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Automotive Transmission

U5AUA11
By.
B.HARISH BABU
asst.prof ,vtu.

UNIT I

Contents
Introduction
Transmission Systems
Manual
Automated Manual
Automatic
Continuously variable
Dual Clutch

Propeller Shaft
2

Contents
Universal joints
Differential

Requirements of the Transmission Design Proc


Product Life Cycle
Stages in the Design Process
Project Set Up
Concept Design
Detailed Design
Engineering Drawings and Tolerancing

Transmission System
Function of transmission:

- It is used to transmit engine torque to the driv


wheels to drive the vehicle on the road.

Requirement of Transmission Syst

To provide for disconnecting the engine fro


driving wheels

When engine is running , connect the drivin


wheels to engine smoothly without shock

Leverage between engine and driving whee


be varied

Enable the driving wheels to rotate at diffe


speeds.
Provide relative movement between engin
driving wheels
5

Transmission System - Layou

Transmission Types

Clutch
Function of clutch
Clutch is used to disengage and engage

engine with rest of the transmission systems

To disengage while starting the engine a


while changing gear ratio.

To engage after starting of the engine and g

shift operation.
8

Clutch
Requirement of Clutch
Transmit maximum torque of the engine.
Engage gradually to avoid sudden jerks.
Dissipate maximum amount of heat.
Damp the vibrations and noise.
Dynamically balanced.
As small as possible.
Easy to operate.
9

Clutch Unit
Flywheel also acts as a driving
member
Pressure plate is connected to
clutch cover assembly.
Clutch Cover assembly is bolted to
the flywheel.
Clutch springs placed between
Pressure plate & Cover plate, press
the Pressure plate against the
clutch plate.
Thus Clutch plate is squeezed
between Flywheel & Pressure plate.

Classification of Clutch
Cone clutch
Flat Plate clutch
- Dry or Wet type clutch
- No. of friction plates
(Single or Multiple)
- Actuation mode (Cable or
Hydraulic)
- Actuation spring(Helical
or Diaphragm)

Centrifugal clutch
11

Clutch Engaged & Disengage


Clutch is always is in
engaged state.

It can be disengaged b
pressing of Clutch pedal.

Disengagement is effect
by non - contact of Clutc
plate both with Flywhe
face & Pressure plate fac
Frictional
heat
is
dissipated by opening
present in Clutch housin
& Cover

12

Clutch Material

13

Need of Gear Box

14

Gear Box
Gear box varies the leverage
(speed ratio & hence torque
ratio) between the engine &
driving wheels.
It is located between Clutch &
Propeller shaft.
It is provided with either
4
speed or 5 speed ratios or more
depending on design.
Gear ratio is varied by Gear
shift lever.
15

Manual Transmission - Types

16

UNIT II

Synchronizers
A device used to bring two adjacent members to
the same speed before allowing the sleeve to
engage them.
The two elements are friction clutch and toothed
clutch.
Lock the positive engagement until speeds are
synchronized .
Establish the positive engagement and power flow.
Synchronizer is splined on the shaft Cone on the
gear (blue) fits into cone-shaped area in the collar.
Friction between the cone and collar synchronize
the collar & gear.
The outer portion of the collar (sleeve) then slides
so that the dogteeth engage the gear.
17

Synchromesh Gearbox

1.I speed gear


2.II speed gear
3.main shaft
4.outer engaging unit
5.inner engaging unit
6.top gear engaging teeth
7.main drive gear
8.top gear synchronizing cone
9.counter shaft

18

How Manual Transmission Work?

When a driver wants to change from one gear to an


in a standard stick-shift car, he first presses down
clutch pedal
This operates a single clutch, which disconnects
engine from the gearbox and interrupts power flow
transmission
Then the driver uses the stick shift to select a new
process that involves moving a toothed collar from
gear wheel to another gear wheel of a different siz
Devices called synchronizers match the gears be
they are engaged to prevent grinding
Once the new gear is engaged, the driver releases t
clutch pedal, which re-connects the engine to
gearbox and transmits power to the wheels.
19

Manual Transmission
Cheap to make
Durable, efficient
Easy to install
Established in marketplace and with
manufacturing infrastructure
Gives control to the driver
But driver comfort an issue with increasing
density
Hence automation must be considered
20

