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# Algebraic Expressions using

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## Algebraic Expression The result of combining numbers and

variables with the ordinary operations of arithmetic

Example

## An expression such as 2x 5y has no definite value unless we

assign values to x and y.

Example

## If x=3 and y=4 then,

2x 5y
=
2(3) 5(4)
=
If x=-2 and y=-3 then,
2x-5y
=
2(-2) 5(-3) =

6 20
-4- (-15) =

-14
11

The properties of the real numbers are used also with algebraic
expressions.
Term a single number or the product of a number and one or
more variables raised to powers.

Example

## Coefficient The number preceding the variables in a term.

Example

Like Terms Two terms containing the same variables with the
same powers

Example

## Combining Like Terms We can combine any two like terms

involved in a sum by using the distributive property.

Example
2x + 5x = (2+5)x

= 7x

Distributive Property

## Products and Quotients We can use the associative property of

multiplication to simplify the product of two terms.

Example
4(7x) = (4(7))x
multiplication
= (28)x
= 28x

Associative property of
Multiplying 7 and 4

## Multiplication does not distribute over multiplication

Example
2(3 (4)) = 6 (8)
Do not divide a number into just one term of a sum.

## Removing Parentheses Multiplying a number by -1 merely

changes the sign of the number.

Example
(-1)(6) = -6 and

(-1)(-15) = 15.

## -1 times a number is the same as the opposite of the number.

Example
(-1)x = -x

or

-1(a+2) = -(a+2).

## When a minus sign appears in front of a sum or difference, we can

think of it as multiplication by -1 and using the distributive
property.

## The commutative and associative properties of addition allow us

to rearrange the terms so that we may combine like terms.
However, it is not necessary actually to write down the
rearrangement. We can identify like terms and combine them
without rearranging
To Simplify an expression to write an equivalent expression that
looks simpler, but simplify is not a precisely defined term.

Law of Exponents

## Positive Integral Exponents

If a is a nonzero real number and n is a positive integer, then
Definition 29:

n factors of a

exponent is n.

## Positive Integral Exponents provide a convenient way to write

repeated multiplication or very large numbers.

where as

## Negative Integral Exponents

If a is a nonzero real number and n is a positive integer, then
Definition 30:

If n is positive, -n is negative

Example
=
=

=
=
=
=

## Rules for Negative Exponents

The following rules hold if a and b are nonzero real numbers
and n is a positive integer:
Definition 31:

## Changing the Sign of an Exponent A negative exponent in the

numerator or denominator can be changed to positive by
relocating the exponential expression

and

## Product Rule for Exponents

If m and n are integers and
, then
Definition 32:

Example
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Zero Exponent
If a is a nonzero real number, then
Definition 33:

= 1.

## If m and n are integers and

, then

Do not divide the bases when using the quotient rule. We cannot apply the
quotient rule to

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, then

then

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## If a and b are nonzero real numbers and n is any integer,

then

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Polynomials

Polynomial
A single term or a finite sum of terms in which the powers of
the variables are positive integers
Definition 38:

## The abovementioned terms could be used as terms of a

polynomial
The number preceding the variable in each term is the
coefficient of that term.
The coefficients are 3, -15, and 7 for the first three terms.
In algebra, a number is often referred to as a constant, and so
the term -2 is called a constant term.
The expression below is a polynomial in one variable with four
terms.

## For simplicity we usually write polynomials in one variable with

the exponents in decreasing order from left to right. Thus we
would write:

Rather than:

## Monomial A polynomial that has one term

Binomial A polynomial that has two terms
Trinomial A polynomial that has three terms
Definition 39: Degree of a Polynomial in one variable
The highest power of the variable in the polynomial.

## Definition 40: Addition and Subtraction of Polynomials

To subtract two polynomials, subtract the like terms.

Example:
Find the sums.
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Polynomials

## Definition 41: Multiplication of Polynomials

To multiply polynomials, multiply each term of the first polynomial by each
term of the second polynomial and then combine like terms

Example:
Find the products
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## Definition 42: Division of Polynomials by Monomials

To divide a polynomial by a monomial, we divide each term of the
polynomial by the monomial.

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Special Products

## Instead of writing out all of the steps in using the distributive

property, we can get the result by finding the products of the
first, outer, inner, and last terms. This method is called the FOIL
method.

F
F = First terms
O = Outer terms
I = Inner terms
L = Last terms
O
I

Like terms

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Factoring

## Definition 48: Factoring

The process of expressing a polynomial as a product of polynomials is called
factoring
In general, factoring is the reverse of multiplication, so we can
use our knowledge of multiplication to help develop factoring
techniques.
For example, we previously used the distributive property to find
the product of a monomial and a polynomial, as the next
examples illustrate.

## For factoring purposes, the distributive property [now in the form

ab + ac = a (b+c)] can be used to reverse the process.

## We are, however, primarily interested in

factorization forms; we refer to it as the
form.

## the first of these

completely factored

## Definition 49: Completely Factored Form

A polynomial with integral coefficients is in completely factored form if:
1)It is expressed as a product of polynomials with integral coefficients, and
2)No polynomial, other than a monomial, within the factored form can be
further factored into polynomials with integral coefficients.

## Violates rule number 2

Violates rule number 2
Violates rule number 1 and 2

## This application of the distributive property is often referred to as

factoring out the highest common monomial factor.

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## Sometimes there may be a common binomial factor rather than a

com-mon monomial factor. For example:

## Has a binomial factor of (y+2)

Thus we can factor y+2 from each term and obtain the following:

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## It may seem that a given polynomial exhibits no apparent

common monomial or binomial factor.

## However, by using the commutative property to rearrange the

terms, we can factor it as follows:

Recall:

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## It is possible that both the technique of factoring out a common

monomial factor and the pattern of the difference of two squares
can be applied to the same problem. In general, it is best to look
first for a common monomial factor.

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## Expressing a trinomial as the product of two binomials is one of

the most common factoring techniques used in algebra. As with
the previous cases, to develop a factoring technique we look at
some multiplication ideas.
Consider the product:

Notice that the coefficient of the middle term is the sum of a and
b and that the last term is the product of a and b. These two
relationships can be used to factor trinomials

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## Trinomials of the Form ax^2 + bx + c

Now lets consider factoring trinomials where the coefficient of
the squared term is not one. First, lets illustrate an informal
trial-and-error technique that works well for certain types of
trinomials.
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