
Ions: # of electrons & protons differ
Cation: positive charge, electron(s) lost
Anion: negative charge, electron(s) gained

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

CHEMICAL BONDS
1. IONIC BOND - atoms donate or receive
electrons from other atoms
Example: NaCl

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

IONIC BONDING

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

CHEMICAL BONDS
2. COVALENT BOND - two atoms share one or
more pairs of valence electrons
Example: diatomic hydrogen

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

Most Frequent Elements Found in Organisms

Element Name

Importance of Element

Oxygen

a. Used in cellular respiration.


b. Component of water.
c. Component of organic molecules

Carbon

a. Backbone of organic molecules

Hydrogen

a. Electron carrier.
b. Component of water.
c. Important component of organic
molecules.

Nitrogen

a. Important component of all proteins.


b.Important component of all nucleic acids.

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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Other Important Elements Found in Living Organisms

Element Name

Importance of Element

Calcium

a. Component of bones & teeth.


b. Involved in muscle contraction.

Phosphorus

a. Important component of nucleic acids.


b. Involved in energy transfers within cells.

Iron

a. Component of hemoglobin (in blood).

Sodium

a. Main positive ion outside cells.


b. Important in nerve impulse transmission.

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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WATER
Water constitutes two-thirds the mass of
most organisms & 75% earth's surface.

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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Importance of Water
1. Coolant: Has high heat of vaporization, aids body
cooling.
2. High specific heat: ( H20 = 1 cal / g / degree C ) bodies of water stay constant temp.
3. Transport: polarity - dissolves many substances.
4. Habitat: Major component of internal (organism) &
external environments

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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Water is highly polar : shape, bond angle allow charge


separation (Oxygen pulls electrons from Hydrogen, creating
slight -2 charge at O end, slight +1 at each H.)

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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Hydrogen Bonding - bond forming betweenthe positive


pole of one water molecule and the negative pole of
another. (The negative O momentarily "sticks" to a nearby
positive H!)

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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Properties of Water
Property
1. Transparency

2. Universal Solvent

3. Cohesion
4. Adhesion

Meaning

Importance of Property

Light passes thru water.

Light reaches
chloroplasts in cells &
aquatic plants.

Many compounds
dissolve in water.

Dissolved compounds
can be brought to
cells (via sap or blood)
or move about cell
cytoplasm.

Water molecules stick


together due to H
bonds.

Small animals may walk


on water.

Water molecules stick to


other molecules.

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

Capillary action. Water


pulled to top of trees.

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Properties of Water
Property

5. Heat Capacity

6. High boiling point.


7. Density of Ice

8. Evaporation

Meaning

Importance of Property

Large amounts of energy


are needed to raise
temp of water.

Water bodies have stable


temperatures. Body
temps can be
maintained. Transfer
of heat from warm to
cool body parts.

Much energy needed to


pull water molecules
apart.

In nature, water rarely


boils so life is spared.

Ice is less dense than


water so it floats.
Evaporation (boiling)
requires much
energy.

Ice insulates organisms


living beneath.
Evaporation can cool
warm cells.

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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CHEMICALS OF LIFE

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Organic Molecules - Any compound


containing C (except CO2 and those
containing CO3).

Hydrocarbon - Any compound with a CH bond.

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Monomer - building blocks of larger


molecules
Polymers - repeating subunits (monomers)
bonded together

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Dehydration Synthesis - Reactions to form


most large organic molecules. Molecule of
water removed from bond area as
monomers are linked.
Hydrolysis (Digestion) - Large organic
molecules are broken up. Molecule of water
added to help remove the monomers.

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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Organic Molecules Found in Living


Organisms

Carbohydrates
Proteins
Lipids
Nucleic Acid

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CARBOHYDRATES
Carbos = Sugars: C, H, O in 1:2:1
ratio (roughly CH2O)

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TYPES OF CARBOHYDRATES
MONOSACCHARIDES
DISACCHARIDES
POLYSACCHARIDES

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MONOSACCHARIDES
simple sugars (The building block of all larger
sugars.)
Examples of Monosaccharides:
a) Glucose - Form of simple sugar used by all
cells. From grapes & honey. (sweet!)
b) Fructose - Fruit sugar (sweet!)