Automated Manual Transmission (A


Automation
of
Clutch and Gear
shifting operations

Elimination of Clutch
Pedal

Modification of Gear
Shifting lever

Minimum
modifications
in
manual transmissio
21

AMT Features
Automation
shifting.

of

Clutch

operation

and

Clutch slip control during starting

Hill start aid system which will assist the dri


hold and move the vehicle in hill slope

Necessary fail safe systems such as sudd


shifting from higher gear to lowest gear and
versa
22

System Block Diagram

23

Clutch Actuation Control

Engine Start
- Starter should be operated only when the gea
in neutral position
- When engine is not running and in power on, E
will disengage clutch
- When engine speed exceeds a specified rpm, E
engages clutch gradually
Vehicle Start
- On pressing the accelerator pedal, ECU contro
the clutch
- actuator travel and clutch engagement

24

Clutch Actuation Control

Gear Change
- While engaging the clutch after gear
shift, the ECU determines clutch actuator
travel based on shifted gear position an
accelerator pedal stroke
Clutch disengagement

- While gear shifting and when accelerato


pedal is released,
- if the vehicle speed is lower than a set
speed for select gear position, the EC
disengages clutch
25

Advantages of AMT
Reduced driver effort
Improved Clutch life

Utilization of existing manufacturing facili


for manual transmission
Lower production cost than automatic
transmissions
Higher efficiency than automatic
transmissions
26

Automatic Transmission (AT)


Conventional Definition

Moving away from rest - Torque converte

Achieving ratio change - Planetary gear s


No power interruption
Mechanism for ratio change
- Wet plate clutches and brakes
Control of ratio change

- Normally automatic timing and actuatio


27

Fluid Coupling
Converts or transmits rotating
mechanical energy or power.
Basic components.

- outer shell or housing,


- impeller or pump and turbine or runner
Both of these units are contained within the
housing via oil-tight seals.
The input turbine is connected to the power
supply, typically an electric or ICE.
The output turbine is connected to the drive train
of the vehicle or the drive system of a machine.
Mineral oil is used

28

Fluid Coupling: Working


Standstill
- The entire operating fluid in the
coupling is at rest

Idling
- In sufficient centrifugal force for the
oil to turn the turbine

Low to medium speed:


- Centrifugal force pushes oil into
turbine and some turning effort is
transmitted. Large degree of slip in
the unit. O/p shaft is rotating slowly
than input shaft.

Medium to High Speed


- Oil force is sufficient to transmit full
power. O/p shaft rotating at about
98% of speed of I/p shaft (2% slip).
29

UNIT III

Torque Convertor
Serves as automatic clutch which transmits
engine torque to the transmission input shaft
Multiplies torque generated by the engine
Absorbs torsional vibration of engine
Acts as a flywheel and smoothes out engine
rotation
Drives oil pump
A torque converter consists of
- Impeller
- Turbine
- Stator
- and transmission fluid
30

Torque Convertor - Sectional V

31

Impeller

32

Turbine

33

Stator

34

Working of Torque Convertor


Vehicle accelerates

35

Planetary Gear System

36

Planetary Gear System: Construct


Input shaft is connected to Ring gear(Blue)
Output shaft is connected to Plane carrier(Green) which is also
connected to Multi-disk clutch
Sun gear is connected to a Drum(Yellow), which can be locked
by brake band (Red). It is also connected to the other half of
Clutch

37

Planetary Gear System: Operat


In Neutral

Both band and clutch sets are released


Planets assembled to carrier with NRB
Ring gear only drive planet gear not the planet
(Output shaft)
The planet gears drive the sun gears to spin free

38

Planetary Gear System: Operat


In Low Gear (forward reduction)

Band locks the sun gear by locking the drum


Planets walk around the sun gear
Planet carrier to spin in same direction as ring gear
Gear ratio= sun & ring teeth/no of teeth of ring gear

39

Planetary Gear System: Opera


In High Gear (Direct drive)

Band is released.
Lock any two members
Clutch is engaged so that the sun gear and plane
carrier is locked to act as a rigid member
Planets has to walk around the ring gear,
Ring Gear (Input shaft) will spin at the same spee
the Planet Carrier (Output shaft)

