Está en la página 1de 41

Power System Engineering (PSE) Capabilities of Eaton

Electrical Services and Systems (EESS)


JJ Dai, PhD, PE
Director of PSE Center of Excellence
Eaton APAC
jjdai@eaton.com

2014 Eaton, All Rights Reserved.

Agenda
1. Background
2. EESS Overview
3. Power System Studies
- Load Flow
- Short Circuit
- Coordination
- Arc Flash
- Power Quality (Harmonics)
- Motor Starting

4. Design and Protection


- Substation Design
- Surge Protection

5. Dynamic Analysis
- Generator Stability
- Voltage Stability

6. Sample Study Case


- A Petrochemical Plant Transient Stability Study

2014 Eaton, All Rights Reserved.

Background
Eaton EESS offers electrical engineering consulting services to
O&G projects.
The studies will assist in the evaluation of system performance,
system reliability, safety and the ability of the system to expand to
accommodate future production and/or operating requirements.
Even at a conceptual design stage of the specific project, power
system has been completed to certain extend and various power
system studies are done or can be started. Eaton will support our
clients to issue a Requisition for Electrical System Studies and
Scope of Work for Electrical System Studies to cover additional
studies and remaining three (3) design stages: Basic Design
Stage, Detailed Design Stage and Final Design Stage.

2014 Eaton, All Rights Reserved.

EESS overview
Eaton Electrical Services & Systems
PD
Field
Services

Start-up &

Commissioning

Extended
Warranty

Maintenance
Contracts

Testing &
General Field
Services

Small Projects

Renewal Parts

24/7 Response

Disaster
Recovery

Turnkey
Projects
>$500k

Project
Management

Engineer,
Procure &
Construct
(EPC)

Aftermarket
Life
Extension

Engineering
Services
Power System
Engineering

Power System
Automation

Solar

Feasibility
Audits

Metering,
Studies, Design,
Engineering
Protection, &
Control Systems Commissioning
Consulting
Turnkey
Arc Flash &
Safety Studies
Power Chain
Audits
Bus Bracing
Studies

Wind
Turnkey
Substations
Wind Farm
Collector
Substation

Distributed
rooftop
installation EPC

MV Breaker

Replacement

LV Breaker
Replacement

Equipment
Rebuild and

Reconditioning
Life Extension
& Modernization
Arc Flash
Solutions

Recycling
Services

C-Comms
X-Comms
Software
Power
Quality
Energy
Management
Remote
Monitoring &
Diagnostics
Energy
Management
System

25% ROS
Powering Business
Worldwide

Eaton is a global technology leader in diversified power management


solutions that make electrical, hydraulic and mechanical power operate more
efficiently, effectively, safely and sustainably

2014 Eaton, All Rights Reserved.

EESS Overview
PSE Organization Geographical Coverage
WA
OR

MT

ND
SD

MN

VT ME

WI

NH
MI
NY MA
WY

IA
CT
OH
PA
NE

IL IN
NJ
RI
DE
NV UT
CO

KS MO KY WV MD
VA
DC

CA
OK

TN
NC
AR
NM
AZ
SC

AL
MS

LA
GA

TX
AK

FL
EESS
HI

India
EESS US

ID

Also EESS centers in


Europe
Middle East
Canada
South America, etc.

EESS
SEA

2014 Eaton, All Rights Reserved.

EESS APAC

EESS
China

EESS
ANZ

EESS Overview
APAC Capability Chart
EESS APAC

Power System
Engineering

Power System
Automation

Engineering
Application

PowerChain
Solution

Electrical
Safety

Online
Monitoring

Renewable
Energy

Project
Management

Training &
Seminar

Field
Service

Marketing

Sales

PO
Coordination

Future

2014 Eaton, All Rights Reserved.

EESS Overview
Eatons Power System Engineering Group

Power System Engineering:


100+ Engineers in U.S., Canada, APAC,
Europe, Middle East, South America
Average 15+ years experience with
multiple equipment manufacturers
Greater than 30% w/ MSEE
Licensed Professional Engineers
Use state of the art Software tools
Provide engineering and consulting
services for systems ranging from low
voltage to over 345kV

