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# Biomechanics Design Lab:

Viscoelasticity of Chicken
Femoral Cartilage

Group 7
Priyanka Parajuli, Hemali Patel, Catherine Porter, Shri Rajan, Linh
Phan

INTRODUCTION:
VISCOELASTICITY
Viscosity
Fluid Properties
Time-dependent
Equation: = ()

Elasticity
Solid Properties
Instantaneous Deformation:
Time-independent
Equation: =(, )

http://wweb.uta.edu/faculty/ricard/Classes/KINE-3301/Notes/Lesson-

INTRODUCTION: ARTICULAR
CARTILAGE

Function:

## Reduces friction between bones at joint

Covers the diarthrodial joints

Composition:
60-85% water by weight
15-22% type II collagen by weight
Various electrolytes (Na+, Cl-, Ca++)
Proteoglycans and chondrocytes

## Conclusion: Articular cartilage is a viscoelastic

material
http://www.ideasforsurgery.com/glossary/

INTRODUCTION: ARTICULAR
CARTILAGE PROPERTIES
Inhomogeneous
Multiphasic Material
Anisotropic
Resistant to Compression

http://www.mdpi.com/2079-4983/3/4/799

ttp://www.spandidos-publications.com/etm/8/5/1357

INTRODUCTION: MAXWELL
MODEL
Spring and dashpot connected in series
Fluid viscoelastic model
Equation:

http://polymodmw.csi.muohio.edu/wp-

## Spring and dashpot connected in parallel

Solid viscoelastic model
Equation:

INTRODUCTION: STANDARD
SOLID MODEL
Combine Kelvin-Voigt solid model and Maxwell fluid model to derive complex
viscoelastic model
Equation:

http://polymodmw.csi.muohio.edu/wp-

INTRODUCTION:
INDENTATION
TESTS
Characterize mechanical properties of
cartilage outside the body
Stress-Relaxation Test
Indent material and maintain constant strain
Observe stress response of material
Viscoelastic material responds with initial high stress
and then decreases over time

Constantly increasing stress
Last point on curve is rupture, failure strength
Viscoelastic materials typically have same ultimate
and failure strength

ps://www.bsbedge.com/astm/astmd6264d6264m-standard
Ozkaya et al., Fundamentals of biomechanics: Equilibrium, motion, and deformation

MOTIVATION:
Osteoarthritis, sports injuries, etc.
Current replacement grafts and surgical reconstructions often result
in complications and instability that worsen current conditions.
Dynamic environment of the human body requires physical
characterization of articular cartilage in addition to biological
characterization.
Mathematical modeling provides unique insight for further
treatment of cartilaginous injuries.

OBJECTIVE:
To assess the mechanical and viscoelastic
properties of chicken femoral cartilage
and model its viscoelastic behavior as a
mathematical equation.

MATERIALS
Step 1:
Preparation of
the Sample

## 1 chicken femur (from

Publix)
Large-grit sandpaper
Forceps
Iris scissors
Gloves
Paper towels
Cement mixing bowl
Aluminum cylinder
Bone cement (Surgical
Simplex, Stryker)
COE Tray Plastic SelfCuring Liquid
(Patterson Dental)
Plumbers putty
Saline solution

## Step 2: StressRelaxation Test

Prepared Sample
2.15mm indenter tip
Needle to record
cartilage depth
MTS 858 MiniBionix

Prepared Sample
2.15mm indenter tip
Needle to record
cartilage depth
MTS 858 MiniBionix

METHODS: PREPARATION OF
THE SAMPLE
Clean
Chicken
Femur
Cartilage
Remove
periosteal
tissue with
sandpaper
Use iris
scissors

Fill Plumber
Putty in
Aluminum
Cylinder
Use putty to
prevent
leaking of
bone cement

Prepare Bone
Cement
Mix 1:1 ratio
of bone
cement and
self-curing
liquid
Desired
thickness:
toothpastelike

Pot the
Femur
Pour cement
in cylinder
until full
Position distal
side of femur
vertically in
bone cement

Allow cement
to solidify
Hold femur
straight while
cement cures
Keep cartilage
moist with
saline and
gauze

