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I- Drugs Containing

Alkaloids

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1- Solanaceous Leaves
a- Belladonna leaf (Folium Belladonnae)
"Deadly nightshade"
Origin: the dried leaf and
flowering top of Atropa
belladonna F. Solanaceae
Morphology: leaves are ovate,
yellowish green in colour,
petiolate, the lamina is
simple, with entire margin,
acuminate apex and
decurrent base, lateral veins
are anastomosing near the
margin by a series of
arches.
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PURVI H KAKRANI

Powder: green to brownish


green, showing fragments of:
1. epidermis with wavy walls,
striated cuticle, stomata are
anisocytic.
2. Non-glandular hairs,
multicellular, uniseriate.
3. Clavate hair, glandular with
unicellular curved stalk and
multicellular club-shaped
head.
4. Idioblasts: parenchyma cells
contain microsphenoidal
crystals of Ca oxalate.
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Active constituents:
Mydriatic alkaloids: hyoscyamine, atropine, hyoscine
(scopolamine) and belladonnine.
N.B. hyoscyamine (levorotatory) and atropine (racemic) are
isomers, atropine is absent in fresh plant but produced
during drying by racemization of hyoscyamine.
Uses: "Parasympatholytic"
1. Mydriatic
2. Antispasmodic (for colic) and reduces hyperacidity, so
used in peptic ulcer.
3. Local anaesthetic.
4. Sedative to the respiratory nerves to relieve spasmodic
cough.
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Chemical tests:
1. Mayer's test: powder + dil. HCl, boil,
filter, add Mayer's reagent white ppt.
2. Vitali's test: boil the powder with dil. HCl,
filter, evaporate to dryness, cool add 10
dps. of conc. nitric acid yellow
solution, evaporate to dryness, add 2
drops of alcoholic KOH violet colour.
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b- Stramonium Leaf
(Folium Stramonii)
"Thorn Apple Leaf"
Origin: the dried leaves and
flowering tops of Datura
stramonium" F.
Solanaceae
Morphology: Leaves are
petiolate showing long
petiole hooked when
dried, lamina is ovate
coarsely dentate with
acuminate apex and
asymmetric base.

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Powder: grayish green to


brownish green in colour,
showing fragments of:
1. Epidermis with wavy
walls, smooth cuticle and
anisocytic stomata.
2. Clavate hair.
3. Non-glandular hair,
multicellular uniseriate
with enlarged basal cell
covered with warty
cuticle.
4. Cluster crystals of
calcium oxalate
arranged in crystal
layer.
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Active constituents:
Mydriatic alkaloids: hyoscyamine, atropine,
apoatropine, belladonnine and scopolamine
(hyoscine).
Uses:
1. relax bronchial muscle in the bronchial spasms
of asthma.
2. Scopolamine is effective in the prevention of
nausea and vomiting associated with motion
sickness.
3. Scopolamine is used for preanaesthetic
sedation.
Chemical tests: as belladonna.
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c- Hyoscyamus Leaves
(Folium Hyoscyami)
"Egyptian Henbane"
Origin: the dried leaves,
smaller stems and
flowering tops of
"Hyoscyamus muticus"
F. Solanaceae
Morphology:
Leaves are pale green,
fleshy, ovate lanceolate ,
broadly dentate margin,
acuminate apex and
asymmetric base.
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Powder: yellowish
brown with salty
taste, showing
fragments of:
1. epidermis with more
or less straight walls,
smooth cuticle except
at the base of the
hairs it's striated,
anisocytic stomata.
2. Branched glandular
hair.
3. Prisms and twin
prisms of calcium
oxalate.
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Active constituents:
0.7-1.5% of total alkaloids, most of which are
hyoscyamine, scopolamine.
Uses:
1. scopolamine is a sedative to the central
nervous system and used as hydrobromide as
a sedative in acute maniacal excitement.
2. Combined with purgatives to obviate their
griping action.
3. Mydriatic.
Chemical tests: as belladonna.
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2- Jaborandi Leaf
(Folium Jaborandi)
Origin: the dried leaflets of various
Pilocarpus species, mainly Pilocarpus
jaborandi known as Pernambuco
Jaborandi and Pilocarpus microphyllus
known as Maranham Jaborandi F.
Rutaceae
Active constituents:
1- Myotic alkaloids: pilocarpine,
isopilocarpine, pilocarpidine and
pilosine.
2- Volatile oil
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Uses: "Parasympathomimetic"
1- Diaphoretic and sialagogue.
2- Myotic to hasten the contraction of eye pupil
after mydriatics and for treatment of glaucoma.
3- in congestion of the middle and inner ear and in
alopecia.
4- antidote for atropine poisoning.
Chemical test:
1. Mayer's test: powder + dil. HCl, boil, filter, add
Mayer's reagent white ppt.
2. Helch's test: extract the powder with dil. H2SO4,
filter, add H2O2 + K2Cr2O7, shake with benzene
violet colour in benzene.
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3- Cinchona Bark
Origin: the dried stem and root
bark of Cinchona succirubra
and its hybrids known as
red Cinchona, C.
Ledgeriana and C. calisaya
and their hybrids known as
yellow Cinchona, C.
officinalis and its hybrids
known as pale Cinchona F.
Rubiaceae.
Morphology: flat, curved and
quill, with rough grayish
outer surface and
longitudinally striated inner
surface.
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Powder: reddish brown,


