Safety and Health Movement

Then and Now

Major Topics
Developments before the Industrial Revolution.
Milestones in the safety movement.
Tragedies that have changed the safety

movement.
Role of organized labor.
Development of accident prevention programs.
Development of Safety Organizations.
Safety and Health Movement Today.

07/04/16

Prepared By: Engr. Edie Boy M. Dela Cruz

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An overly stressed worker may be prone to unintentionally forget safety precautions and thus may cause an accident. Edie Boy M. Dela Cruz 3 .Safety Versus Health Safety is concerned with injury causing situations. Health deals with adverse reactions to prolonged exposure to dangerous but less intense hazards. 07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr. Safety is concerned with hazards to humans that result from sudden severe conditions. Health is concerned with disease causing conditions.

Causes of Improvement in Workplace Safety Improvements in safety have been the result of pressure for legislation to promote safety and health. Edie Boy M. 07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr. Improvements in the future are likely to come as a result of greater awareness of the cost effectiveness and resultant competitiveness gained from a safe and healthy workforce. the steadily increasing cost associated with accidents and injuries. Dela Cruz 4 . and the professionalization of safety as an occupation.

” 07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr. Dela Cruz 5 . and monetary damages assessed against those who injured others. Edie Boy M.C.Code of Hammurabi The Code of Hamurabi (Babylonian king in 2000 B.) contained clauses dealing with injuries. “If a man had caused the loss of a gentleman’s eye. his own eye shall be caused to be lost. allowable fees for physicians.

Dela Cruz 6 . 07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr. Factory inspection was introduced in Massachusetts in 1897. Edie Boy M. the first recorded safety program was established in a Joliet. In 1869 the Pennsylvania legislature passed a mine safety law that required two exits from all mines. In 1892.Development of the First Organized Safety Program When the industrial sector began to grow in the United States hazardous working conditions were commonplace. Illinois steel plant.

Edie Boy M. He drew the connection between lost personnel time and management policies and procedures. This connection between safety and management represented a major step towards broad-based safety consciousness. 07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr.Federick Taylor’s Connection to the Safety Movement Around 1900 Federick Taylor began studying efficiency in manufacturing. Dela Cruz 7 . productivity. and profitability. His purpose was to identify the impact of various factors on efficiency.

In 1915. NSC is now the premier safety organization in the United States.Development of the National Safety Council The Association of Iron and Steel Electrical Engineers (AISEE) formed in the early 1900s. As a result the first meeting of the Cooperative Safety Congress (CSC) took place in Milwaukee in 1912. A year after the meeting of the CSC. Dela Cruz 8 . 07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr. pressed for a national conference on safety. this organization changed its name to National Safety Council (NSC). Edie Boy M. the National Council of Industrial Safety was established in Chicago.

Impact of Labor Shortages in World War II on the Safety  From the end of World War I (1918) through the 1950s Movement safety awareness grew steadily. loss of a skilled worker due to injury or for any other reason created an excessive hardship. (2) Off-the-job accidents have a negative impact on productivity. Dela Cruz 9 .  During this period industry in the United States arrived at two critical conclusions: (1) There is a definite connection between Quality and Safety. Edie Boy M. 07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr.  For these employers.  This became clear to manufacturers during World War II when call-up and deployment of troops had employers struggling to meet their labor needs.

These laws applied to a limited audience of workers. and had inadequate budgets for enforcement. Edie Boy M. Dela Cruz 10 .  In the late 1960s more than 14.Primary Reason behind the passage of the OSH  The 1960s saw the passage of a flurry of& legislation (Occupational Safety Health) promoting workplace safety. Act  According to the Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME) more significant legislation was needed because the state legislated safety requirements only in specific industries had inadequate safety and health standards.000 employees were killed annually in connection with their jobs.  These were the primary reasons for the passage of the federal Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSH Act) of 1970. and work injury rates were rising. It represents the most significant legislation to date in the history of the safety movement. 07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr.

 Hawk’s Nest Tragedy: Workers spent as many as 10 hours per day breathing the dust created by drilling and blasting a passageway through a mountain located in the Hawk’s Nest region of West Virginia that had an unusually high silica content. and personal protective equipment are used to protect workers in a dusty environment. Silicosis is a disease that normally takes 10 to 30 years to show up in exposed workers.How workplace tragedies have affected the Safety Movement  Safety and health tragedies in the workplace have greatly accelerated the pace of the safety movement in the United States. engineering controls. Dela Cruz 11 . and 250 people die annually from silicosis. 07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr. Edie Boy M. At Hawk’s Nest workers began dying in as little time as a year. Approximately one million workers in the United States are still exposed to silica every year. Today administrative controls.