Mark Test
Locations
Use marker
to indicate
locations for
stress
relaxation

Initial
Thickness
Measureme
nt
Use needle
and caliper to
measure
thickness of
cartilage at
marked spot

Cartilage
Placement
for Testing
Align cartilage
perpendicular
to the
indenter
Indenter is
2.5mm

Calibration
Calibrate
to 1.5kN total

Indentation

Relaxation

## Use MTS 858

MiniBionix to
indent 2mm
Hold for 2
minutes while
sampling at a
rate of 100Hz

Let cartilage
relax to initial
thickness

TEST
Initial Thickness
Measurement
Use needle and
caliper to measure
thickness of
cartilage at marked
spot

Cartilage
Placement for
Testing
Align cartilage
perpendicular to
the indenter
Indenter is 2.5mm

Calibration of
Calibrate 15kN

Indentation
Use MTS 858
MiniBionix to
indent until failure
Indent at
2mm/min. while
sampling at a rate
of 100Hz

## DATA ANALYSIS: STRESSRELAXATION

TEST
Stress Equation:
Area = cross-sectional area of indenter =

## Forces given by machine

Example Calculation at 60 Seconds:

Plot vs. time

## DATA ANALYSIS: WIECHERT

MODEL
Wiechert
Strain Equation:

Model:

axial displacement

Relaxation
Modulus:

tp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19615781

## original thickness of cartilage

new thickness
Calculation at 70 Seconds:

## DATA ANALYSIS: WIECHERT

MODEL
System of Equations:

coefficients:

## RESULTS: STRESSRELAXATION TEST MODELED

Wiechert
Parameters:
0.203

Correlation Coefficient

R=

## RESULTS: WIECHERT MODEL

APPLIED TO ALL GROUPS
R=0

R=0

R=
0.939

R=0

TEST
Strain Equation:

Stress Equation:

## Area = cross-sectional area of indenter =

axial displacement

new thickness

## MATLAB was used to calculate the stresses

and strain

TEST
Group
Number
Group 6

Ultimate
Stress (Pa)
1.55E+07

Group 7

2.24E+07

Group 8

1.96E+07

Group 9

1.40E+07

RESULTS:
GROUP
ELASTIC
MODULI
Group
Number
Group 6

Elastic
Moduli (Pa)
2.42E+04

Group 7

8.37E+04

Group 8

2.05E+04

Group 9

3.92E+04

DISCUSSION

Difference
between
Stress-Relaxation Graphs
Various chicken cartilage samples
Different thicknesses
Different properties

Wiechert Model
Processing
R= 0.939 for our Wiechert model
Coefficients are dependent on
Trial and error method
Need to alter and per group manually
Not a standardized model-fitting tool

Our sample exhibited higher
mechanical properties:
High ultimate strength (strong)
High elastic modulus (stiff)

## Other samples exhibited lower

mechanical properties:
Lower ultimate strengths
Low elastic moduli (ductile)

Possible Sources of
Variance:
Chicken age
Cartilage moisture
Chicken gender
Chicken physical activity and health

DISCUSSION (CONT.)
9th Degree Polynomial Best
Fit Line (MATLAB Curve
Fitting Tool)

Correlation Coefficient =

## Wiechert Model Best

Fit Line

Correlation Coefficient =

DISCUSSION (CONT.)
Statistical Analysis
Mechanica
l
Properties
Failure
Stress
Elastic
Modulus

Average
(Pa)
1.79E+07
4.19E+04

Standard
Deviation
(Pa)

3.85E+06

2.90E+04

## Possible Sources of Error:

Thickness
measurement
Machine error
Bone alignment
Overlap of stressrelaxation and load-tofailure test locations

REFERENCES:
1. Ahearne, M., Siamantouras, E., Yang, Y., & Liu, K.-K. (2009). Mechanical
characterization of biomimetic membranes by micro-shaft poking. Journal of the
Royal Society Interface, 6(34), 471478. http://doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2008.0317
2. Bonifasi-Lista, C., Lakez, S. P., Small, M. S. and Weiss, J. A. (2005), Viscoelastic
properties of the human medial collateral ligament under longitudinal, transverse and