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presentation

- Broms method.xls
- Lateral Load Capacity of Piles
- Soldier Piles
- Lat Short Pile
- Right Way of PIT
- Pile Design - Great Stuff
- All Pile
- Bengt Broms - Foundation Engineering
- Broms Method
- Lecture 4_helmut Schweiger - 3d Finite Element Analysis of Deep Foundations
- Pile Capacity
- Piled Foundations
- SAS Micropile Manual
- 3Piles PileCap2006
- Piled Raft Design Process for a Tall Building in Australia
- Pile Group
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- Marine Pile Repairs by Concrete Encasement - Hawkswood 2011
- Pile Capacity
- 3DAE Tutorial Lesson03

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capacity of pile or anchor.

Submitted by

2K13/STE/22,25,26

M. Tech(Str.)

Department of Civil Engineering

Delhi Technological University

the pile

foundation?

Load carrying capacity of the pile in

foundation engineering:

the context of

continuous displacements for insignificant load increments

by virtue of its boundary condition (soil condition) and not

by virtue of its structural strength.

The assumption for this definition is - the failure of surrounding

soil occurs prior to the failure of the pile material especially in

the case of concrete piles.

PILE CAPACITIES

What are the various capacities of pile commonly used in

practice?

Axial capacity

Lateral capacity

Pullout capacity or Tension capacity

The lateral capacity of a pile is usually defined as the

load corresponding to a specified deflection of pile head from its

plumb. The amount of this deflection is usually suggested by the

local codes based on the structure(s) for which the pile

foundation is designed.

A vertical pile resists lateral load by mobilizing passive pressure

in the soil surrounding it.

For tall buildings and transmission towers, wind action is the primary

cause.

In the case of bridge abutments and piers, horizontal forces are caused

due to traffic and wind movement.

Dams and lock structures have to withstand water. Pressures which

transfer as horizontal forces on the supporting piles.

Defense structures often have to withstand blasts that cause lateral

forces.

In the case of earth retaining structures, the primary role of piles is to

resist lateral forces caused due to the lateral. Pressures exerted by the soil

mass behind the retaining wall.

Sometimes, piles are installed into slopes, where slow ground movements

are taking place, in order to arrest the movement. In such cases, the piles

are subjected to lateral forces

The horizontal shaking of the ground during earthquakes generates

lateral forces that the piles

Impact Loads from Ships

Eccentric Loads on Columns

End bearing cum friction piles carry vertical compressive

loads partly by means of resistance offered by the hard

stratum at the tip of the pile and partly by the friction

developed between the pile shaft and soil.

means of friction developed between pile shaft and soil;

and pure End bearing piles only by means of bearing

resistance at the tip of the pile.

lateral resistance offered by the surrounding soil.

Piles are subjected to lateral loads in addition to axial loads

However for simplicity a pile subjected to only lateral load is

usually studied for analytical convenience.

Unlike axial capacity, the determination of lateral capacity of

the pile is a complex problem.

The lateral capacity of piles tested in the field is dictated by the

lateral deflection criteria of local codes

The laterally loaded pile unlike an axially loaded pile is a three

dimensional problem.

In case of circular pile, the problem can be analyzed as twodimensional due to symmetry.

A laterally loaded pile can deflect in any direction depending

on the direction of the lateral load.

Lateral Loading and Moment

Y

X

Figure 7

Laterally loaded piles are divided into two categories based on

variation of deflection, shear and moment, as shown below

Rigid pile

Flexible pile

Figure 14

Figure 15

In the case of lateral loads, piles behave as transversely loaded

beams. They transfer lateral load to the surrounding soil mass by

using the lateral resistance of soil

When a pile is loaded laterally, a part or whole of the pile tries to shift

horizontally in the direction of the applied load, causing bending,

rotation or translation of the pile. The pile presses against the soil in

front of it (the soil mass lying in the direction of the applied load),

generating compressive and shear stresses and strains in the soil that

offers resistance to the pile movement

pile groups

In a laterally loaded pile group, each pile pushes the soil in front of it (in

the direction of the applied force). Movement of the piles placed in the

first (leading) row in the direction of the applied force is resisted by the

soil in front of it. In contrast, the piles in the rows behind the first row (the

piles in the trailing rows) push on the soil which in turn pushed on the

piles in the rows in front of them. The resistive forces acting on the

trailing-row piles are in general less than the resistive forces acting

on the leading row.

