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Biometric for Secure Identity

Presented By
Deepali P. Chaudhari
Guided By
Nareshkumar D. Harale
(HOD of Comp. Engg. Dept.)

Biometrics is the science and technology of measuring
and analyzing biological data.
By using biometrics, the authentication of the person is
related to that person itself rather than persons tokens
or passwords.
Biometrics are used for identification and verification.
Identification is determining who a person is.
Verification is determining if a person is who they say
they are.

Why Biometric?
Securing personal privacy
prevent identity fraud
There is no way to positively link the usage of the system
or service to the actual user.

Why are biometrics secure?

Unique: The various biometrics systems have been
developed around unique characteristics of individuals.
Cannot be shared: Because a biometric property is an
intrinsic property of an individual, it is extremely difficult to
duplicate or share.
Cannot be copied: Biometric characteristics are nearly
impossible to forge or spoof.
Cannot be lost: A biometric property of an individual can be
lost only in case of serious accident.

How Biometric System Works


Stages of Biometric system


Image Acquisition
Image processing
Feature Extraction
Iris Identification

Types of Biometric
Finger Scanning
Fingerprints are the graphical flow-like ridges present on human
Fingerprints are used in the areas of financial transactions, network
security, and controlling the movement of individuals.
The main technologies used to capture the fingerprint image with
sufficient detail are optical, silicon, and ultrasound.
Issues with fingerprint systems
The tip of the finger is a small area from which to take
measurements, and ridge patterns is complicated task.
Even to take measurements, and ridge patterns where cuts & dirt is
there is complicated task.
People with no or few minutia points (surgeons as they often wash
their hands with strong detergents, builders, people with special
skin conditions) cannot enroll or use the system.

Benefits of fingerprint biometric systems

* Easy to use
* Cheap
* Small size
* Low power
* Large database already available

Applications of fingerprint biometrics

Fingerprint sensors are best for devices such as cell phones, USB flash
drives, notebook computers and other applications where price, size,
cost and low power are key requirements.
Fingerprint biometric systems are also used for law enforcement,
background searches to screen job applicants, healthcare and welfare.

Iris Scanning
The iris is the elastic, pigmented, connective tissue that controls the
Glasses, contact lenses, and even eye surgery does not change the
characteristics of the iris.
Benefits of iris biometric systems
* Highly accurate
Weaknesses of iris biometric systems
* The user must hold still while the scan is taking place

Applications of iris biometrics

Identity cards and passports
Border control and other Government programs
Database access and computer login
Hospital security
Schools security
Controlling access to restricted areas, buildings and homes.

Iris recognition system steps

Image acquisition
Image preprocessing
Texture Extraction
Decision Making.

Retina Scanning
The blood vessels at the back of the eye have a unique pattern, from
eye to eye and person to person.
How does retina biometrics work
Retina scans require that the person removes their glasses, place
their eye close to the scanner, stare at a specific point, and remain
still, and focus on a specified location for approximately 10 to 15
seconds while the scan is completed.
Retina scans use infrared light to survey the unique pattern of
blood vessels of the retina
Issues with retina systems
Enrollment and scanning are slow.

Benefits of retina biometric systems

* Highly accurate
Applications of retina biometrics

Facial Recognition
The dimensions, proportions and physical attributes of a person's face
are unique.
How does face biometrics work
Biometric facial recognition systems will measure and analyze the
overall structure, shape and proportions of the face.
Distance between the eyes, nose, mouth, and jaw edges.
Upper outlines of the eye sockets, the sides of the mouth, the
location of the nose and eyes, the area surrounding the cheekbones.

Benefits of face biometric systems

* Can be done from a distance, even without the user
being aware of it.
Weaknesses of face biometric systems
* Face biometric systems are more suited for authentication than for
identification purposes, as it is easy to change the proportion of one's
face by wearing a mask, a nose extension, etc.
* Most people are uncomfortable with having their picture taken.
Applications of face biometrics
Access to restricted areas and buildings, banks, military sites, airports,
law enforcement.

Voice Recognition
Our voices are unique to each person (including twins), and cannot be
exactly replicated.
How does voice biometrics work
Speech includes two components
physiological component (the voice tract)
behavioural component (the accent)

Benefits of voice biometric systems

* Ability to use existing telephones
* Can be automated, and coupled with speech recognition systems
* Low perceived invasiveness
Weaknesses of voice biometric systems
* High false, non-matching rates
Applications of voice biometrics
Telephony-based applications.
Voice verification is used for government, healthcare, call centers,
electronic commerce, financial services, customer authentication for
service calls.

Gabor Filtering
Gabor elementary functions are Gaussians modulated by sinusoidal
A two dimensional (2D) even Gabor filter can be represented by the
following equation in the spatial domain:

The central frequencies used are 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 cycles/degree.

For each central frequency f, filtering is performed at =00, 450, 900,
and 1350.
There are a total of 20 Gabor filters with different frequencies and

Fig. 3.2 (a) Original Image. (b) Gabor Filter. (c) Gabor filtered Image.

Non Filter-based Technique

On the iris images we applied the preprocessing steps of J.Daugmans
algorithm .
The preprocessing step includes:
1. Iris Localization: The sclera, pupil and eyelids are segmented (Fig . a).
2. Iris Normalization: Transformation of localized iris region from
Cartesian coordinates to Polar coordinates (Fig . b).
3. Masking: The region corresponding to eyelids and eyelashes are then
masked (Fig . C).

Wavelet Transform
The wavelet transform divides the original image into four sub-bands
and they are denoted by LL(low-low), LH(low-high), HL(high-low)
and HH(high-high) frequency sub-bands.

fig. a. Failure case

Figure 5. Localization of the iris pattern result

Fig. b. Success case

Neural Network
Fig. Outline of Face Recognition System by using Back-propagation
Neural Network

There is no extra learning process included here, only by saving the
face information of the person and appending the persons name in the
learned database completes the learning process.
Extracted features are fed into the input of the multilayer Neural
Network and the network is trained to create a knowledge base for
recognition which is then used for recognition.

Table A: Comparison of Biometric

Table A: Comparison of Biometric Technologies
Hand Geometry
Retinal Scanning
Iris Scanning
Facial Recognition
Dynamic Signature
Keystroke Dynamics
Voice Recognition
H= High, M= Medium, L= Low






Economic Feasibility or Cost
Risk Analysis
Perception of Users
Techno Socio Feasibility
User friendly and social acceptability
Legal Feasibility

Prison visitor systems.
Drivers licenses.
Canteen administration
Benefit payment systems.
Border control.
Voting systems.

Future Applications-Some common ideas

ATM machine use
Workstation and network access
Travel and tourism
Internet transactions
Telephone transactions
Public identity cards

Authenticate the user.
Users cannot pass biometric characteristics to other users as easily
as they do cards or passwords.
Biometric objects cannot be stolen.
Most biometric techniques are based on features that cannot be lost
or forgotten.
Biometric authentication systems requires less speed.

Drawbacks of biometrics
That the system will enhance the power over individuals of particular
organizations and the State
That high-integrity identification embodies an inversion of the
appropriate relationship between the citizen and the State
That society is becoming driven by technology-assisted bureaucracy,
rather than by elected government
That exemptions and exceptions will exist for powerful individuals
and organizations, and that the system will entrench fraud and
That such identification schemes are the mechanism foretold in
religious prophecy (e.g. 'the Mark of the Beast').