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Then and Now
Developments before the Industrial Revolution.
Milestones in the safety movement.
Tragedies that have changed the safety
Role of organized labor.
Development of accident prevention programs.
Development of Safety Organizations.
Safety and Health Movement Today.
Prepared By: Engr. Edie Boy M. Dela Cruz
Health is concerned with disease causing conditions. Dela Cruz 3 .Safety Versus Health Safety is concerned with injury causing situations. Safety is concerned with hazards to humans that result from sudden severe conditions. Edie Boy M. 07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr. An overly stressed worker may be prone to unintentionally forget safety precautions and thus may cause an accident. Health deals with adverse reactions to prolonged exposure to dangerous but less intense hazards.
Edie Boy M. 07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr. Improvements in the future are likely to come as a result of greater awareness of the cost effectiveness and resultant competitiveness gained from a safe and healthy workforce. and the professionalization of safety as an occupation. Dela Cruz 4 .Causes of Improvement in Workplace Safety Improvements in safety have been the result of pressure for legislation to promote safety and health. the steadily increasing cost associated with accidents and injuries.
Dela Cruz 5 . allowable fees for physicians.C. and monetary damages assessed against those who injured others.” 07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr. “If a man had caused the loss of a gentleman’s eye.) contained clauses dealing with injuries. Edie Boy M.Code of Hammurabi The Code of Hamurabi (Babylonian king in 2000 B. his own eye shall be caused to be lost.
Dela Cruz 6 . In 1869 the Pennsylvania legislature passed a mine safety law that required two exits from all mines. Illinois steel plant. Edie Boy M. Factory inspection was introduced in Massachusetts in 1897. the first recorded safety program was established in a Joliet.Development of the First Organized Safety Program When the industrial sector began to grow in the United States hazardous working conditions were commonplace. In 1892. 07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr.
Edie Boy M. He drew the connection between lost personnel time and management policies and procedures. Dela Cruz 7 . productivity. and profitability. 07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr. His purpose was to identify the impact of various factors on efficiency.Federick Taylor’s Connection to the Safety Movement Around 1900 Federick Taylor began studying efficiency in manufacturing. This connection between safety and management represented a major step towards broad-based safety consciousness.
NSC is now the premier safety organization in the United States. As a result the first meeting of the Cooperative Safety Congress (CSC) took place in Milwaukee in 1912. this organization changed its name to National Safety Council (NSC). 07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr. the National Council of Industrial Safety was established in Chicago. Dela Cruz 8 . pressed for a national conference on safety. A year after the meeting of the CSC. Edie Boy M.Development of the National Safety Council The Association of Iron and Steel Electrical Engineers (AISEE) formed in the early 1900s. In 1915.
During this period industry in the United States arrived at two critical conclusions: (1) There is a definite connection between Quality and Safety. loss of a skilled worker due to injury or for any other reason created an excessive hardship. (2) Off-the-job accidents have a negative impact on productivity. 07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr. For these employers. Dela Cruz 9 . Edie Boy M.Impact of Labor Shortages in World War II on the Safety From the end of World War I (1918) through the 1950s Movement safety awareness grew steadily. This became clear to manufacturers during World War II when call-up and deployment of troops had employers struggling to meet their labor needs.
These laws applied to a limited audience of workers. 07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr. Dela Cruz 10 . In the late 1960s more than 14. and had inadequate budgets for enforcement. These were the primary reasons for the passage of the federal Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSH Act) of 1970. Act According to the Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME) more significant legislation was needed because the state legislated safety requirements only in specific industries had inadequate safety and health standards. Edie Boy M. It represents the most significant legislation to date in the history of the safety movement.Primary Reason behind the passage of the OSH The 1960s saw the passage of a flurry of& legislation (Occupational Safety Health) promoting workplace safety. and work injury rates were rising.000 employees were killed annually in connection with their jobs.
07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr. Approximately one million workers in the United States are still exposed to silica every year.How workplace tragedies have affected the Safety Movement Safety and health tragedies in the workplace have greatly accelerated the pace of the safety movement in the United States. At Hawk’s Nest workers began dying in as little time as a year. and personal protective equipment are used to protect workers in a dusty environment. Edie Boy M. Dela Cruz 11 . Silicosis is a disease that normally takes 10 to 30 years to show up in exposed workers. Hawk’s Nest Tragedy: Workers spent as many as 10 hours per day breathing the dust created by drilling and blasting a passageway through a mountain located in the Hawk’s Nest region of West Virginia that had an unusually high silica content. Today administrative controls. engineering controls. and 250 people die annually from silicosis.
including hydrogen cyanide leaked into the northern end of Bhopal killing over 3000 people.How workplace tragedies have affected the Safety Movement Asbestos Menace: In 1964 Dr. Union Carbide had to pay $470 million in compensatory damage. offices. It was found in homes. ships and filter of cigarettes. Edie Boy M. In the 1970s and 1980s asbestos became a controlled material. In the US it led to the Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act (EPCRA) of 1986. 07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr. factories. Selikoff linked asbestos to lung cancer and respiratory diseases. Dela Cruz 12 . schools . Bhopal Tragedy: In 1984 over 40 tons of Methyl isocyanate (MIC) and other lethal gases.