Analysis Software

Offer a full portfolio of


engineering, design, analysis,
and consulting services

Power System Studies


Arc Flash, Short Circuit, Quality, Protection
Power Quality Studies
Disturbance monitoring
Harmonic Analysis
Safety & Reliability Studies
Arc Flash
Short Circuit

Transient Analysis
Effective Grounding
Power Quality Site Surveys

Protective Device Evaluation


Protective Device Coordination
Power System Investigations
Grounding
Power System Audit
8

Power System Studies


Load Flow, Motor Starting, Power Factor
Power Flow Studies
Energy Management
Load Flow Analysis
Power Factor Correction

(
X
1
0
k
W
)

210
189

Motor Starting

168
147
126
105
84
63
42

Transient Stability
EU7

Aggregated Loads

21
0
7/20/98 3:00

7/21/98 21:00

7/23/98 15:00
Time Logged

EU8=Utility Meter 1
EU9=Utility Meter 2
EU7=Sum M1 & M2

EU8
EU9

7/25/98 9:00

Power System Studies


Coordination Studies
CURRENT IN AMPERES
1000

100

10

300 A
208 A

Device: 52-SUB2B-MN
Magnum DS, RMS 520
2000A/2000A
Settings Phase
LTPU (0.4-1.0 x P) 1
LTD (2-24 Sec.) 4
STPU (2-12 x LTPU) 4
STD (0.1-0.5 Sec.) 0.3(I^2 T Out)
INST (2-12 x P) OFF

Device: 50/51-MSB1-SUB2B
Digitrip 3000
CT Ratio 300 / 5 A
Settings Phase
LTPU 1.0
ANSI XTRM 4.5
INST 20.0

Device: 52-SUB2-TIE
Magnum DS, RMS 520
2000A/2000A
Settings Phase
LTPU (0.4-1.0 x P) 1
LTD (2-24 Sec.) 4
STPU (2-12 x LTPU) 4
STD (0.1-0.5 Sec.) 0.2(I^2 T Out)
INST (2-12 x P) OFF

Device: O/L BLWR#1


Class 20
Settings Phase
Class 20

Device: 52-SUB2B-MCC#2A
Magnum DS, RMS 520
1000A/1000A
Settings Phase
LTPU (0.4-1.0 x P) 1
LTD (2-24 Sec.) 4
STPU (2-14 x LTPU) 4
STD (0.1-0.5 Sec.) 0.1(I^2 T Out)
Name BLWR#1
INST (2-14 x P) OFF
Size 200.000 hp

Name T2B
Size 1500.0 kVA

TIME IN SECONDS

TX Inrush

0.10

Device: MCP BLWR#1


HMCP

Detailed recommendations for


new and replacement protective
devices when the study
determines those existing
devices do not provide proper
protection or coordination.
Time-current coordination curves
with the information described
above,
Tabulations of recommended
protective device settings
identified by location, equipment
number, function number and
adjustable range.

Settings Phase
INST (2000-4000A) C

0.01
0.5 1

10

100

1K

10K

MCC#2A.tcc Ref. Voltage: 600 Current in Amps x 10 MCC#2A.drw

10

10

Power System Studies


Selective Coordination Studies
New distribution system
designs
CURRENT IN AMPERES
1000

Device: SHOP MAIN


KD
400A
Settings Phase
Thermal Curve (Fixed)
INST (5-10 x Trip) 10

100

TIME IN SECONDS

Device: SHOP LGST


FD
150A
Settings Phase
Fixed

10

0.10

0.01

0.5

10

100

1K

10K

Look for systems with


generators & automatic
transfer switches
Drawings often state if an
ATS is life-safety or legally
required
Look for drawing notes or
specs that call out the
requirement to meet
selective coordination
and/or NEC 700.27 or
701.18.
Review the specs to see if
NEC 700.27 or 701.18 is
called out in any sections.

MCCBs.tcc Ref. Voltage: 480 Current in Amps x 10

11

11

Power System Studies


Arc Flash Studies / Training

Arcing fault magnitude


Device clearing time
Duration of arc
Arc flash boundary
Working distance
Incident energy
Recommendations for new equipment
and/or system changes necessary to
reduce the calculated arc flash energy
level below 40 cal/cm2, where possible.
General recommendations for arc flash
hazard reduction will also be discussed.

