Safety and Health Movement

Then and Now

Major Topics
Developments before the Industrial Revolution.
Milestones in the safety movement.
Tragedies that have changed the safety

movement.
Role of organized labor.
Development of accident prevention programs.
Development of Safety Organizations.
Safety and Health Movement Today.

07/04/16

Prepared By: Engr. Edie Boy M. Dela Cruz

2

Health deals with adverse reactions to prolonged exposure to dangerous but less intense hazards. An overly stressed worker may be prone to unintentionally forget safety precautions and thus may cause an accident. 07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr. Health is concerned with disease causing conditions.Safety Versus Health Safety is concerned with injury causing situations. Safety is concerned with hazards to humans that result from sudden severe conditions. Dela Cruz 3 . Edie Boy M.

Causes of Improvement in Workplace Safety Improvements in safety have been the result of pressure for legislation to promote safety and health. Edie Boy M. Dela Cruz 4 . 07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr. and the professionalization of safety as an occupation. the steadily increasing cost associated with accidents and injuries. Improvements in the future are likely to come as a result of greater awareness of the cost effectiveness and resultant competitiveness gained from a safe and healthy workforce.

” 07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr. “If a man had caused the loss of a gentleman’s eye. and monetary damages assessed against those who injured others.Code of Hammurabi The Code of Hamurabi (Babylonian king in 2000 B. allowable fees for physicians.) contained clauses dealing with injuries. his own eye shall be caused to be lost.C. Edie Boy M. Dela Cruz 5 .

Illinois steel plant. Factory inspection was introduced in Massachusetts in 1897. the first recorded safety program was established in a Joliet. 07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr. In 1869 the Pennsylvania legislature passed a mine safety law that required two exits from all mines. In 1892. Dela Cruz 6 .Development of the First Organized Safety Program When the industrial sector began to grow in the United States hazardous working conditions were commonplace. Edie Boy M.

Dela Cruz 7 .Federick Taylor’s Connection to the Safety Movement Around 1900 Federick Taylor began studying efficiency in manufacturing. His purpose was to identify the impact of various factors on efficiency. and profitability. Edie Boy M. 07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr. He drew the connection between lost personnel time and management policies and procedures. This connection between safety and management represented a major step towards broad-based safety consciousness. productivity.

07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr. this organization changed its name to National Safety Council (NSC). As a result the first meeting of the Cooperative Safety Congress (CSC) took place in Milwaukee in 1912. pressed for a national conference on safety. NSC is now the premier safety organization in the United States. the National Council of Industrial Safety was established in Chicago.Development of the National Safety Council The Association of Iron and Steel Electrical Engineers (AISEE) formed in the early 1900s. In 1915. Edie Boy M. Dela Cruz 8 . A year after the meeting of the CSC.

loss of a skilled worker due to injury or for any other reason created an excessive hardship. 07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr.  During this period industry in the United States arrived at two critical conclusions: (1) There is a definite connection between Quality and Safety. (2) Off-the-job accidents have a negative impact on productivity. Edie Boy M.  For these employers.  This became clear to manufacturers during World War II when call-up and deployment of troops had employers struggling to meet their labor needs. Dela Cruz 9 .Impact of Labor Shortages in World War II on the Safety  From the end of World War I (1918) through the 1950s Movement safety awareness grew steadily.

07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr.  In the late 1960s more than 14. These laws applied to a limited audience of workers. Act  According to the Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME) more significant legislation was needed because the state legislated safety requirements only in specific industries had inadequate safety and health standards. Edie Boy M. Dela Cruz 10 . and had inadequate budgets for enforcement. It represents the most significant legislation to date in the history of the safety movement.Primary Reason behind the passage of the OSH  The 1960s saw the passage of a flurry of& legislation (Occupational Safety Health) promoting workplace safety.000 employees were killed annually in connection with their jobs. and work injury rates were rising.  These were the primary reasons for the passage of the federal Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSH Act) of 1970.

Dela Cruz 11 . Silicosis is a disease that normally takes 10 to 30 years to show up in exposed workers. engineering controls. Approximately one million workers in the United States are still exposed to silica every year. Edie Boy M.How workplace tragedies have affected the Safety Movement  Safety and health tragedies in the workplace have greatly accelerated the pace of the safety movement in the United States.  Hawk’s Nest Tragedy: Workers spent as many as 10 hours per day breathing the dust created by drilling and blasting a passageway through a mountain located in the Hawk’s Nest region of West Virginia that had an unusually high silica content. and 250 people die annually from silicosis. At Hawk’s Nest workers began dying in as little time as a year. Today administrative controls. and personal protective equipment are used to protect workers in a dusty environment. 07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr.

