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OIL AND GAS SEPARATION

Equipment and Design


Alejandro Chacn Mantilla
Carolina Pereira Santana
Juan Camilo Molano
Group D1
MSc. Nicols Santos Santos

School of Petroleum Engineering


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Gas engineering
Bucaramanga
Facultad de Ciencias Facultad de Ingenieras Fsicos Qumicas Facultad
de Ingenieras 2015
Fsicos Mecnicas

AGENDA

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Facultad de Ciencias Facultad de Ingenieras Fsicos Qumicas Facultad de Ingenieras


Fsicos Mecnicas

INTRODUCTION

Source: Bothamley, Mark; Campbell, J M. 2013 Quantifying Separation Performance, Gas/Liquid Separators

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Facultad de Ciencias Facultad de Ingenieras Fsicos Qumicas Facultad de Ingenieras


Fsicos Mecnicas

THEORY
Settlin
g

Source: Arnol, K. Surface Production Operations.


Volume 1.

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Fsicos Mecnicas

THEORY
Settlin
g

TERMINAL VELOCITY EQUATIONS FOR SETTLING


LAW REGIONS
Settling
Law

Reynolds
Number (Rep)

Stokes'
Law

<2

Intermedi
ate Law

2500

Newton's
Law

500200,000

Terminal Velocity Equation

Source: Arnol, K. Surface Production Operations.


Volume 1.

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Fsicos Mecnicas

THEORY
Settlin
g

Newton Coefficient of Drag, CD

104

103

102
Spheres (observed)
Disks (observed)

10

Cylinder (observed)
length = 5 diameters

10-3

Stokes'
Law
10-2

10-1

10

102

103

104

105

Reynolds Number, Re

Source: Arnol, K. Surface Production Operations.


Volume 1.

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Fsicos Mecnicas

106

THEORY
Collisio
n

Fuente: Arnol, K. Surface Production Operations.


Volume 1.

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Facultad de Ciencias Facultad de Ingenieras Fsicos Qumicas Facultad de Ingenieras


Fsicos Mecnicas

PRINCIPAL FACTORS AFFECTING THE


EFFICIENCY OF GAS-LIQUID
SEPARATION

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Fsicos Mecnicas

SEPARATOR COMPONENTS
Functional Section of Gas Liquid
Separador
Mesh Pad
A Inlet Device
B Gas gravity separation
C Liquid gravity separation

Two Phase
Inlet

D
Gas
Outlet

A
B

D Mist Extraccin
Two Phase
Inlet

Gas Outlet

C
Vortex
Breaker

B
C

Liquid
Outlet

Liquid
Outlet
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Fuente: Arnol, K. Surface Production Operations.


Volume 1.

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Fsicos Mecnicas

VESSEL INTERNALS

Vessel Internals

Wave Breakers
Inlet Diverters

Centrifugal
diverters
Elbows

Defoaming
Plates
Mist Extractor
Vortex Breaker

Impingement
Type
Baffles
Wire Mesh

Stilling Well
Sand Jets and
Drains

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Baffle plates

Micro Fiber
Centrifugal
Coalescing pack

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Fsicos Mecnicas

VESSEL INTERNALS
Inlet
Diverters

Baffle plates

Two Phase Inlet

Tangenti
al Baffle

Diverter
Baffle
Fuente: Arnol, K. Surface
Production Operations.
Volume 1.

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Centrifugal
diverters

Elbows

Gas
Outlet

Liquid Outlet
Mesh Pad
Inlet
diverter
Two Phase
Inlet

Liquid Outlet

Gas
Outlet

Vortex
Breaker

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Fsicos Mecnicas

VESSEL INTERNALS
Inlet
Diverters

Baffle plates

Elbows

Inle
t
Flo
w

Fuente: Arnol, K. Surface Production Operations.


Volume 1.

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Centrifugal
diverters

Cyclone
Baffle

Inle
t
Flo
w

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Fsicos Mecnicas

VESSEL INTERNALS
Wave
Breakers

Defoaming
Plates

Fuente: Arnol, K. Surface Production Operations.


Volume 1.

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Fsicos Mecnicas

VESSEL INTERNALS
Vortex
Breaker

Sand Jets and


Drains

Sand Jet
Water Inlet
(Typical
Every Five
Feet)
Jet Water Outlet
(Typical Every Five Feet
Fuente: Arnol, K. Surface Production Operations.
Volume 1.

