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Universiti Kuala Lumpur

Malaysian Institute of Chemical and Bioengineering


Technology
Mini Project 2015
Process Heat Transfer(CLB 21003)

Heat Exchanger Design:


Creative Tube And Shell
Heat Exchanger
Muhammad Ashrul Bin Mohd Nasir
Mohamad Lukman Hakim Bin Md Zaki
Mohamad Azhan Sobrie Bin Mohamad Anuar
Mohamad Shamil Bin Shaamry
Mohd Farid Bin Yusri

55201214008
55201214228
55201214229
55201214047
55201214247

DESIGN OH HEAT EXCHANGER


Basic component of heat exchanger:
I.Shell
II.Tubes
III.Front end head
IV.Rear end head
V.Baffles

DESIGN OH HEAT EXCHANGER


1. Shell
-Used E-shell type because it cheapness and simplicity
-One pass shell
- Diameter of shell is 3.0 meter
-Length of shell is 9.0 meter
- Material used is stainless-steel

2. Tubes
- Used nickel alloy material
- High conductivity of heat
- Using 6 tubes in once shell
- Diameter of tubes is 0.02 meter
- Length of tubes is 8.0 meter
- More longer tubes more effective heat transfer
- fouling factor of tubes is 0.0005 m2 C W-1

DESIGN OH HEAT EXCHANGER


3. Baffles and Geometry
- To support tube for structural rigidity
- To divert the flow across the bundle
tube to obtain higher heat transfer
coefficient
- Prevent tube vibration and sagging
- Used transverse type layout
- Using 6 baffles to support tubes.
- Using geometry for square tube layout

4. Tubes layout
- using square layout
- tubes angle is 90

DESIGN OH HEAT EXCHANGER


5.0 Front end stationary head types
- using B types
- Bonnet (internal cover)

6.0 Rear end head types


- Using type T
- Pull through floating head

DESIGN OH HEAT EXCHANGER

DESIGN OH HEAT EXCHANGER


The parameter from property table and calculation
Oil (Shell)

Water (Tube)

Tin (C)

125

25

Tout (C)

89

45

Tf (C)

107

35

Cp (kJ/kg.K)

2.25

4.178

Pr

230

4.83

(kg/m.s)

0.009

0.720x10-3

(kg/m3)

836

994.0

(m2/s)

1.7x10-5

k (W/m.K)

0.136

0.623

Mass flowrate (kg/s)

45

28

Diameter (m)

3.0

0.02

DESIGN OH HEAT EXCHANGER


Length/tube (m)

9.0

8.0

No. of tube (NT)

Velocity (m/s)

6.346x10-4

Reynolds number (Re)

176.84

460.46

Nusselts number (Nu)

51.04

21.44

h (W/m2.K)

2.214

434.11

Area (m2)

84.82

3.02

Pressure (bar)

5.5

Fouling factor (m2 C W-1)

0.00021

0.0005

Efficiency, (%)

31%

DESIGN OH HEAT EXCHANGER


CALCULATION OF HEAT EXCHANGER
Assume temperature of H2Oout is 450c
Calculate the energy by using this formula in the table, consist of water.
Q = mCpTc
Q = 28kg/s x 4.178kJ/kg.K x(450c 250c)
Tf = (250 c + 450c)/2
Q = 2339.68 kJ/s

=350c
Cp at 350c = 4.178 kJ/kg.K

By using this value, we calculate the temperature out of oil


Q = mCpT
2339.68 kJ/s = 45 kg/s x 2.25 kJ/kg.K x(T0c)
T0c = 23.110c
Tf = (125+89)/ 2
Toilin Toil out = 23.11 0c
=1070c
1250c Toilout =23.110c
Cp at 3800K = 2.25 kJ/kg.K
Toilout = 101.890c

DESIGN OH HEAT EXCHANGER


Finding the LTMD
1 = Thin - Tcout
= (125 + 273K)- (89 + 273K)
=36 K
2 = Thout - Tcin
= (101.89 + 273K) (25 + 273K)
=76.89 K
Tm =(1 2)/ ln (1 /2)
= (83 87.4)/ ln (83/87.4)
Tm = 53.88 K