12

12

Power System Studies


Power Quality

Description, purpose, basis and scope of the harmonic


study and a single-line diagram of the portion of the
power system which is included within the scope of the
study.
Tables listing the individual harmonic voltages and
currents and total harmonic distortions (THDs) for
major buses within the electrical distribution system.
Waveforms for all of the calculated harmonic voltages
and currents will be displayed.
Plots of frequency vs. impedance (harmonic
resonance scans).
Complete recommendations for harmonic filters, shunt
capacitors and series reactors, that may be required
for harmonic suppression.
All computer output.

13

13

Power System Studies


Harmonic Study Standard

14

14

Power System Studies


Load Flow Studies
Bus voltages, line currents,
power factor, and transformer
loading in actual quantities
and in percent of the device
base values,
Recommended transformer
tap settings,
Recommendations for power
factor correction capacitors.

15

15

Design and Protection


Surge Protection

Enhanced surge protection design

Switching Transient Studies


Measurements

Example
During commissioning of a data center substation, the
transformer failed during the loss of utility test.

When do I need it?


If your substation transformer fails while
switching its primary circuit breaker.

Why do I need it?


To avoid costly transformer damage repairs or
replacement and loss of revenue due to down
time. APST designed a custom snubber surge
protector for installation at all of the transformers.

16

16

Dynamic Analysis
Generator Stability

Machine variables including turbine input and generator output power, accelerating
power, frequency deviation, rotor angle, field voltage and current, terminal voltage
magnitude and angle, and generator current and angle. These are summarized for
each machine in time increments over the nominal transient time interval of one or two
seconds. For the load shedding study analysis, the time interval would be extended to
five seconds or longer,
Plotted swing curves of power angle over the transient time period for each machine,
The magnitude and angle of voltage and frequency deviation for any bus in the system,
Summary of line currents, power flows, and apparent impedance on any line,
If required, details of the load shedding scheme, including the sequence of load
separation, critical clearing time, and type of relay.
Executive summary, including findings & recommendations
Study procedures
Data summary, including computer report output
Appendix, including one-line diagrams, computer
program output sheets, and all other pertinent
supporting documentation.

17

17

Dynamic Analysis
Voltage Stability
Related to generator stability studies, but considers voltage
conditions resulting from a system disturbance.
Typically an issues
Over loading
Lock of local reactive power source

Solutions:
Reactive power compensation
Advanced relaying and control

18

18

Professional
Energy
Consulting

Distribution
System Design
Services

Energy
Solutions
Engineering

Arc Flash
Hazard
Analysis

Energy
Assessments

Protection &
Control Design

Substation
Design
Services

Eaton
Power System
Engineering
Solar
Generation
Engineering

Smart Grid
Engineering
& Solutions

Power Chain
Audits

Wind
Generation
Engineering

Power Quality
Investigations

Harmonic
Analysis &
Measurements

Hydroelectric
Design and
Engineering

Arc Flash
Solutions &
Engineering

Facility
Optimization
Solution

Demand
Response
19
Solutions

Distributed
Generation
Solutions19

1. Petrochemical Plant System Study


System Dynamic Modeling and Studies

On-site generation plant has 4 generators - 3 GTG gas turbines (37 MW each) and 1 STG steam
turbine (64 MW)

110 kV buses are configured to generator bus and grid bus and the bus tie is the synchronizing point
for parallel operation

Under normal operation, LDPE loads are connected to 110 kV grid bus and all other loads are powered
by 110 kV generator bus

Power exchange between the plant and grid is done through 110 kV bus tie 710
Power
grid

Generator
buses

Onsite
generators

Grid
bus

710

20

20

1. Petrochemical Plant System Study


Generator Dynamic Modeling

Build and validate all dynamic models:

Exciter model

PSS model

Generator model

Governor model
21

21

1. Petrochemical Plant System Study


Study Scenarios

Transient stability scenario selection:


Generation and load demand

System faults and disturbances

System operation configuration

Number of operating generators

Parallel to the grid or in islanding


mode

Electrical short-circuit

Generator trip

Start large motors

Tie breaker open/close

Separation from the grid


22

22

1. Petrochemical Plant System Study


Main Results of System Stability Study
Evaluate study results
Rotor angle stability

