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WELCOME TO THE SEMINAR

ON
DESIGN OF STAIRCASE


INTRODUCTION
Floorssituatedatdifferentlevelsareconnected,forcommunication,byanyofthefollowingmethods.
(1)Ladders.
(2)Steps-stairs.
(3)Escalators.
(4)Lifts.
(5)Rampsandchuts.
(6)Trolley-rope-ways.
(1)Ladders:Thesearemadeoftwosidesupport,calleduprights,eitherofwood,bamboo,mildsteel,castiron
orpipesspacedwithhorizontalrugs.Thesecanbeportableorfixedastheneedbe.Woodenrungsheldinto
twisteduprightropesarealsoverylightladders;thesearemainlyusedinships,boatsandsea-trailersetc.
Suchladdersarealsousedforpaintingwhitewashingintallbuildings.
(2)Steps:Stepsmadeintheformofaseriesofrisingfootingistermedasstair.Acoupleofstepsbuiltinseries
isknownasaflight.Staircanbemadeintomanyshapesanddesignsoutofanybuilding-material.
(3)Escalators:Thesearestepsfixedonveryslowmovingbelts.Thesearecalledmovingstairs.Thesehelpin
reducingtheclimbingtimeofstairsandareusedatpublicplaceshavingvaryhighintensityofpublic
movement.Likebusterminals,railwaystationsairportsetc.
(4)Lifts:Theseareventilatedencasedchamberswhichcanbemovedupanddowninashaftconnecting
differentfloorsofastructure.Thesearehighandlowspeedlifts.Liftsareelectricallyoperated.Certain
towersandsky-scrapershaveliftsoperatingonouterfacesofthestructures.Theyarefixedwithplexiglass
andgivetheusersabetterviewoftheoutsidesceneryaround.

(5)Rampsandchuts:Thesearesolidorinclinedlaidslabsbetweentwofloorssituatedatdifferentlevels.The
normalgradientsare1in20to1in50.Theseareusedinhospitals,multistoreyedparkingarea.swimming
poolsandchildrenparksalsohaveramps,whichareusedforrecreationalpurposes.
(6)Trolley-rope-ways:Trolleysmadeintheformofcabsareheldonguyropesandoperatedupanddown
betweentwodifferentlevels.Thesearemainlyinstalledtoconnecttwobanksofadeepvalley.

STAIRS
Technical Terms:
1.Stair:Stepsarrangedinaseriesforcommunicatingbetweentwofloorsisknownasastair.
2.Tread:Thehorizontalmemberwhichformstheuppersurfaceofastepiscalledtread.
3.Riser:Itistheverticalfrontportionofastep.
4.Rise:Itistheverticaldistancebetweenthetwouppersurfacesoftwosuccessivesteps.
5.Nosing:Thefrontedgeofatreadistermedasnosing.
6.Lineofnosing:Imaginerylinejoiningthenosingsandparalleltotheslopeofstairis
termedaslineofnosing.
7.Flier:Aregularandrectangularstepisknownasflier.
8.Flight:Aseriesofcontinuousstepsbetweentwofloors,orfloortolandingorlandingtolandingishelps
inturningofstair.
9.Landing:Thisisahorizontalplatformwhichisprovidedbetweentwoflightstoserveasarest.Italso
helpsinturningofstair.
10.SlopeorPitch:Theanglebetweenthelineofnosingandfloorisknownasslope.
11.Stringsandstringers:Theseareinclinedmemberswhichsupportthesteps.Thestringsmaybeprovided
oneachofasteporinthecentretosupportstepsascantileverextendingoneachside.
12.Soffitorplancer:Undersurfaceofaflightiscalledsoffit.
13.Balusters:Verticalmemberswhichsupportthehandrailareknownasbalusters.
14.Handrails:Handrailsareprovidedontopofbalusters.Itsafeguard'sthepersonsusingthestairs.Hand
railsmaybemadeofwood,masonry,R.C.C.orsyntheticmaterials.Itcanbefixedeventothewallsof
staircase.
15.Headroom:Theverticaldistancebetweenthelineofnosingsandthesoffitorlandingofaflight
immediatelyaboveitisknownashead-room.Head-roomshouldnotbelessthan2.20meters.

LOCATION OF STAIR
Stairshouldbeplacedatacentralplaceinthebuildingsoastogiveshortestaccesstoallrooms.Itshould
bewellventilatedandairy.
TYPES OF STAIRS
Following are different forms of stairs
1.Straightflightonsolidspandrilfilling.
(a)Straightflightonsolidspandrilfilling.
(b)Straightflightonhollow-archedorlintelledopeningspandril.
(c)StraightflightoninclinedR.C.C.slab.
(d)Straightflightontwo-side-strings.
(e)Straightflightoncentral-singlestring.
(f)Straightflightstairmadeofcantileverstepsprojectingfromawall.
2.Dog-leggedstairs.
3.Openwellstairsoropennewelstairs.
4.Newelstairs.
5.Geometricalstairs.
6.Circularstairs.
7.Spiralstairs.
8.Bifurcatedstairs.
Thesestairscanbemadeoutofmasonry,wood,compositemasonry,R.C.C.,steelandalloysorsyntheticmaterials.
Stairsfromserial2to8canalsobebuiltonstringers-beams.

PRINCIPLES TO BE OBSERVED WHILE PLANNING AND DESIGNING A STAIR


1.WidthofStair:Itshouldnotbelessthan1.00m.
2.Lengthofflight:Thenumberofstepsinasingleflightshouldnotbemorethan12.
3.Pitchofthestair:Itshouldbebetween25oto40o
4.Widthoflanding:Itshouldbe150mm,morethanthewidthofstair.
5.Windersorkitesteps:Oddshapedstepsshouldbeavoidedandincasefoundnecessary.Theseshouldbe
providedatthestartofastair.
6.Han-rails:Itshouldbe750to850mminheightfromthetopofrespectivesteporlanding.
7.Stepproportions:Thesizeofriseandtreadinastairshouldbekeptuniformthroughoutthewholestair.
Following proportions are recommended:
(i)Residentialbuildings-Tread=250mm
Rise=160mm
(ii)Publicbuildings-Tread=300mm
Rise=150mm
(iii)Industrialbuildings,Railwaystation,
etctread=notlessthen250mm
=250to300mm
Rise=notlessthen150mm
=150to190mm

Otherwise work out the sizes of rise and tread by using


any one of the following proportions
(i)(2xRise)+(Going),Inmm=550to600mm
(ii)Risextread,bothincm=400to410cm2.
(iii)Withbasicproportionofgoing300mmandrise150
mm,add10mmtoriseforevery20mmdeduction
fromgoinge.g.Foragoingof280mmtherisewillbe
160mm.
Theaboverulesactasguidebuttheactualsizesdepend
upontheavailabilityofspace,whileplanningstairs
practical-field.

THANKS
A
LOT