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UNIT 7

Computer Numerical
Control
CNC

Evolution of Machine Tools

Evolution of Machine Tools


First Milestone: Application of
Power

Evolution of Machine Tools


Maudsleys Screw Cutting Machine is second
milestone in machine tools in which spindle and
tool motion were synchronized

Evolution of Machine Tools


Copying arrangement for Machining is third
milestone in automation in which hard
templates/masters were used to machine
components.

Evolution of Machine Tools


In-process gauging is a fourth milestone

Evolution of Machine Tools

CNC or Computer Numerical Control is a term


derived from NC or Numerical Control.

NC refers to Control of a process or automatic


operation of a machine by using symbolic codes
consisting of characters and numbers.

NC was introduced in late 40s to control machine


tools such as Drilling and Milling machines. One of
the first applications of NC machine tool was in
production of helicopter rotor blades and ship
propellers.

CNC : Computer Numerical Control


Conventionally, an operator decides and adjusts
various machines parameters like feed , depth of cut
etc depending on type of job , and controls the slide
movements by hand. In a CNC Machine functions and
slide movements are controlled by motors using
computer programs.
Components Of a CNC System

Part
Program

Machin
e
Control
Unit

Machine

CNC : Computer Numerical Control


PART PROGRAM
Set of Instructions
Each instruction specifies a particular operation to be
done
Can be written manually or automated
All instructions work towards achieving the final
dimension of the workpiece from its initial geometry
Instructions include: Tool motion, Feed rate, Spindle
speed, tool change, coolant on/off and many others

Computer Numerical
Control
PART PROGRAM

Punched Tape

CNC : Computer Numerical Control


Machine Control Unit (MCU)

Converts instructions into electrical signals


Sends these signals to motors and other components to
perform the specified function
Gathers feed back signals from the machine tool
Adjusts machining parameters as per feed back

Classification of CNC Systems

Type of Tool
Motion
-Point to Point
(PTP)
- Continous

Co-ordinate
System
-Incremental
- Absolute

Type of Feed Back


-Open Loop
-Closed Loop

Point to Point Systems

Drilling Holes, Tapping, Probe based Inspection using


CMM, Welding, Pick and Place operations, Rivetting

Continuous path system


Straight Path

Contour

Absolute Co-ordinate
system
y

(C. x=5, y=7)


D. (x=8, y=6)

GOTO
Y=2
GOTO
Y=4
GOTO
Y=7
GOTO
Y=6

X=3,
X=6,

B. (x=6,
y=4)

X=5,
A. (x=3,
y=2)

X=8,

(0,0)

Incremental Co-ordinate
system
(C. x=5, y=7)
(0,0) for Point D

GOTO X=3,
Y=2

D. (x=8, y=6)

GOTO X = 3, Y
=2
GOTO X=-1,
Y =3
GOTO X= 3,
Y=-1

(0,0)

(0,0) for Point C


B. (x=6,
y=4)
(0,0) for Point B
A. (x=3,
y=2)

Absolute and Incremental


Systems
In the Absolute system, Interruptions caused by, for
example, tool breakage (or tool change, or checking the
parts), would not affect the position at the interruption.
Easy change of dimensional data Absolute System
Incremental System Useful for cycles and mirroring

Advantages of CNC
Higher flexibility
Increased productivity
Improved quality
Reduced scrap rate
Reliable and Safe operation
Smaller footprint

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