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Project management

and
project cycle management
Project Cycle Management
-----

A short training course in project cycle management for


subdivisions of MFAR in Sri Lanka
MFAR, ICEIDA and UNU-FTP

Ministry of Fisheries and


Aquatic Resources (DFAR)

Icelandic International
Development Agency (ICEIDA)

United Nations University Fisheries


Training Programme (UNU-FTP)

Sri Lanka

Iceland

Iceland

Content of the lecture

What is a project?
How does project management benefit you?
Project cycle management (PCM)
PCM tools
Project managers

Learning objectives
After this lecture participants will understand
the basics of project management, know the
role of project manager and principles of
project cycle management

A project
What is a project
Defined start and end, specific scope, cost and
duration
A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a
unique product, service or result
A series of activities aimed at bringing about
clearly specified objectives within a defined time
period and with a defined budget
(EU Aid delivery methods)

Benefits of project management


Project management was developed to save
time by properly planning a project and
considering all relevant factors which may
affect its outcome
The benefits have been proven - it saves
time and money - and generates a more
successful outcome . if guidelines are
followed

How does project management


benefit you?

You will have goal clarity and measurement


Your resources will be coordinated
Your risks will be identified and managed
You will increase the possibilities of time savings
You will increase the possibilities of cost savings
You will increase the possibilities of achieving the
agreed outcome
You will increase the possibilities to deliver projects
successfully

Improved quality
Decision-making routes and processes are
clearly defined
Deadlines, costs and resources are
controlled systematically
All processes in the project management activity chain
are coordinated to ensure they remain in harmony with
one another

The result will help you to get:


more speed
greater flexibility
improved quality

What project management helps


you to achieve

Plan tasks in project


Avoid dependencies problems
Reduce risks
Track progress accurately
Organize project process and timeline
Improve stakeholder - staff communication
Improve management of stakeholders
expectations
Complete within budget and on time

Project success factors

Stakeholder involvement
Executive management support
Clear statement of requirements
Proper planning
Realistic expectations
Smaller project milestones
Competent staff
Ownership
Clear vision and objectives
Hard working and focused staff

Ti
m

Quality

s
Co

The triple constraint

Project Cycle Management (PCM)


PCM
Is a methodology for the preparation,
implementation and evaluation of projects based
on the principles of the logical framework
approach
It describes management activities and decisionmaking procedures used during the life cycle of a
project (key tasks, roles and responsibilities, key
documents and decision options)

Project cycle management (PCM)


Is useful in designing, implementing and
monitoring a plan or a project
A clear concise visual presentation of all the
key components of a plan and a basis for
monitoring
It clarifies:

How the project will work


What it is going to achieve
What factors relate to its success
How progress will be measured

The project cycle


Programming

Evaluation

Identification

Financin
g
decision
Implementation

Formulation

Financing
decision

The three PCM principles

Decision making criteria defined at each phase

The phases in the cycle are progressive

Project identification part of structured


feedback

PCM is result based


PCM requires the active participation of key
stakeholders and aims to promote local
ownership
PCM incorporates key assessment criteria
into each stage of the project cycle
PCM requires the production of good quality
key documents in each phase to support
decision making

PCM helps to ensure that


Projects are part of the country policy
objectives
Projects are relevant to the real problems of
target groups / beneficiaries
Clearly identified stakeholders (primary
target groups and final beneficiaries)
Projects are feasible (objectives are realistic)
Clearly defined coordination, management,
financing arrangements, monitoring and
evaluation
Benefits generated by projects are likely to be
sustainable

PCM tools
The logical framework approach
Quality assessment criteria
Institutional capacity assessment
Economic and financial analysis
Promoting participatory approaches

Time management
Defining project activities
Activity scheduling
Create and controlling the
project activities

An inch of time cannot be


bought for an inch of
gold." - Chinese proverb

Time management grid

Importance

Urgency

Quadrant 1

Quadrant 2

Urgent and important

Important but not


urgent

"Firefighting"

"Quality time"

Quadrant 3

Quadrant 4

Urgent but not important

Neither urgent nor


important

"Distraction"

"Time wasting"

There's an old joke when it comes to project management time:


'The first 90 percent of a project schedule takes 90 percent of
the time. The last 10 percent takes the other 90 percent of the
time'

Managing the scope of the project


Project scope management constitutes 'the
processes to ensure that the project includes all
of the work required, and only the work
required, to complete the project successfully.
Project scope has several purposes:
It defines what work is needed to complete the
project objectives
It determines what is included in the project
It serves as a guide to determine what work is not
needed to complete the project objectives
It serves as a point of reference for what is not
included in the project

Role of a project manager


The role of a project manager is affected by
the one-shot nature of the project
The role of a project manager is difficult when
team members are still linked to their
permanent work areas
Members may be assigned to several projects
simultaneously

Managers must rely on their communication


skills and powers of persuasion

Project manager attributes

Leader & manager


Facilitator, coordinator
Communicator
Credibility: Technical/
Administrative
Work under pressure
Goal-oriented
Innovator
Versatilist

Knowledgeable about
the organization
Political sensitivity
Conflict: sense,
confront, resolve
Can deal with stress,
chaos, ambiguity
Planning and followthrough
Ethical dilemmas

Project manager attributes

Specialist

Versatilist

Generalist

Project manager duties

Reports to senior management


Communicates with users
Plans and schedules
Obtains and allocates resources
Controls risks
Manages people
Coordinates
Implements quality assurance
Controls the budget
Delivers results

Project teams

Diversity of knowledge needed


Cross-functional
Self-directed
Often ad-hoc or temporary
Often distributed (geographically)
Start and end dates

Project personnel skills


Technical
Political
Problem-oriented
(vs. discipline-oriented)

Goal-oriented
Flexibility, adaptability
High self-esteem
can handle failure, risk, uncertainty,
unexpected
can share blame and credit

Governmental projects
Legal constraints on government projects
Laws, statutes, ordinances, directives, regulations,
budgets, and policies

Accountability to the public


Accountable to legislative & judicial bodies,
interest groups, the press and the public

Utilization of public resources


Objective is not higher ROI, but public good

Project governance
Risk planning
Balancing risk avoidance and risk acceptance

Life cycle management


From concept to replacement

Strategic change
Balancing the solution and the ability to utilize

Value management
Adopting consistent processes, building in quality
and adding value

Project management
methodology scope
What is a methodology
The way we do things around here !
Communication, consistency, understanding,
accountability

Project management vs. other activities


This way project management uses the same
approach for all situations

References
British Standard 60971, 2000:2
European Commission (2004). Project Cycle
Management Guidelines. Downloaded 1st March
from:http://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/qsm/documents/p
cm_manual_2004_en.pdf