DESIGN OH HEAT EXCHANGER


i) Area of tube
A = Ntube ( D L)
= 6 ( x 0.02m x 8 m)
= 3.02 m2
ii) Heat flow rate
Q = m Cp T
= 28 kg/s x 4.178 kJ/kg.0c x (45 - 25)0c
= 2339.68 kJ/s
iii) Calculate the Reynold number (Re)
Re = pVmaxD/
iv) Calculate Vmax
Vmax = (sT/ST-D)V
Q=m/p
= (28 kg/s )/ 944 kg/m3
= 0.0297 m3/s
V= Q/A
= 0.0297m3/s / 3.02m2
= 9.822 x10-3m/s
Vmax = (0.0454m/(0.0454m- 0.02m))x 9.822 x 10-3m/s
= 0.01756 m/s
Re = 944 x 0.01756 x 0.02/0.720x10-3
= 460.46

DESIGN OH HEAT EXCHANGER


v) T avg = (25 +45)/2
= 350c
Pr (prandtl Number) at 350c from water properties table,
Pr = 4.83

vi)

0.62 Re1/ 2 Pr1/ 3


Re 5 / 8 4 / 5
Nu 0.3
x(1 (
) )
0.4 2 / 3 1/ 4
282000
[1 ( ) ]
Pr
0.6(460.46)1/ 2 (4.83)1/ 3
460.46 5 / 8 4 / 5
Nu 0.3
x(1 (
) )
0. 4 2 / 3 1 / 4
282000
[1 (
) ]
4
.
83
Nu = 21.44

DESIGN OH HEAT EXCHANGER


Before looking towards the graph of correction factor ( F ) , we calculate:-

Toil in toil out


Twater out Twater in

125 89
R
45 25
R= 1.8

Toil in toil out


Twater out Twater in

45 25
125 89

P = 0.556

DESIGN OH HEAT EXCHANGER


From the graph of correction
factor (F)
Correction Factor, F= 0.65
Nu = F.xNu water
= 0.65 x 21.44
=13.936
Nu = hoD/k h = Nu.k/D
H = 13.936x 0.623/0.02
= 434.11 w/m2k

DESIGN OH HEAT EXCHANGER


i) Area of shell
A= DL
= (3.0m)(9.0m)
= 84.82 m2
ii) Heat flow rate
Q = mCpT
2339.68 kJ/s = 45 kg/s x 2.25kJ/kg.K x (T)
T = 23.10c
iii) Calculate Reynold number (Re)
Re = VLc/ = V D/
iv) Calculate velocity
V = m/A
=45/(836x 84.82)
= 6.346x10-4m/s
Re = (836)(6.346x10-4)(3.0)/(0.009)
= 176.84

DESIGN OH HEAT EXCHANGER


0.62 Re1/ 2 Pr1/ 3
Re 5 / 8 4 / 5
Nu 0.3
x(1 (
) )
0.4 2 / 3 1/ 4
282000
[1 ( ) ]
Pr
0.62(176.84)1/ 2 (230)1/ 3
176.84 5 / 8 4 / 5
Nu 0.3
x(1 (
) )
0 .4 2 / 3 1 / 4
282000
[1 (
) ]
230
Nu = 51.04
Nu = h1 D
K
h1 = Nu.k/D
= 51.04(0.136)/3.0
= 2.214 w/k

DESIGN OH HEAT EXCHANGER

1
1
1

(0.00021 0.0005)
2.214 434.11

U = 2.199 w/m2k
Area of heat exchanger
Q = UATm
A = Q/ u Tm
= 2339.68 /(2.199x 53.88)
=19.75 m2

DESIGN OH HEAT EXCHANGER


Effectiveness
Cc = mc Cpc
= (28)(4.178)
= 116.984 kJ/K.s
Ch = mh Cph
= (45)(2.25)
= 101.25 kJ/ks
Cc= Cmax
Ch= Cmin
C = Cmin /Cmax
= 101.25/ 116.984
= 0.87

DESIGN OH HEAT EXCHANGER


NTU = UAs/ Cmin
= (2.199)(19.75)/101.25
= 0.43
Effectiveness
Effectiveness

1 exp( NTU (1 c)
1 c, exp( NTU (1 c)