How workplace tragedies have affected the Safety Movement Asbestos Menace: In 1964 Dr. offices. In the 1970s and 1980s asbestos became a controlled material. Union Carbide had to pay $470 million in compensatory damage. factories. Bhopal Tragedy: In 1984 over 40 tons of Methyl isocyanate (MIC) and other lethal gases. Edie Boy M. 07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr. It was found in homes. including hydrogen cyanide leaked into the northern end of Bhopal killing over 3000 people. ships and filter of cigarettes. Dela Cruz 12 . In the US it led to the Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act (EPCRA) of 1986. schools . Selikoff linked asbestos to lung cancer and respiratory diseases.

Dela Cruz 13 . 07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr.Role of Organized Labor in Advancement of Safety Organized labor has played a crucial role in Movement the development of the safety movement in the United States. Edie Boy M. From the Industrial Revolution time. organized labor has fought for safer working conditions and appropriate compensation for workers injured on the job. Many of the earliest developments in the safety movement were the result of long and hard-fought battles by organized labor.

Alexis John M. Contributory Negligence: If the actions of employees contributed to their own injuries.Fellow Servant Rule. and The Fellow Servant Assumption ofRule Risk held that employers were not liable for workplace injuries that resulted from the negligence of other employees. 07/04/16 Prepared By: Mr. Contributory Negligence. These employer biased laws were overturned in all states except in New Hampshire where the fellow servant rule still applies. Rubio 14 . Assumption of Risk: People who accept a job assume the risks that go with it. the employer was not held liable.

Alexis John M. and that safety is expected by management. Rubio 15 . practices and procedures. 07/04/16 Prepared By: Mr. regulations. The Education aspect of a safety program ensures that employees know how to work safely. The Enforcement aspect of a safety program involves making sure that employees abide by safety policies. rules. Education. Supervisors and fellow employees play a key role in the enforcement aspect of modern safety programs.The three E’s of Safety Engineering. and The Engineering aspects of a safety program Enforcement involve making design improvements to both product and process to decrease potential hazards. why it is important to do so.

Regularly examining workers who are exposed to toxic substances. Dela Cruz 16 .  Provide a greater level of expertise in evaluating health and safety problems.  2.  Encourage accident prevention. Having a qualified first-aid person available during all working hours. Edie Boy M.Integrated Approach to Safety and Health  Learn more through sharing knowledge about health problems in the workplace.  OSHA reinforces the integrated approach by requiring companies to have a plan for doing at least the following:  1. particularly those caused by toxic substances.  Make employee health and safety a high priority.  Provide a broad database that can be used to compare health and safety problems experienced by different companies in the same industry.  3. 07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr. Providing appropriate medical treatment for injured or ill workers.

Modern Industrial Companies may include the following Industrial Hygiene Chemist and/or Engineer: positions: Companies that use toxic substances periodically test the work environment. Dust levels. and implement decontamination procedures when necessary. develop plans for handling radiation accidents. ventilation and noise levels are also monitored. test workers for level of exposure. 07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr. Edie Boy M. Unsafe conditions or hazardous levels of exposure can be identified and corrected or preventive measures can be taken. Radiation Control Specialist: Companies that use or produce radioactive material employ specialists to monitor radiation levels to which workers may be exposed. Dela Cruz 17 . respond to radiation accidents.

(Jobs with this one course) The complexities of the modern workplace have made safety and health a growing profession. Edie Boy M. Dela Cruz 18 . accident investigation.Modern Industrial Companies may include the following Industrial Safety Engineer or positions: Manager: They are responsible for developing and carrying out the company’s overall health and safety program including accident prevention. 07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr. and education and training.

Dela Cruz 19 . A leading safety organization is the American Society of Safety Engineers. Accident prevention techniques include fail safe designs. Health problems in the workplace include lung disease in miners. lockout. and dietician. and lung cancer tied to asbestos. The asbestos menace. nurse. redundancy and timed replacements. and Bhopal disaster have changed the face of the safety movement. Edie Boy M. A safety team may include a safety engineer. Labor unions have worked to overturn anti labor laws inhibiting safety.Summary A milestone in safety is the passage of OSHA in 1970. PPE. 07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr.

To be submitted next meeting hand written only. 07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr. 4. Dela Cruz 20 . and assumption of risk. contributory negligence. Explain the three E’s of Safety. 2. Define the following terms: fellow servant rule. 3. Edie Boy M. To what causes can improvement in workplace safety made to date be attributed? Explain the primary reasons behind the passage of the OSH Act.Homework 1.