Critical fault clearing time

Acceleration time for motors

Voltage dip caused by motor acceleration

System frequency stability

System operating voltage level

Generator load-frequency control curve re-setting


Frequency control by load shedding

Power exchange range between the plant and grid

Other important factors and indices to system stability

Transient stability study results and main assessments

23

23

2. Refinery System Study Case


Major System Expansion Study

24

24

2. Refinery System Study Case


Study Requirements
Electrical system shall be improved to the operation combined with
Grid power supply and NEW two GTGs (2 x 56.562MVA).
22kV main power distribution switchgear shall be replaced with NEW
GIS in new 22kV Main Intake SRC Substation.
new process train will be incorporated into existing system such as
new substations and modifications of existing power distribution
system
Due to increasing the short circuit current, the current limiting reactor
is installed at bus tie position of 22kV GIS. Purpose of this reactor is
to reduce the contribution of the short circuit current from the other
bus bar.
Four stages and four submissions:
FR: For Review stage.
FD: For Design stage.
FC: For Construction stage.
AB: As Build stage
25

25

2. Refinery System Study Case


Scope of Work
Objective of electrical system study is
to verify the system capability, stability
and operability. Scope of work
includes:
1. Load Flow Study (4 study cases)
2. Short Circuit Current Study (5
study cases)
3. Voltage Drop Study during Large
motor starting (4 study cases)
4. Protection Relay Coordination
Study (over current, bus and line
differential, parameter setting
tables)
5. Transient Stability Study (6 study
cases)
6. Harmonics Study (4 study cases)
7. Consultation
26

26

2. Refinery System Study Case


Study Results
Load Flow:
Generator loading, transformer loading, bus loading, bus operating voltage,
feeder voltage drop, power factor
Voltage drop across CLR and reactive power losses
Recommended transformer off-load tap settings
Recommended generator AVR settings
Recommendations for power factor correction capacitors

Short Circuit:
Fault current calculation summary listing initial subtransient fault current, peak
fault current and stead-state fault current
Tabulated summaries listing circuit breaker, fuse and other protective device
breaking and making duties in percent of their respective ratings
Complete fault current magnitudes, including individual branch current
contributions, for each bus in the electrical distribution system
Complete tabulation of circuit breaker, fuse and other protective device
breaking and making ratings versus calculated short circuit duties for every
protective device
Recommendations for replacement or retrofit of overdutied protective devices
27

27

2. Refinery System Study Case


Study Results

Voltage Drop / Motor Starting Study

Tables listing voltages at the motor terminals and at other significant locations within
the electrical distribution system
Plots of motor speed, motor current, motor torque, load torque, accelerating torque,
accelerating time, power factor, and voltages at the motor terminals and other
significant locations in the system, and
Recommendations for correcting or improving any motor starting problems uncovered
by the study, and Voltage drops due to the largest motor on each bus will be
evaluated and reported

Protective Device Coordination Study

A simplified one-line diagram identifying the devices plotted


Short-circuit current levels used for coordination
Motor starting characteristics
Generator overcurrent protective device
Medium-voltage equipment overcurrent relays
Medium- and low-voltage fuses
Low-voltage equipment circuit breaker trip devices, including manufacturers tolerance
bands
Transformer full-load current, magnetizing inrush current and ANSI protection curves
Appropriate protection criteria for equipment
Conductor damage curves
28
28
Generator short-circuit decrement curve and generator damage curve

2. Refinery System Study Case


Main Results of System Stability Study
Transient Stability Study

Machine variables including turbine input and generator output power, accelerating
power, frequency deviation, rotor angle, field voltage and current, terminal voltage
magnitude and angle, and generator current and angle
Plotted swing curves of power angle over the transient time period for each machine
The magnitude and angle of voltage and frequency deviation for any bus in the system
Summary of line currents, power flows, and apparent impedance on any line
If required, details of the load shedding scheme, including the sequence of load
separation, critical clearing time, and type of relay
Executive summary, including findings & recommendations
Study procedures
Data summary, including computer report output

Harmonics

Description, purpose, basis and scope of the harmonic study and a single-line diagram
of the portion of the power system which is included within the scope of the study
Tables listing the individual harmonic voltages and currents and total harmonic
distortions (THDs) for major buses within the electrical distribution system. Waveforms
for all of the calculated harmonic voltages and currents will be displayed
Plots of frequency vs. impedance (harmonic resonance scans)
Complete recommendations for harmonic filters, shunt capacitors and series reactors,
that may be required for harmonic suppression
29
Data summary, including computer report output
29