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Fsicos Mecnicas

VESSEL INTERNALS
Mist
Extractor
Impingement
Type
Baffles
Wire Mesh
Centrifugal
Coalescing
pack

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Inertial
Impaction

Direct
Impaction

Brownian
Impaction

Fuente: Arnol, K. Surface Production Operations.


Volume 1.
Facultad de Ciencias Facultad de Ingenieras Fsicos Qumicas Facultad de Ingenieras
Fsicos Mecnicas

VESSEL INTERNALS
Mist
Extractor
Impingement
Type
Baffles
Wire Mesh
Centrifugal
Coalescing
pack

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Fuente: Arnol, K. Surface Production Operations.


Volume 1.

Facultad de Ciencias Facultad de Ingenieras Fsicos Qumicas Facultad de Ingenieras


Fsicos Mecnicas

VESSEL INTERNALS
Mist
Extractor
Impingement
Type

Fuente: Arnol, K.
Surface Production
Operations. Volume
1.

Baffles
Wire Mesh
Centrifugal
Coalescing
pack

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Fsicos Mecnicas

VESSEL INTERNALS
Mist
Extractor
Impingement
Type
Baffles
Wire Mesh
Centrifugal
Coalescing
pack

www.uis.ed
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Fuente: Arnol, K. Surface Production Operations.


Volume 1.
Facultad de Ciencias Facultad de Ingenieras Fsicos Qumicas Facultad de Ingenieras
Fsicos Mecnicas

VESSEL INTERNALS
Mist
Extractor
Impingement
Type
Baffles
Wire Mesh
Centrifugal
Coalescing
pack
Fuente: Arnol, K. Surface Production Operations.
Volume 1.

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Fsicos Mecnicas

SEPARATOR
Horizontal
SELECTION
(advantages)

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Fsicos Mecnicas

SEPARATOR
Horizontal
SELECTION

(disadvantages)

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Fsicos Mecnicas

SEPARATOR
Vertical
SELECTION
(advantages)

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Fsicos Mecnicas

SEPARATOR
Vertical
SELECTION

(disadvantages)

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Fsicos Mecnicas

SEPARATOR
SELECTION

Source: Gamboa Gmez, Diego Felipe y Pea Saenz, Yuly Paola. Determinacin de estndares operativos para
separadores. 2007

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Fsicos Mecnicas

SLUG CATCHER

Source: Arnol, K. Surface Production Operations.


Volume 1.

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Fsicos Mecnicas

SLUG CATCHER
Inlet
Flowstream

Outlet to
Gas Processing Facilities

Liqu
Fing id
ers

Header

Liq
Fin uid
ge
rs

To FWKO
Source: Arnol, K. Surface Production Operations.
Volume 1.

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Fsicos Mecnicas

FWKO

VERTICAL
SEPARATORS
Gas outlet
Pressure Relief
Valve

Pressure Control

Inlet

Liquid Level
Control
Liquid Outlet
Release
Source: Gamboa Gmez, Diego Felipe y Pea Saenz, Yuly Paola. Determinacin de estndares operativos para
separadores. 2007

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Fsicos Mecnicas

VERTICAL
SEPARATORS

Gas outlet

Pressure Relief Valve

Pressure control
Mist Extractor
Cyclonic Inlet
Deflector

Inlet

Liquid Level Control

Level Control Float

Liquid Outlet
Release
Source: Gamboa Gmez, Diego Felipe y Pea Saenz, Yuly Paola. Determinacin de estndares operativos para
separadores. 2007

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Fsicos Mecnicas

VERTICAL
Design
SEPARATORS
Gas Out

Vg

FD =Drag Force

Liquid
Droplet

Where
Vt = Setting
Velocity
Relative To
Gas Phase

FB =Bouyant
(Settling) Force

d =vessel internal diameter, in. ,


T =operating temperature, (R),
Qg =gas flow rate, MMscfd,
P =operating pressure, psia (kPa),
Z =gas compressibility,
CD =drag coefficient,
dm=liquid droplet to be separated, micron,
g=density of gas, lb/ft3,
l=density of liquid, lb/ft3.

Source: Arnol, K. Surface Production Operations.


Volume 1.

