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Physical Science

Work is a force applied over a distance
It can also be defined as the transfer of energy

that occurs when a force makes an object move

Potential energy is being converted to kinetic
energy when work is being done
If a force is applied, but no motion results,
scientifically speaking, no work occurs

Work = force X distance

The SI unit for work is Newtons X meters
Newtons X meters is called a Joule, which is

also the SI unit for energy

Work is the transfer of energy, so it makes
sense that it is measured in Joules

Power is the rate at which work occurs, or

the time it takes to do the work

Power = work/ time
The SI unit is Joule/seconds, which has a
special name, the watt (W)
Watts are small units, so more often we use

kilowatts (kW)

Energy and Change

Energy is the ability to cause change
Everything that is moving is changing,

therefore everything in motion must have

There are many different types of energy
Money analogy

Types of Energy

Kinetic Energy
Kinetic energy = energy in the form of motion
Depends on two things:
1. The mass of the moving object
2. The velocity of the moving object

The formula for kinetic energy is

kinetic energy = mass X velocity2

SI unit for energy is a joule, which is
kilograms x (m/s)2

Bill Nye
Bill Nye Energy

Potential Energy
Energy doesnt have to involve motion- it is

just the ability to cause change

Potential energy is stored energy, and an
object has potential energy when its position
in space gives it the ability to move
Potential energy is converted to kinetic
energy when the objects position in space
does change

Types of Potential Energy

Elastic Potential Energy = Energy stored by

something which can stretch or compress, such as

a rubber band or spring
Chemical Potential Energy = energy stored in
bonds between atoms in a chemical
This is the energy in food or gasoline

Gravitational Potential Energy = energy stored by

objects above Earths surface

GPE = mass X acceleration due to gravity X height

What type of potential energies did you observe in

the lab?

Formulas So Far Math

Velocity, Acceleration (2 formulas), Force,
Weight, Momentum, Kinetic Energy,
Gravitational Potential Energy
Learn and use your units: they help you
remember the formula

Ex. Miles per hour- speed/velocity

Miles measure distance
Per means division (times means multiplication)
Hours measure time
= distance divided by time is the formula for speed and

To show your work:

1) write down the formula,

2) substitute in your numbers/data,
3) write down your solution

Conservation of Energy
This scientific law states that energy is neither

created or destroyed, meaning that when it is

lost or gained, it is converted from one
type of energy to another
Electrical energy is converted to light energy
and heat energy in light bulbs- have you ever
burned yourself touching a lit light bulb
What else converts electrical energy to
thermal (heat) energy?

Chemical energy in fuel is converted to kinetic

energy and thermal energy in cars

Chemical energy in food is converted to
kinetic energy and thermal energy in the body
Light energy is converted to chemical energy
in the process of photosynthesis in green
Light energy is converted to electrical energy
in solar panels

Mechanical energy
Mechanical energy = potential energy +

kinetic energy
It is energy due to the position and motion of
an object
When an object has the potential to move, it
has potential energy, and when it fulfills that
potential and moves, the potential energy is
converted to kinetic energy

Conservation of Energy
In the Friction
Bill Nye video, the bowling ball does not
return all the way to the point from which he
dropped the ball
When pedaling a bike on a flat surface, the
bike will not roll forever
This is because friction and air resistance
cause some of the energy to be converted to
thermal energy rather than kinetic energy

Perpetual Motion
The idea with perpetual motion machines is that
there is a way to perfectly and completely
convert potential energy to kinetic energy and
back again, over and over
If there were, we could build perpetual motion

Instead, friction and air resistance always cause
some of the potential energy to be converted to
heat energy rather than kinetic energy
Newton's Cradle
Pendulum Waves