40

Planetary Gear System: Operatio


Reverse Gear

Planet carrier is locked


Ring gear (Input shaft) will cause the sun gear
(Output Shaft) to turn in the opposite direction

41

UNIT IV

Automatic Transmission (AT)

Advantages

The only option for comfortable automatic shifting


Cost issue mitigated by high volume manufacturing

Disadvantages
Cost for development and manufacturing
Fuel economy due to torque converter
Lack of control by the driver

Modern improvements
Better control algorithms
Torque converter lock up

Most useable transmissions based on a couple of


standard arrangements
Ravigneaux
Lepelletier
42

Continuously Variable Transmissi


(CVT)
CVT provides infinite
number of gear ratios
(between a minimum & a
maximum).
Shifts automatically with an
infinite number of ratios
Seamless power
delivery, no torque
interruption & power loss

43

CVT: Construction
Uses a pair of axially
adjustable sets of
pulley halves
(Variators)
Both pulleys have one
fixed and one
adjustable pulley halve
A belt is used to
transfers the engine's
power from one shaft
to another
44

CVT: Functioning
The transmission ratio is varied by
adjusting the spacing between the
pulleys in line with the circumference
of the tapered pulley halves.
The
variators are
adjusted
hydraulically.
When one pulley is varied, the other
pulley must adapt itself inversely since
the length of the belt is fixed.

Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT

46

DCT: Construction

Basic Dual Wet Clutch

How DCT Works?


In a conventional manual transmission, there is not a
continuous flow of power from the engine to the wheels.
Instead, power delivery changes from ON to OFF to ON during
gearshift, causing a phenomenon known as "shift shock" or
"torque interrupt
A dual-clutch transmission uses two clutches, but has no clutch
pedal.
Sophisticated electronics and hydraulics control the
clutches, just as they do in a standard automatic transmission.
In a DCT, however, the clutches operate independently
One clutch controls the odd gears(first, third, fifth and
reverse), while the other controls the even gears
(second, fourth and sixth)
Using this arrangement, gears can be changed without
interrupting the power flow from the engine to the transmission
49

Propeller Shaft
Single piece
Two piece

Front engine rear wheel drive


Reduction in car height
(lowering of body)

Crash energy management


Material

Aluminum
steel
Composite (75% carbon, 25%
glass-fibre with bonded steel
end fittings- Renault)

Cold rolled and seam


welded

50

Propeller Shaft
It propels the vehicle forward, so called propeller shaft
A Propeller Shaft connects a gearbox to a Differential.
It is used to transmit the drive force generated by the engine
to the axles.
It is strong enough to handle maximum low gear torque
It is provided with two U-joints to maintain constant velocity
and positioning of differential at different plane.
It is provided with a slip joint to take care of the change in
length.
Shaft diameter and its thickness decides the torque carrying
capacity and angle of operation.

51

Propeller Shaft
Design requirements

Critical speed is at least 15% above top


speed

Torque carrying capacity requirements


Plunge requirements (suspension trave
Assembly requirements

52

Universal joints
Designed to eliminate
torque
and
speed
fluctuations
(constant
velocity joints)
If only one universal joint is
used, speed fluctuations
will not be neutralized.
To
maintain uniform
motion, two universal joints
are used with yoke lugs in
phase.
53

Universal joints

54

Hookes Joint

Condition for Constant velocity drive with two Ho


55

Differential
To
transfer the
engine power to the
wheels
To act as the final
gear reduction in
the vehicle
To make the wheels
to rotate at different
speeds
while
negotiating a turn.
56

Differential: In Straight Ahead M


Input torque is applied to
the ring gear, which turns
the
entire
carrier, providing torque
to both side gears, which
in turn may drive the left
and right wheels.
If the resistance at both
wheels is equal, the
pinion gear does not
rotate, and both wheels
turn at the same rate.
57

Differential: In a Turn
If the left side gear
(red)
encounters
resistance, the pinion
gear(green) rotates
about the left side
gear, in turn applying
extra rotation to the
right
side
gear
(yellow).