3. Nuclear Generation Plant Study Case


Results are published in IEEE Transactions

30

30

3. Nuclear Generation Plant Study Case


System Configuration and Study Objective
Study Objective:
Build complete
generator and
control dynamic
models
Validate models by
field testing results
Study emergency
generator start up
Prove critical loads
are fully supported
by the emergency
generator
The study is
required by US
NRC (Nuclear
Regulation
Committee)

Emergency
Generator

Critical
Loads

31

31

3. Nuclear Generation Plant Study Case


Model Validation and Study Results

Study results
compared with
real field testing
data to validate
the models
Validated
models then are
used to predict
system
responses
under different
conditions

Generator Frequency

Generator Voltage

Motor Voltage

Motor Current
32

32

3. Nuclear Generation Plant Study Case


Main Results of System Stability Study

33

33

3. Nuclear Generation Plant Study Case


Study Cases
Some other study cases:
Frequency variation
Voltage variation
Emergency loadbility
Emergency motor starting
MOV (motor controlled valve) starting
AVR/Excitation system internal faults
Governor system internal faults
Load shedding
Bust transfer

34

34

4. Nuclear Generation Plant Study


Data

High-Impact Safety Related Software & Library

Calculations Verified
& Validated against
field results, real
system
measurements,
established
programs, and hand
calculations
Library data carefully
passed pass/fail
criterion
Ensure results are
accurate and reliable
35

35

4. Nuclear Generation Plant Study


Generator Start Up
Applications
Analysis to study emergency generator
starting from cold state

Capabilities
Study quick recovery of power to critical
loads
Determine optimum loading time
Schedule loading sequence
Analyze generator & motor starting
behaviors
Analyze governor & AVR behaviors during
starting
Simulate diesel generator starting for
critical applications such as nuclear
generation plants
Analyze power recovery to critical loads
when power grid connection is lost
Start a stand-by generator from cold-state
under normal & emergency conditions
Simulate motor acceleration
& rejection
36

36

4. Nuclear Generation Plant Study


DC System Studies
In nuclear
generation plant
DC provides
back up power
for critical loads
Detailed DC
system studies
are required:
DC Load Flow
DC ShortCircuit
Battery Sizing

37

37

4. Nuclear Generation Plant Study


Protective Relay Operation Study
Transient Stability analysis
for various scenarios to set
and validate relay settings
for:
System islanding
Automatic load
shedding
Fast bus transfer
Voltage dip
Frequency variation

Study will include following


relays:
Voltage relay
Frequency relay
Current relay
Reverse power relay
Out of Sync relay

38

38

4. Nuclear Generation Plant Study


Arc Flash Analysis
Estimates the arc flash
incident energy and
determines
Flash protective
boundary to live parts
Shock protection
Insuring compliance with
OSHA
NFPA 70E
IEEE 1584 standards
Support a safer power
system design.

39

39

4. Nuclear Generation Plant Study


NERC Standards
Generation plants and system operators are required to perform generation plant
model validation and system studies per NERC North American Electric Reliability
Corporation standards
Related NERC standards
MOD series for Modeling, Data, and Analysis
MOD-010-0 Steady-State Data for Modeling and Simulation of the
Interconnected Transmission System
MOD-012-0 Dynamics Data for Modeling and Simulation of the Interconnected
Transmission System
MOD-026-1 Verification of Models and Data for Generator Excitation Control
System or Plant Volt/Var Control Functions
MOD-027-1 Verification of Models and Data for Turbine/Governor and Load
Control or Active Power/Frequency Control Functions
PRC series for Protection and Control
PRC-006-1 Automatic Underfrequency Load Shedding
PRC-006-SERC-01 Automatic Underfrequency Load Shedding Requirements
VAR series for Voltage and Reactive
VAR-001-4 Voltage and Reactive Control
VAR-002-WECC-1 Automatic Voltage Regulators (AR) (WECC)
VAR-501-WECC-1 Power System Stabilier (PSS) (WECC)
40
40

41

41