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Gravity
Settling
Section
Inlet
Diverter
Section
Liquid
Collection
Section

Inlet

d
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Where

d =vessel internal diameter, in,


h = height of the liquid volume, in,
tr= desired retention time for the liquid, m
Ql= liquid flow rate, bpd.

Liquid Outlet
4"

Mist Extractor

d + 6" or 42" Min.


h 24" Min.
6"

VERTICAL
Design
SEPARATORS
Gas Outlet

Source: Arnol, K. Surface Production Operations.


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Fsicos Mecnicas

VERTICAL
Design
SEPARATORS

Inlet
Diverter
Section
Liquid
Collection
Section

Inlet

d
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For diameters 36 in

Shell Length

Gravity
Settling
Section

Liquid Outlet
4"

Mist Extractor

d + 6" or 42" Min.


h 24" Min.
6"

Gas Outlet

For diameters > 36 in

Where
Lss = seam-to-seam length, ft,
h = height of liquid level, in,
d = vessel ID, in.

Source: Arnol, K. Surface Production Operations.


Volume 1.
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Fsicos Mecnicas

VERTICAL
Design
SEPARATORS
(Procedure)
Establis
h the
design
basis

Determin
e the
minimum
required
d

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Determin
e seamto-seam
length

Check
the
slendern
ess ratio

Determin
e h.

Select a
standar
d vessel
size

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Fsicos Mecnicas

VERTICAL
Design (Example)
SEPARATORS
Gas flow rate

10 MMSCFD at 0.6 specific


gravity
2,000 BOPD at 40API
1,000 psia
60F

Oil flow rate


Operating pressure
Operating
temperature
Droplet size removal 140 microns
Retention time
3 min

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VERTICAL
Design (Example)
SEPARATORS
1. Calculate CD

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Fsicos Mecnicas

VERTICAL
Design (Example)
SEPARATORS
1. Calculate CD
Assume CD = 0.34

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Fsicos Mecnicas

VERTICAL
Design (Example)
SEPARATORS
1. Calculate CD
Assume CD = 0.712

Assume CD = 0.822

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Fsicos Mecnicas

VERTICAL
Design (Example)
SEPARATORS
1. Calculate CD
Assume CD = 0.844

Assume CD = 0.85

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VERTICAL
Design (Example)
SEPARATORS
2. Gas capacity constrain

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Fsicos Mecnicas

VERTICAL
Design (Example)
SEPARATORS
Vertical Separator Example Diameter vs. Length for Liquid Capacity
Constraint
Tr (min)

d (in.)

h (in.)

Lss (ft)

12Lss / d

24

86.8

13.6

6.8

30

55.6

11.0

4.4

36

38.6

9.6

3.2

42

28.3

8.7

2.5

48

21.7

8.1

2.0

24

57.9

11.2

5.6

30

37.0

9.4

3.8

36

25.7

8.5

2.8

42

18.9

7.9

2.3

24

28.9

8.7

4.4

30

18.5

7.9

3.2

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Fsicos Mecnicas

TWO PHASE SEPARATION


HORIZONTAL SEPARATOR
Equipment
Description:
Exterior view

Controlado
r de
Presin
Manmetro
Disco de ruptura

Vlvula de alivio

Salida Gas

Visor

Entrada de fluidos
Drenaje

Salida de lquido
Bases
Fuente: Gamboa Gmez, Diego Felipe y Pea Saenz, Yuly Paola. Determinacin de estndares operativos
para separadores. 2007

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Fsicos Mecnicas

TWO PHASE SEPARATION


HORIZONTAL SEPARATOR
Equipment
Description:
Internal view
Platos
Coalescentes

Manmetro

Salida Gas
Extractor
de niebla
Visor

Deflector
de entrada
Rompedor
de
remolinos

Entrada de fluidos
Drenaje

FlotadorSalida de lquido

Fuente: Gamboa Gmez, Diego Felipe y Pea Saenz, Yuly Paola. Determinacin de estndares operativos
para separadores. 2007

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TWO PHASE SEPARATION


HORIZONTAL SEPARATOR
Equipment
Description:
Lateral view
Seccin de
separacin
primaria

Platos
Coalescentes

Salida Gas
Extractor
de niebla

Entrada
de
fluidos
Seccin de
separacin
gravitacional
Almacenamient
o de lquido

Drenaje

Salida de lquido
Flotador

Fuente: Gamboa Gmez, Diego Felipe y Pea Saenz, Yuly Paola. Determinacin de estndares operativos
para separadores. 2007