58

Axle

Transmits rotary motion and torque fro


engine-transmission-driveshaft to the wheels
Changes torsional direction from longitudi
transverse
Provides speed reduction and torqu
multiplication
Provides a differential action to permit
cornering
Provides mounting points for suspension
brakes

59

Transmission Troubleshooting
Leaking Transmission Fluid
Slipping of Transmission
Damaged Transmission Fluid
Surging of Transmission
Gear Problems
Fluid Leaking
Spilling out of Fluid
Erratic Gear Shifting
Overheating of Transmission
60

Transmission Trend

Passenger Car Transmission in India

Manual transmission is more dominant in India as compared


transmissions.
Majority of the MT are using 5speed GB as compared to 6 sp
But many of the luxurious car manufactures are now using A

Source: Mahr GmbH, Germany

Global Transmission Trend

Estimated global market share (%) for passenger car transm


1%

1% 2%
6%

46%

50%

4% 2%

MT

MT

AT

AT

47%

CVT
DCT

41%

AMT

DCT
AMT

2005

2010
3%

7%

CVT

MT

10%
43%
37%

AT
CVT
DCT
AMT

2015

Requirements of the Transmissio


Design Process

Product Life Cycle

Product Life Cycle must be developed to deliv


Company goals
New Product Introduction

Manufacturin
Prototype
Transmission
Production Ready
Product supp
Feasibility Studies/
Design
Development Transmission
and
New Concepts

developmen

Market feedback, Market research,


Technical Development, Application experience
Research

64

Stages in the Design Process


Timeline
Project set up
Concept design
Detail design
Tolerancing &
drawings
Prototype testing
65

UNIT V

Project Set Up
- The first stage of the design process is to set

targets

Existingresearch
product knowledge
Market
Standards

Product Design Specificatio

Load data
Customer specific requirements

(PDS)

- The PDS contains all the specification data and desig


targets
This document should be approved before work s
on concept design
- The PDS is a live document

This means that changes can be made to it, provi


all parties agree to them
66

Project Set Up

To be included in the Product Design Specificatio


Understanding the
needs/wants from -

customer
Special considerations
- Review all validation testing
- Customer PDS
for unusual manoeuvres
(Vehicle/Transmission)
Rig
- Market Understanding
Vehicle
- Prior Design Experience
Special environmental operatio
General Requirements
conditions, eg:
- Number of gear ratios and their - Very high or very low ambient
temperature conditions
values
tight vehicle
- Packaging envelope constraints - Extremely
packaging space
- Weight
Special operational cycles, eg:
- Application specifics
- Unusual off-road usage
- Duty cycle
- Occasional vehicle overload
- Interfaces
operation

Gear ratio must be defined.


67

Project Set Up
To be included in the Product Design Specification:

- It may not be possible to meet all requirements, so de

the hierarchy of importance, normally (approximately


Packaging within the vehicle
Assemble-ability
Durability
Ratio
Weight
Cost
Gear shift quality
Noise
68

Project Set Up

To be included in the Product Design Specification:


Design Loads & Duty Cycles
- A design load case may be comprised of a series of loads and
cycles/time at those loads combined into a duty cycle definitio
Design loads are typically modified somewhat
- Maximum net engine output torque including
Reserve capacity for enhanced engine torque or larger engi
application: 0% to 10% typical
Factor for unusually high engine torsionals output: 0% to
typical
- Maximum vehicle skid torque
Max skid torque in each gear for operation on dry, new conc
Usually only significant in lowest ratios (eg: 1st, Reverse)
- Maximum transient overload torque (static overload only)
Factors vary according to specific vehicle and are gene
based off of historical vehicle test results
Typical values range from 1.5x to 2.5x maximum engine torq
69

Project Set Up: Duty Cycle

A key component of the targets is the Duty Cycle


What is a Duty Cycle?
- Calculation of Component Reliability - single loa
Material
Properties
Operating
Conditions
Select
Required
Reliability
Component
Geometry

Analysis to
predict
stress

Operating
Stresses

Analysis to
predict life

Applied
Loads (Duty
Cycle)
70

Project Set Up: Duty Cycle


A Duty Cycle is a collection of loadcases

- All automotive transmissions are loaded with mult


loadcases
- Multiple ratios
- Different torque levels for each ratio
10%, 20%, 30% 100% torque
Accounting for Multiple-loadcases - Damage
- Miners Rule (Linear Damage Hypothesis)
To combine the effect of different loadcases
Damage Fraction & Percentage

