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IMPROVISATION OF

SCIENCE LEARNING AIDS :


ILLUSTRATIVE
NARRATION FOR PHYSICS
& CHEMISTRY CLASSES

INTRODUCTION
Important aim of the science education is the

development of scientific attitude which involves


scientific thinking.
It is possible through instruction, demonstration

and experimentation.
Most of the goals are achieved through

demonstration & experimentation.


Lack of apparatus & materials is a handicap in

demonstration.
Improvisation is a solution for this.

IMPROVISATION
Designing & production of ordinary

laboratory apparatus & other instructional


materials from simple articles around us.
Ingenuity & resourcefulness of the teacher

& his willingness to do work is needed .


Great scientists like Priestly, Edison,

Dalton, Madam curie ,others ,carried out


experiments with home-made & crude
apparatus.

CHARACTERISTICS OF IMPROVISED
APPARATUS
Raw materials are easily available either free or at low cost
Materials do not involve specialized skills
Materials can be easily &effectively used by teachers &

pupils
Production process involved is simple & inexpensive
Material is simple, accurate & appropriate to the users age

level
Material stimulates thinking ,reacting, discussing

,experimenting
Material is free from distractions, conflicts or bias
Production is not time consuming

PROCESS OF DEVELOPING
IMPROVISED APPARATUS
Definition of objectives
Preparation of a design
Development of materials
Pilot testing of the materials
Finalization of materials
Production & distribution

CLASSIFICATION OF
EDUCATIONAL MATERIALS
Freely[no cost] & easily available materials

in the environment
Easily accessible materials of low cost in

the environment
Materials available for large scale

distribution
Materials which need use of machines
Materials for mass media or distant

IMPORTANCE OF IMPROVISATION
Economic value

Educational &psychological value


Social value
Recreational value
Scientific value
Inspiration
Develops skill & clear understanding of basic

principles
Hand-head co-ordination
Confidence to face problems

EXAMPLES OF IMPROVISED APPARATUS

PHYSICS

CONSTRUCTION OF AN IMPROVISED ELECTROLYSIS APPARATUS

Materials required :

Glue, ruler, alcohol lamp or safety matches ,


stripping knife , dry cells[2 v] , 2 paper clips [bull
dog type ], 3 disposable syringes[10 ml], 2
stainless steel screws , connecting wires [red &
black], iron nail [about 6 cm ,2 mm in diameter],
plastic bottle [1 l , 8 cm in diameter

Or more], hard straw [6 cm long].


Procedure:
Remove each of the plungers from the syringes. Attach

the two syringes at the bases by heating it in an


alcohol lamp. Insert the tip of the syringe inside a
plastic straw .Bend the straw close to it using paper
clips.
Divide the plastic bottle into 31 portions by marking

cutting 26 cm lines around the bottle. Use the


following distance between cutting line marks :
Bottom portion about 5cm, Middle portion about 6 cm
from the bottom part of the marked line of the bottom
of the

bottle. This will serves as the sample


container electrolysis apparatus stand.
Using pre-heated stripping knife , cut the

bottle along the marking lines. Use the


middle portion of the bottle as a stand for
the container. Make two small squares 2cm
x 2 cm at opposite sides of the base. They
will serves as the passage for the
connecting wires .
Measure the distance of the electrolysis

syringes . Mark this length with the line

screw through each hole by rotating it


carefully until th of the nail is out at the
bottom of the bottle .Apply glue around the
screws at the bottom part of the container
to prevent leaks. Support the sample
container using the electrolysis apparatus
stand. Invert the electrolysis syringes
over the stainless screws.
Connect the wires [red & black ] to each

stainless screw at the bottom of the


container. Connect the red wire to +ve

The complete set up of an improvised

electrolysis apparatus.
Developed by UPNISMED as part of the

Science & Mathematics Education


Manpower Development Project[SMEMDP].

CHEMISTRY
TO DEMONSTRATE CO2 IS HEAVIER THAN AIR
Materials required :

Two candles of different lengths , a small plastic


dish, lemon salt, baking soda , water , dropper.
Procedure :
Two candles are fixed inside the dish 2 inches

apart. Small amount of lemon salt & a table


spoon of baking soda is added.

Candles are lighted . Water is added with the

help of a dropper.

Soon the reaction starts & CO2 is released.

Flame of the shorter candle is put off & longer


candle keeps glowing.
CO2 does not rise to the level of the longer

candle so it keeps glowing till it is exhausted.

LIST OF SOME OF THE ITEMS WHICH


CAN BE IMPROVED
PHYSICS
Electric Bell,
Electric Motor,
Kaleidoscope,
Spring Balance,
Step-down

transformer,..

CHEMISTRY
Diffusion

Apparatus,
Fire-extinguisher,
Sand Baths,
Test tube stand,
Models of atoms,

PROBLEMS IN THE DEVELOPMENT


AND EFFECTIVE USE OF
IMPROVISED APPARATUS
Indifference or reluctance of teachers &

administrators
Inadequate production or construction
technical skills of pupils & teachers
Lack of sources, funds & facilities
Lack of time
Lack of awareness of locally available
resources
Lack of initiative & resourcefulness of
teachers & administrators
Administrative & other constraints

CONCLUSION
Characteristics of improvised apparatus
Process of developing improvised apparatus
Classification of educational materials
Values of improvising low-cost science

materials
Examples of improvised apparatus
Problems in the development & effective

use of improvised apparatus

QUESTIONS
Discuss the need and importance of

improvised apparatus for teaching science


in high-school classes.

NECESSITY IS THE MOTHER OF INVENTION ; NEW


EMERGING NEEDS OF SCIENCE
TEACHING,THEREFORE CALL FOR
IMPROVISATION-UNESCO Source Book for Science
Teaching

REFERENCES
Modern Science Teaching : R C Sharma
Science Education : Dr.K.Sivarajan &Pro.

A.Faziluddin
Internet

SPECIAL THANKS
DR.K.Y.BENEDICT
SHYAMA.S
JASMIN JOY.M
VANDANA.P.V
PRIYATHAMAN.S.R