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HORIZONTAL SEPARATOR
Design

GAS CAPACITY
CONSTRAINT
FIELD UNITS:

WHERE:
d = vessel internal diameter, in
Leff = effective length of the vessel
separation occurs, ft
T = operating temperatura, R
Qg = gas flow rate, MMscfd
P = operating pressure, psia

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HORIZONTAL SEPARATOR
Design

LIQUID CAPACITY
CONSTRAINT
FIELD UNITS:

WHERE:
tr = desired retention time for the liquid,
min.
Ql = liquid flow rate, bpd
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HORIZONTAL SEPARATOR
Design

SEAM-TO-SEAM LENGTH

FIELD UNITS:

Inlet

Seam-to-Seam Length
= Lss
Effective Length =
Leff

Exit

Vg
Vg
FB

For gas
capacity

Vt

Trajectory of Liquid Design


Liquid Drop. dmm

Fuente: Arnol, K. Surface Production Operations. Volume 1.

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HORIZONTAL SEPARATOR
Design

SEAM-TO-SEAM LENGTH

For liquid
capacity
SLENDERNESS RATIO

3 < (12Lss / d) > O4ptimum rank


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HORIZONTAL SEPARATOR
Design (Example)

EXAMPLE SIZING (FIELD


UNITS)
Given:
Gas flow rate: 10 MMscfd at 0.6 specific
gravity
Oil flow rate: 2,000 BOPD at 40API
Operating pressure: 1,000 psia
Operating temperature: 60F
Droplet size removal: 140 microns
Retention time: 3 minutes

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HORIZONTAL SEPARATOR
Design (Example)

SOLUTION

Calculate CD
CD=
0.851

Gas capacity constraint

dLeff =
39.85
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HORIZONTAL SEPARATOR
Design (Example)

3Liquid capacity constraint

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Fsicos Mecnicas

HORIZONTAL SEPARATOR
Design (Example)

Compute seam-to-seam length for various d

For gas
capacity

For liquid
capacity

Compute slenderness ratios, 12Lss/d. Choices in the


range of 3 to 4 are common.

3 < (12Lss / d) < 4Optimum rank


6

Choose a reasonable size with a diameter and length


combination above both the gas capacity and the
liquid capacity constraint lines.

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HORIZONTAL SEPARATOR
Design (Example)

HORIZONTAL SEPARATOR EXAMPLE DIAMETER VS. LENGTH


d (n)

Gas Leff
(ft)

Liquid leff
(ft)

Lss (ft)

12Lss/d

20

21.4

28.5

17.1

24

1.7

14.9

19.9

10

30

1.3

9.5

12.7

5.1

36

1.1

6.6

9.1

3.03

42

0.9

4.9

7.4

2.1

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THREE PHASE
SEPARATION

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Fuente: Arnol, K. Surface Production Operations.


Volume 1.

Facultad de Ciencias Facultad de Ingenieras Fsicos Qumicas Facultad de Ingenieras


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THREE PHASE
SEPARATION
Gas Separation
Oil - Water Separation
FIELD UNITS

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Vt = terminal settling velocity,


ft/s (m/s),
SG = difference in specific
gravity relative to water
between the oil and the water
phases
dm = drop size, microns,
Fuente: Arnol, K. Surface Production Operations.
=1.viscosity of continuous
Volume
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phase,
cp.
Fsicos Mecnicas

THREE PHASE
SEPARATION
Vertical Separators Sizing

The first step in sizing a horizontal separator is to


establish the design basis. This includes specifying:
maximum and minimum flow rates
Operating pressure and temperature
Droplet size to be removed
Oil Retention Time
Oil gravity
Condensate
25
Gas gravity
57.5
Retention time Oil and WaterLight crude oil (3040)
Intermediate crude oil
Viscosity Oil and Water
7.510
(2030)
Drag coefficient
Heavy crude oil (less than
20)

10+

Fuente: Arnol, K. Surface Production Operations.


Volume 1.