Edie Boy M. organized labor has fought for safer working conditions and appropriate compensation for workers injured on the job. From the Industrial Revolution time. Many of the earliest developments in the safety movement were the result of long and hard-fought battles by organized labor. 07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr.Role of Organized Labor in Advancement of Safety Organized labor has played a crucial role in Movement the development of the safety movement in the United States. Dela Cruz 13 .
Rubio 14 . 07/04/16 Prepared By: Mr. Contributory Negligence: If the actions of employees contributed to their own injuries. and The Fellow Servant Assumption ofRule Risk held that employers were not liable for workplace injuries that resulted from the negligence of other employees. the employer was not held liable. Contributory Negligence. These employer biased laws were overturned in all states except in New Hampshire where the fellow servant rule still applies.Fellow Servant Rule. Assumption of Risk: People who accept a job assume the risks that go with it. Alexis John M.
Education. practices and procedures. Alexis John M. The Enforcement aspect of a safety program involves making sure that employees abide by safety policies.The three E’s of Safety Engineering. why it is important to do so. 07/04/16 Prepared By: Mr. and that safety is expected by management. The Education aspect of a safety program ensures that employees know how to work safely. Rubio 15 . Supervisors and fellow employees play a key role in the enforcement aspect of modern safety programs. rules. regulations. and The Engineering aspects of a safety program Enforcement involve making design improvements to both product and process to decrease potential hazards.
3. Regularly examining workers who are exposed to toxic substances.Integrated Approach to Safety and Health Learn more through sharing knowledge about health problems in the workplace. Providing appropriate medical treatment for injured or ill workers. Provide a broad database that can be used to compare health and safety problems experienced by different companies in the same industry. particularly those caused by toxic substances. Provide a greater level of expertise in evaluating health and safety problems. OSHA reinforces the integrated approach by requiring companies to have a plan for doing at least the following: 1. Dela Cruz 16 . Make employee health and safety a high priority. 07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr. Edie Boy M. 2. Encourage accident prevention. Having a qualified first-aid person available during all working hours.
Dela Cruz 17 .Modern Industrial Companies may include the following Industrial Hygiene Chemist and/or Engineer: positions: Companies that use toxic substances periodically test the work environment. Radiation Control Specialist: Companies that use or produce radioactive material employ specialists to monitor radiation levels to which workers may be exposed. 07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr. respond to radiation accidents. develop plans for handling radiation accidents. and implement decontamination procedures when necessary. test workers for level of exposure. Edie Boy M. ventilation and noise levels are also monitored. Dust levels. Unsafe conditions or hazardous levels of exposure can be identified and corrected or preventive measures can be taken.
(Jobs with this one course) The complexities of the modern workplace have made safety and health a growing profession.Modern Industrial Companies may include the following Industrial Safety Engineer or positions: Manager: They are responsible for developing and carrying out the company’s overall health and safety program including accident prevention. Edie Boy M. Dela Cruz 18 . accident investigation. and education and training. 07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr.
Health problems in the workplace include lung disease in miners. and dietician. Edie Boy M. PPE. Accident prevention techniques include fail safe designs. 07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr. Labor unions have worked to overturn anti labor laws inhibiting safety. lockout. The asbestos menace. redundancy and timed replacements. nurse. Dela Cruz 19 . and lung cancer tied to asbestos. A leading safety organization is the American Society of Safety Engineers. A safety team may include a safety engineer.Summary A milestone in safety is the passage of OSHA in 1970. and Bhopal disaster have changed the face of the safety movement.
07/04/16 Prepared By: Engr. 4. Edie Boy M. Define the following terms: fellow servant rule. contributory negligence. Dela Cruz 20 . 2. To be submitted next meeting hand written only. and assumption of risk. To what causes can improvement in workplace safety made to date be attributed? Explain the primary reasons behind the passage of the OSH Act.Homework 1. Explain the three E’s of Safety. 3.
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