Union Carbide had to pay $470 million in compensatory damage. offices. Dela Cruz 12 . schools . Bhopal Tragedy: In 1984 over 40 tons of Methyl isocyanate (MIC) and other lethal gases. In the US it led to the Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act (EPCRA) of 1986. Selikoff linked asbestos to lung cancer and respiratory diseases.How workplace tragedies have affected the Safety Movement Asbestos Menace: In 1964 Dr. factories. including hydrogen cyanide leaked into the northern end of Bhopal killing over 3000 people. 07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr. It was found in homes. In the 1970s and 1980s asbestos became a controlled material. Edie Boy M. ships and filter of cigarettes.

07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr. organized labor has fought for safer working conditions and appropriate compensation for workers injured on the job. Edie Boy M. Dela Cruz 13 .Role of Organized Labor in Advancement of Safety Organized labor has played a crucial role in Movement the development of the safety movement in the United States. Many of the earliest developments in the safety movement were the result of long and hard-fought battles by organized labor. From the Industrial Revolution time.

Assumption of Risk: People who accept a job assume the risks that go with it.Fellow Servant Rule. the employer was not held liable. and The Fellow Servant Assumption ofRule Risk held that employers were not liable for workplace injuries that resulted from the negligence of other employees. Rubio 14 . Alexis John M. Contributory Negligence: If the actions of employees contributed to their own injuries. 07/04/16 Prepared By: Mr. These employer biased laws were overturned in all states except in New Hampshire where the fellow servant rule still applies. Contributory Negligence.

why it is important to do so.The three E’s of Safety Engineering. and that safety is expected by management. The Education aspect of a safety program ensures that employees know how to work safely. Supervisors and fellow employees play a key role in the enforcement aspect of modern safety programs. Rubio 15 . 07/04/16 Prepared By: Mr. Alexis John M. rules. The Enforcement aspect of a safety program involves making sure that employees abide by safety policies. and The Engineering aspects of a safety program Enforcement involve making design improvements to both product and process to decrease potential hazards. practices and procedures. Education. regulations.

Providing appropriate medical treatment for injured or ill workers.Integrated Approach to Safety and Health  Learn more through sharing knowledge about health problems in the workplace.  OSHA reinforces the integrated approach by requiring companies to have a plan for doing at least the following:  1.  Provide a broad database that can be used to compare health and safety problems experienced by different companies in the same industry.  3. Dela Cruz 16 .  2.  Make employee health and safety a high priority.  Provide a greater level of expertise in evaluating health and safety problems. Edie Boy M. 07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr. Having a qualified first-aid person available during all working hours. Regularly examining workers who are exposed to toxic substances.  Encourage accident prevention. particularly those caused by toxic substances.

Dust levels. Dela Cruz 17 . ventilation and noise levels are also monitored. develop plans for handling radiation accidents. respond to radiation accidents. Edie Boy M.Modern Industrial Companies may include the following Industrial Hygiene Chemist and/or Engineer: positions: Companies that use toxic substances periodically test the work environment. Unsafe conditions or hazardous levels of exposure can be identified and corrected or preventive measures can be taken. Radiation Control Specialist: Companies that use or produce radioactive material employ specialists to monitor radiation levels to which workers may be exposed. 07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr. test workers for level of exposure. and implement decontamination procedures when necessary.

and education and training.Modern Industrial Companies may include the following Industrial Safety Engineer or positions: Manager: They are responsible for developing and carrying out the company’s overall health and safety program including accident prevention. Edie Boy M. 07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr. (Jobs with this one course) The complexities of the modern workplace have made safety and health a growing profession. accident investigation. Dela Cruz 18 .

redundancy and timed replacements. Edie Boy M. Accident prevention techniques include fail safe designs. lockout. A safety team may include a safety engineer. Dela Cruz 19 . Labor unions have worked to overturn anti labor laws inhibiting safety. The asbestos menace. nurse.Summary A milestone in safety is the passage of OSHA in 1970. and dietician. and lung cancer tied to asbestos. A leading safety organization is the American Society of Safety Engineers. PPE. 07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr. Health problems in the workplace include lung disease in miners. and Bhopal disaster have changed the face of the safety movement.

Dela Cruz 20 .Homework 1. 4. 2. Explain the three E’s of Safety. Define the following terms: fellow servant rule. 07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr. To be submitted next meeting hand written only. Edie Boy M. and assumption of risk. To what causes can improvement in workplace safety made to date be attributed? Explain the primary reasons behind the passage of the OSH Act. 3. contributory negligence.

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