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QIYAS

4th Source Of
Islamic Law

Quran : It is the 1st and


primary source of Islamic law. The
Quranic law is perpetual and
everlasting.
Sunnah : It is 2nd and also
Primary source of Islamic law.
Sunnah means the sayings,
actions or silent approvals of the
Prophet(S.A.W.W).
Ijma : It is 3rd and secondary
source of Islamic law. Ijma
means an unanimous
agreement. Ijma never

Qiyas :Definition :
It is 4th and secondary source of
Islamic law. In Islamic
jurisprudence, Qiyas is the process
of deductive analogy in which
teaching of Quran are compared
with those of Hadith in order to
apply a known injunction to a new
circumstance and create a new law.

Conditions :
1). Qiyas can only be applied when
there is no solution to the matter in
the Quran and Hadith. And even no
Ijma has been performed on that
matter.
2). Qiyas must not go against the
principles of Islam.
3). Qiyas must not go against the
contents of the Quran nor should it
go against the teachings of the

References :
# Quranic
Verse
:
Allah Almighty says in Quran We
have sent you the book with
the truth, so that you may
judge among people by means
of what Allah has shown you
(Al-Nisa 4:105)
So according to above verse, A
judgment can be made with the

# Hadith :
When the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W)
sent Muadh Ibn Jabal(R.A) as
governor of Yemen, he asked him:
How will you reach a judgment
when a question arises? Muadh
replied: According to the word of
Allah. And if you find nothing
therein? He then replied: Then
according to Sunnah of the
messenger of Allah. The Prophet

On this, Muadh (R.A) said: Then I


shall take the decision according to
my opinion The Prophet (S.A.W.W)
was extremely pleased at his
response and remarked: Praise be
to Allah who has led his messenger
to a solution that pleases him
This shows Holy Prophet
(S.A.W.W)approval for using Qiyas.

Explanation
:
Qiyas is considered as the Fourth
and Secondary source of Islamic
law. Muslim scholars in the later
period of Islam traditionally claimed
that analogy had existence in
Islamic law since their religions
inception while modern scholars
generally points to a Muslim Abu
Hanifa as the 1st to use the
analogical reasoning as the source

The purpose of Qiyas is primarily to


facilitate Muslims to fashion their
lives according to Islam in the
modern world. Like Ijma, Qiyas too,
finds its approval in the primary
sources (Quran And Sunnah) of
Islamic law. The legal expert
compares the logic of an existing
problem for which no direct solution
is given in the Quran, Sunnah and
Ijma. He forms his opinion and

Qiyas can be divided into 4


portions:
Asl: the actual injunction in
Quran or
Sunnah
Illa: reasoning behind the
injunction
Hukm: the new injunction
made
Far: the new case on which

Examples
:
Mentioned below are the examples
of Qiyas to clear your
understanding.
The Quran forbids sales
transactions after the call of prayer
on Friday (Asl). By analogy, all
kinds of transactions (far) have
been forbidden (Hukm), because
like sales they also distract Muslims

Hadith says that if ones nails


are coated with flour, the Wudhu is
not complete(Asl). Which raises a
question whether Wudhu is
acceptable with nail polish or not
(Far). Since both, flour and nail
polish prevent water from reaching
the nails (Illa), jurists deduce that
Wudhu over nail polish is not
acceptable (Hukm).

The Holy Quran forbids the use


of Khamr, [an alcohol of grapes]
(Asl). By analogy, heroin and other
intoxicants (far) are also banned
(Hukm) because like Khamr they
also cause intoxication (illa).

Conclusion :
Majority of Muslim jurists
recognized Qiyas as one of the
source of Islamic law, next to the
Quran, Sunnah and Ijma.
In applying Qiyas, four basic
elements must be fulfilled, that
are, the Asl (original case), far
(new case), illa (cause effective)
and Hukm (new ruling). These
classic elements must always be

The application of Qiyas is still


relevant and feasible in this
modern and globalization era. This
is due to the increased number of
new Shari'ah related issues around
the world. Thus, in deducing these
new Hukm, there is still a need to
rely on Qiyas besides the other
three primary sources of Islamic
law.