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Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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Glucose and fructose are isomers ( formula the same, but the O is on
different Carbon atoms)
Glucose and galactose are stereoisomers ( OH groups in same spots,
but in 1 spot they are mirror image of ea. other)

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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DISACCHARIDES

Double sugar
Formed by dehydration synthesis (removal of water as the 2
monosaccharides bond)
Examples of Disaccharides:
a) Maltose = glucose + glucose
b) Sucrose (table sugar) = glucose + fructose
c) Lactose (milk sugar) = glucose + galactose

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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POLYSACCHARIDES
starches, chains of sugars
Formed by dehydration synthesis (removal of water as all
the monosaccharides bond)
Examples of Polysaccharides:
a) Amylose: simple plant starch
b) Pectins: branched plant starch
c) Glycogen: branched animal starch
d) Cellulose: component of plant cell walls, undigestible by
most organisms, human dietary fiber

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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IMPORTANCE OF CARBOHYDRATES
a) Glucose - key metabolic fuel (energy source) of all cells.
b) Animal Starch (Glycogen)- long term energy storage for
animal cells (stores the glucose molecules in a form not easily
used!).
c) Plant Starch (Amylose) - long term energy storage for plant
cells (stores the glucose molecules in a form that is not easily
used!)
d) Cellulose - Structural polysaccharide of cell walls.
e) Chitin - Structural polysaccharide of exoskeletons of insects
and crustaceans.

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PROTEINS
They are organic molecules consisting of
many amino acids bonded together.

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AMINO ACIDS
Monomers or building blocks of all
proteins.

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PARTS OF AMINO ACID


a) Amino group (NH2)
b) Carboxyl group (COOH)
c) R-group: variable- 20 R-groups, so only 20
amino acids.

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Peptide bonds

Bond formed when 2 or more amino acids bond.

Dipeptide- 2 amino acids joined by peptide bond.


Polypeptide- many amino acids bonded together.

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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Denaturation
protein shape altered with changes in pH,
temperature.
Change in shape alters activity of enzyme.
Enzymes function within a narrow range of
these factors.

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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Functions of Proteins & Named Examples


1) Enzyme catalysis: Enzymes help reactions occur more easily. ExampleAmylase (Converts starch to simple sugar.)
2) Defense: Antibodies - Globular proteins that "recognize" foreign microbes.
3) Transport- Hemoglobin (red blood cell protein).
4) Structure / Support- Collagen, which forms the matrix of skin, ligaments,
tendons and bones.
5) Motion- Actin, a muscle protein responsible for muscle contraction.
6) Regulation- Hormones which serve as intercellular messengers. Example Insulin (blood sugar regulation).

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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LIPIDS
Organic molecules insoluble in water due
to numerous non-polar C-H bonds.
Fats, oils, & waxes

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Functions of Lipids
1. Energy storage- Fats store glucose energy for
long time periods.
2. Chemical messengers- Steroid hormones
(testosterone & estrogen)
3. Lipid bilayers of cell membranes

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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TYPES OF LIPIDS

Triglycerides (fats)
Phospholipids
Steroids
Terpenes
Prostaglandins

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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Triglycerides (fats)
glycerol + three fatty acids
They are nonpolar (don't
dissolve well in water). Only
the ends of the fatty acids can
be attracted to water.
They tend to form circular
blobs in water with the
nonpolar glycerol inside, the
fatty parts facing to water.
Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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Formation of a Triglyceride via Dehydration Synthesis

Dehydration Reactions (Building of larger molecules) add energy


to organic molecules.
Hydrolysis Reactions (those that tear apart molecules) release
energy from the molecules.

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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Triglycerides (fats)
Saturated: all single bonds (many C-H bonds), hard, animal fats
Unsaturated: some double bonds (less C-H bonds), liquid, plant
oils

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Phospholipids
comprise cell membranes, soaps =
glycerol, 2 fatty acids, 1 phosphate
Polar head region faces outward
Non-polar tails face inward

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Steroids
a) lipid hormones
b) cholesterol
c) vitamins (Vit. D)

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Terpenes and Prostaglandins


Terpenes - pigments
Prostaglandins - variety of biological
functions

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NUCLEIC ACID
Hereditary material

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NUCLEIC ACID
Deoxyribonucleic acid: DNA, master
molecule, stores hereditary information
Ribonucleic acid: RNA, template copy
NUCLEOTIDES - monomers of nucleic acids.

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Parts of Nucleotide
1. Sugar: 5-carbon ribose
or deoxyribose
2. Phosphate group
3. Nitrogen base

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DNA Nucleotides
a) Sugar = deoxyribose
b) Double helix form: two intertwined chains (double stranded)
Specific base pairing, complementary
Guanine (G) - Cytosine (C)
Adenine(A) - Thymine (T)

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RNA Nucleotides
a) Sugar = ribose
b) Uracil (U) replaces thymine (T) in RNA
Uracil (U) - Adenine (A)
Guanine (G) - Cytosine (C)
c) Single stranded helix

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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Thank you!

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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