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Fsicos Mecnicas

THREE PHASE
SEPARATION
Vertical Separators Sizing
GAS CAPACITY
CONSTRAINT

2
FIELD UNITS:

WHERE:
d = vessel internal diameter, in
Leff = effective length of the vessel
separation occurs, ft
T = operating temperatura, R
Qg = gas flow rate, MMscfd
P = operating pressure, psia

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THREE PHASE
SEPARATION
Vertical Separators Sizing

LIQUID CAPACITY CONSTRAINT

Settling water droplets from oil


phase
FIELD UNITS:

Settling oil from water phase


FIELD UNITS:

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THREE PHASE
SEPARATION
Vertical Separators Sizing

RETENTION TIME CONSTRAINT

FIELD UNITS:

SEAM TO SEAM LENGTH

FIELD UNITS:

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THREE PHASE
SEPARATION
Vertical Separators Sizing

SLENDERNESS RATIO

Check the slenderness ratios.


Slenderness ratios between
1.5 and 3
are common.

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VERTICAL SEPARATOR
Design (Example)

EXAMPLE SIZING (FIELD


UNITS)

Given:

Droplet removal=100 microns liquids,


500 microns water, 200 microns oil.

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VERTICAL SEPARATOR
Design (Example)

Solution

The minimum diameter required to settle a liquid


droplet through the gas phase.

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VERTICAL SEPARATOR
Design (Example)

The minimum diameter required for water droplets to


settle through the oil phase

The minimum diameter required for oil droplets to


settle through the water phase

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VERTICAL SEPARATOR
Design (Example)

Select the largest diameter from steps 24 as the


minimum inside diameter required.

Calculate

Compute seam-to-seam length (Lss). Select the larger


value from.

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VERTICAL SEPARATOR
Design (Example)

Vertical Three-Phase Separator Capacity Diameter vs.


Length for
Retention Time Constraint
d (n)
Lss (ft)
12Lss/d
d (n)
(in)
Lss (ft)
12Lss/d
84
84

94.5
94.5

18.2
18.2

2.6
2.6

90
90

82.4
82.4

17.7
17.7

2.4
2.4

96
96

72.3
72.3

17.4
17.4

2.2
2.2

102

64.1

17.2

2.0

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VERTICAL SEPARATOR
Design (Example)

Compute the slenderness ratio.

Select a reasonable diameter and length.


Slenderness ratios (12Lss/d) on the order of 1.5 to 3
are common.

Select 90 in outside diameter (OD) 20 ft seam-toseam


length (s/s).

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THREE PHASE
SEPARATION
Equipment Description Horizontal
Separators

Fuente: Arnol, K. Surface Production Operations.


Volume 1.

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THREE PHASE
SEPARATION
Equipment Description Horizontal
Separators

Fuente: Gamboa Gmez, Diego Felipe y Pea Saenz, Yuly Paola. Determinacin de estndares operativos
para separadores. 2007

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THREE PHASE
SEPARATION

Horizontal Separators Sizing


Half Full

The first step in sizing a horizontal separator is to


establish the design basis. This includes specifying:
maximum and minimum flow rates
Operating pressure and temperature
Droplet size to be removed
Oil Retention Time
Oil gravity
Condensate
25
Gas gravity
57.5
Retention time Oil and WaterLight crude oil (3040)
Intermediate crude oil
Viscosity Oil and Water
7.510
(2030)
Drag coefficient
Heavy crude oil (less than
20)

10+

Fuente: Arnol, K. Surface Production Operations.


Volume 1.

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THREE PHASE
SEPARATION

Horizontal Separators Sizing


Half Full
GAS CAPACITY
CONSTRAINT

FIELD UNITS:

WHERE:
d = vessel internal diameter, in
Leff = effective length of the vessel
separation occurs, ft
T = operating temperatura, R
Qg = gas flow rate, MMscfd
P = operating pressure, psia

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THREE PHASE
SEPARATION

Horizontal Separators Sizing


Half Full
LIQUID CAPACITY CONSTRAINT

FIELD UNITS:

WHERE:
Qw = water flow rate, BPD
(tr)w = water retention time, min,
Qo = oil flow rate, BPD
(tr)o = oil retention time, min.