showing fragments of:
1. cork cells thin walled
suberized with brown
content.
2. Phloem fibre, long,
fusiform, thick wall,
lignified with narrow
lumen, pointed apex and
showing funnel-shaped
pits.
3. parenchyma with starch
granules.
4. Idioblasts contain
microprisms of calcium
oxalate.
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Active constituents:
Alkaloids: quinine, quinidine, cinchonine and cinchonidine in
combination with cinchotannic acid.
Uses:
1. Quinine is antimalyrial.
2. Quinine is used externally as hair tonic.
3. Quinidine is antiarrythmic.
4. Cinchonine and cinchonidine are antirhumatic.
5. Total alcohol extract is bitter stomachic and tonic.
Chemical test:
1. Mayer's test: +ve.
2. Extract gives blue fluorescence with oxygenated acids due to
quinine.
3. Dry heat test: gives purple fumes due to cinchona red colouring
matter.
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4- Nux vomica Seed


(Semen Strychni)
Origin: dried seeds of
Strychnos nux-vomica F.
Loganiaceae.
Morphology: the seeds are
disc-shaped, about 2025 mm in diameter and
4 mm thick, ash-grey to
greenish-grey in colour
usually not quite flat
being a little depressed
on one side.
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Powder: yellowish grey to


brownish grey with bitter
persistent taste, showing
fragments of:
1. epidermal cells strongly
thickened, lignified
extended to form a
trichome, each trichome
has ten lignified rods.
2. Lignified rods of the
trichomes.
3. Cells of endosperm.
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Active constituents:
Alkaloids: mainly strychnine and brucine.
Uses:
1. bitter stomachic and tonic.
2. Increase peristalsis and so used in constipation.
3. CNS stimulant.
4. In high doses leads to convulsions involves respiratory
muscles and death may occur due to asphyxia.
Chemical test:
1. Powder + nitric acid orange red colour in the
endosperm cells.
2. Powder + sulfovanadic acid pink to violet colour
especially in endosperm cells.

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5- Pomegranate Bark
(Cortex Grantii)

Origin: dried stem and


root bark of Punica
granatum F.
Punicaceae.

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Active constituents:
1- five alkaloids, four liquid alkaloids:
pelletierine, isopelletierine,
methylpelletierine and
methylisopelletierine and one solid
alkaloid pseudopelletierine.
2- about 22% gallotannic acid.
Uses: anthelmintic for tapeworm.
Chemical test: +ve Mayer's test.
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