The simplified methods proposed by Meyerhof et al. (1988) and Patra & Pise

(2001) has been briefly reviewed in this section. These methods are approximate

with considerable assumptions.

Meyerhofs method

The ultimate lateral resistance of rigid pile, Qur is expressed by Meyerhof

et al.(1981) as

Where is average unit weight of sand; d is the diameter of pile; L is

embedded length of pile; Kb is coefficient of net passive earth pressure on

pile using an average angle of skin friction = /3. Where is the angle of

internal friction. However the ultimate lateral load resistance of flexible pile

was presented by Meyerhof et al. (1988) as

Where Le is the effective embedded length of flexible pile. Meyerhof and

Yalcin (1984) suggested that if relative stiffness ratio Krs is less than 10-1

to 10-2 then the pile can be consider as flexible pile.

Where Ep is modulus of elasticity of pile; Ip is moment of inertia of pile;

Eh is horizontal soil modulus at pile tip; L is embedded length of pile.

Meyerhof et al. (1988) reported that Le/L has an approximate functional

relationship with relative stiffness Krs and it can be presented as

represent by following relation as

Patra & Pise (2001) modified the Meyerhofs equation by multiplying

a constant shape factor of 3 with the line of Broms (1964)

Pile group

Patra & Pise (2001) reported that the ultimate resistance of the pile

group can be represented by

Where, QLg is ultimate lateral resistance of

the pile

group, F is frictional resistance on the vertical

plane

along the side of the pile group of width

equal to

centre to centre distance between external

piles and

embedded length L and Pp passive earth

pressure for

the front pile as shown in Figure 1.

Rigid Methods (Broms)

(Used for light weight short foundations

Same limitations as rigid methods for mat foundations)

Depth to Fixity Methods (Davisson)

(Only considers a certain depth as flexible

Structural engineers could analyse the foundation as a structure once

the depth of fixity was known Too simplistic)

Finite Element Analysis

p-y curves

Horizontal Modules of Sub grade Reaction Method

Soil as Elastic Continuum Method (Poulos & Hull)

As per Indian Standard code 2911 series

Initial TestThis test is required for one or more of the following purposes.

a) Determination of ultimate load capacities and arrival at safe load by

application of factor of safety,

b) To provide guidelines for setting up the limits of acceptance for routine

tests,

c) To study the effect of piling on adjacent existing structures and take

decision for the suitability of type of piles to be used,

d) To get an idea of suitability of piling system, and

e) To have a check on calculated load by dynamic or static approaches.

Routine TestThis test is required for One or more or the following purposes.

a) One or the criteria to determine the safe load of the pile;

b) Checking safe load and extent of safety for the specific functional

requirement of the pile at working load

c) Detection of any unusual performance contrary to the findings of the initial

test, if carried out.

Application of Load:

Incremental load each increment being of about 20 percent of safe

load

an the pile. For testing of raker piles it is essential that loading is

along

the axis.

The next increment should be applied after the rate of displacement

is nearer to 01 mm per 30 minutes.

least of the following:

a) Fifty percent of the final load at which the total displacement

increases to 12 mm.

b) Final load at which the total displacement corresponds to 5 mm and

c) Load corresponding to any other specified displacement as per

performance requirements.

STIFFNESS FACTORS

The lateral soil resistance for granular soils and normally consolidated

clays which have varying soil modulus is modeled according to the

equation:

p/y = h z

where p = lateral soil reaction per unit length of pile at depth z below

ground level; y = lateral pile deflection; and h = modulus of sub grade

reaction for which the recommended values are given in Table 3.

The lateral soil resistance for preloaded clays with constant soil

modulus is modeled according to the equation:

p/ y = K

Where

deflection measurements on a 30 cm square plate and B is the width of the

pile (diameter in case of circular piles).

The recommended values of k1 are given in Table 4.

Stiffness Factors

For Piles in Sand and

Normally Loaded Clays:

ELASTIC PILES

Having calculated the stiffness factor T or R, the criteria for behaviour

as a short rigid pile or as a long elastic pile are related to the

embedded length L as given in Table 5.

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