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THREE PHASE
SEPARATION

Horizontal Separators Sizing


Half Full

SETTLING WATER DROPLETS FROM OIL PHASE


FIELD UNITS:

SEPARATING OIL DROPLETS FROM WATER


PHASE
FIELD UNITS:

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THREE PHASE
SEPARATION
Horizontal Separators Sizing
Half Full

Size
distribution
varies
widely
for
different
process
condition and crude
and wter properties

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THREE PHASE
SEPARATION

Horizontal Separators Sizing


Half Full

MAXIMUM DIAMETER

For a given oil retention time [tro] and a given water retention
time [(trw]
1 Compute (ho)max. Use 500-micron droplet if no
other information is available. Compute (hw)max.

Calculate the fraction of the vessel cross-sectional


area occupied by the water phase.

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THREE PHASE
SEPARATION

MAXIMUM DIAMETER

Determine the coefficient .

4Calculate dmax from

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THREE PHASE
SEPARATION

MAXIMUM DIAMETER

Calculate
dmax for gas capacity constraint
5

Liquid
Capacity

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>

Liquid
Capacity

> Gas Capacity

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THREE PHASE
SEPARATION

Horizontal Separators Sizing


Half Full
GAS CAPACITY
4
CONSTRAINT
FIELD UNITS:

LIQUID CAPACITY CONSTRAINT


FIELD UNITS:

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THREE PHASE
SEPARATION

Horizontal Separators Sizing


Half Full

SEAM TO SEAM LENGTH

FIELD UNITS:
(Gas capacity)
For vessels sized on a liquid capacity basis, some portion of the
vessel length is required for inlet diverter flow distribution and
liquid outlet.
The seam-to-seam length should not exceed the following:
(Liquid
capacity)
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THREE PHASE
SEPARATION

Horizontal Separators Sizing


Half Full

SLENDERNESS RATIO

Select a reasonable diameter and length. Slenderness


ratios (12Lss/d) on the order of 3 to 5 are common.

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HORIZONTAL SEPARATOR
Design (Example)

EXAMPLE SIZING (FIELD


UNITS)

Given:

Droplet removal=100 microns liquids,


500 microns water, 200 microns oil.
Vassel is half-full of liquids.

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HORIZONTAL SEPARATOR
Design (Example)

Solution

Calculate maximum oil pad thickness (ho)max. Use


500-micron droplet size if no other information is
available.

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HORIZONTAL SEPARATOR
Design (Example)

Calculate

4
5

Determine from Figure 5-20. With Aw/A = , read


Calculate dmax.

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HORIZONTAL SEPARATOR
Design (Example)

Calculate combinations of d, Leff for d less than dmax that


satisfy the gas capacity constraint. Use 100-micron droplet size
if no other information is available.
Horizontal Three-Phase Separator
Diameter vs. Length for Gas
Capacity Constraint

120

Since the values of Leff are


low, the gas capacity does not
govern.
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d (n)

Leff (ft)

60

1.7

72

1.4

84

1.2

96

1.1

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HORIZONTAL SEPARATOR
Design (Example)

Calculate combinations of d, Leff for d less than dmax that


satisfy the oil and water retention time constraints.

Estimate seam-to-seam length

(Gas capacity)

(Liquid
capacity)
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HORIZONTAL SEPARATOR
Design (Example)

Horizontal Three-Phase Separator Capacity Diameter vs.


Length for Liquid Retention Time Constraint
d (n)

(ft)

Lss (ft)

12Lss/d

60

31.6

42.1

8.4

72

21.9

29.2

4.9

84

16.1

21.5

3.1

96

12.3

16.4

2.1

108

9.7

13

1.4

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HORIZONTAL SEPARATOR
Design (Example)

Compute the slenderness ratio.

Select a reasonable diameter and length.


Slenderness ratios (12Lss/d) on the order of 3 to 5
are common.
1
0

Possible choices are 72 in diameter by 30 ft seam-byseam and 84 in diameter by 25 ft seam-by-seam.

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POTENTIAL OPERATING PROBLEMS


FOAMY CRUDE
PARAFFIN
SAND
LIQUID CARRYOVER
GAS BLOWBY
EMULSIONS
CORROSION
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BIBLIOGRAPHY
Arnol, K. Surface Production Operations. Volume 1.
Gamboa Gmez, Diego Felipe y Pea Saenz, Yuly Paola.
Determinacin
de
estndares
operativos
para
separadores. Tesis de grado UIS. 2007.
M.Campbell. Gas conditioning and processing. Volume 2:
The Equipment Modules. 1984
Gas Processors Suppleters Association. Engineering Data
Book. 2004.

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Fsicos Mecnicas

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