1 exp(0.43(1 0.87)
1 0.87 exp(0.43(1 0.87)

= 0.31x 100%
= 31 %

PRODUCT QUALITY ASSURANCE


Meaning of Quality Assurance; the planned and systematic activities
implemented in a quality system so that quality requirements for a
product or service will be fulfilled has five tremendous affect to the
productions of high quality product to fulfill each requirement by the
customers and worlds industries specification.
Competitiveness in the market, safety and the consequences of
product failure as well as the developing of legislation related to
product liability known as customers protection acts have become
important factors in the pursuit of high quality of product (Nor Aini
B.2015)
For heat exchangers, the overriding reasons are to avoid the
consequences of failure, which can catastrophic in human,
economical, and environment terms.
Flaws in in critical components may increase in likelihood of failure
(Bagi J.S etc.,2012).

PRODUCT QUALITY ASSURANCE


An enormous of different internal constructions are used in shell and
tube exchangers, depending on the desired heat transfer and
pressure drop performance and the methods employed to reduce
thermal stresses, to prevent leakages, to provide for ease of
cleaning, contain operating pressures and temperatures, to control
corrosion, to accommodate highly asymmetric flows (Kuppan T,
2013).
The creativity in product design and process selection is the critical
components in ensuring quality of the product and its associated
processes.
Product quality constitutes a crucial components in the product
design process, directly affecting consumer loyalty and company
profitability (Kuppan T, 2013).

PRODUCT QUALITY ASSURANCE


Increasing heat exchanger performance usually means transferring
more duty or operating the exchanger at a closer temperature
approach (Bagi J.S etc, 2012).
This can be accomplished without a dramatic increase in surface
area.
This constraint directly translates to increase the overall heat
transfer coefficient, U.
For this calculation, U is a function of the heat transfer film
coefficient, h,the thermal conductivity , k, and any fouling
considerations, f. An exchanger usually operates correctly if the
value of U required (Bagi J.S etc, 2012).
Customers usually like a product that works for them in a long
period.

PRODUCT QUALITY ASSURANCE


To follow the international and Standards and Industrial Research Institute of
Malaysia (SIRIM), our heat exchanger has undergo the following rigorous
tests in order to maintain top quality standards:

Life Cycle Testing


Burst testing
Performance Testing
Thermal Shock Testing
Anti-Corrosion Testing

This heat exchanger is used extensively in various industrial applications to


transfer heat from one medium to another.
The salient features include resistance from heat, rust and corrosion, high
performance, sturdy construction and durability.
Durability is closely related to warranty.
The outer shell is made from durable, high strength metal, hazard probability
that is stainless steel.
Inner tubes require an affective combination of durability, corrosion
resistance, more fouling, high pressure and thermal conductivity.
The material used in developing of tubes is nickel alloy.

COST ESTIMATION
For shell
Stainsless steels
www.brazetek.com/shell-tube-heatexchangers
The price for the diameter 3m and 2m long is
about RM567.94
Total price is :
9m x RM567.94/2m = RM2555.73

COST ESTIMATION
For tube
Nickel alloy
www.onlinemetals.com
The price for the diameter 0.02m and 3m long
is about RM754.52
Total price is : 6 tube x 8m RM754.52/3m =
RM12,72.32

REFERENCES
I.Book
Fundamentals of Heat Exchanger Design By Ramesh K. Shah, Dusan P.
Sekulic
Sadik Kaka and Hongtan Liu (2002). Heat Exchangers: Selection, Rating
and Thermal Design (2nd Edition ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0902-6.
Saunders, E. A. (1988). Heat Exchanges: Selection, Design and
Construction. New York: Longman Scientific and Technical.
Perry, Robert H. and Green, Don W. (1984). Perry's Chemical Engineers'
Handbook (6th Edition ed.). McGraw-Hill.

II.Internet
http://www.thomasnet.com/articles/process-equipment/heat-exchangerdesign/ Accessed on 2 May 2015.
http://www.lytron.com/Tools-and-Technical-Reference/ApplicationNotes/What-is-a-Heat-Exchanger. Accessed on 1 May 2015.
http://www.chemstations.com/content/documents/technical_articles/shell.pdf.
Accessed on 14 May 2015