We need to account for the effect of these many loadcas


71

Project Set Up: Duty Cycle

In-service Loads must be converted into a d


cycle for design and testing
In-Service Loads

Durability
Calculation

Time/torque
To derive the
history for the 95th damage for each
centile
component in the
transmission

Design Duty Cycle

Equivalent duty cycle


appropriate for
transmission design

Test Duty Cycle


Equivalent duty
cycle appropriate
for rig testing

72

Concept Design
Activities within Concept Design (part A)

Inputs from
PDS:
Gear ratios
Engine
torque and
duty cycle
3D
packaging
space

Design gear
teeth and
blanks and
dog teeth
Create
initial
gearbox
concept

Synchroniser
design, sizing
and
packaging

Spline
design
and
rating

Iterative Design
of the Gearbox
Concept

Define
shaft
sections

Define
roller
bearings

Can
Yes Output:
ratios
Proposed
and
concept
packagin
layout
g be
achieved
?
No

73

Concept Design

Generation of Design Options (Layouts/ Topology)


- Create as many different design layouts as poss
to meet the ratio and packaging requirements

Option A

Option D

Option B

Option E

Option C

Option F

74

Concept Design

Iterative Design, Analysis and Optimisation, by C


- Gears

Tooth numbers
Rating to ISO 6336
Contact Ratio targets
Misalignment targets

- Synchronizers
Shift force
Cone to index torque
ratio

- Bearings
- Shaft
Durability
Deflection

Durability
Misalignment targets

- Spline
Stress

75

Concept Design
Activities within Concept Design (part B)
Casing
Design and
Differential

Proposed Concept Layout

Shift
Mechanism
Check for
compatibility
and
withcomponents
vehicle
with
other
packaging; Check for
Assembly
Iterate on items defined in
Concept Design Part A if
necessary

Completed
Concept
Design
Rank against
PDS, other
designs

Once the concepts have been modelled and analysed, their


and weaknesses can be evaluated

The selected concept will then form the basis for the detaile
76

Concept Selection
Evaluation criteria

List all the requirements for the design from


specification

Apply a weighting importance to each requirem


(e.g. 1-5)
Determine what objective measures can be
from concept model
Weight
Number of parts
Safety factors
77

Concept Selection
Concept scoring

Assign a score to each concept according to


extent to which it meets each requirement

Multiply each score by the appropriate weig


factor

The best scoring concept will then form the bas


the detail design

78

Detailed Design

Activities within Detailed Design


Focus on system deflections and gear micro-geom
design
Gear Microgeometry Design

Differential
Detailing

Completed Concept Design

FE, System Deflection


and Gear Tooth
Contact Detailed
Analysis

Casing Detailing
Detailed Design and
Analysis of Other
Components;
Lubrication system

Completed
Detailed
Design, all
Nominal
Dimensions
Complete

Check for
compatibility with
other components

Iterate on Concept Design


Parts A and B if necessary

79

Detailed Design
Calculation of System Deflections
Load
distribution
Shaft
deflection

Load distribution
factor
Contact
Stress
Stress

Calculation of Durability
80

Detailed Design

Accurate analysis is required to determine whe


targets are met
Simple methods do not give accurate results
- Increased risk of problems later in product life cycle
- Lack of clear direction for optimisation

Detailed analysis methods have their own issues

- Many design options


- Do we have to calculate everything before we make a dec
- How do we manage these methods in the design process?
81

Analysis Methods
Principles

- Hierarchy of design parameters


Understand how design parameters a
other design parameters and transmis
performance
Understand
parameters

the hierarchy

of

desig

Define the most important ones first

Analysis Methods
Hierarchy of Design Parameters

- Some parameters have a big effect on gearb


performance
- Some parameters are needed to define ot
parameters
- e.g. gear centre distance

Gear tangential load


Gear stress Gear durability
Gear centre distance
Bearing load Bearing durability

Housing design

Housing stiffness

Gear misalignment

Analysis Methods
Hierarchy of Design Parameters

- Other parameters have a smaller effect on gea


performance
- They are dependent on preceding parameters
defined
- e.g. gear micro-geometry
Gear centre distance

Gear tangential load

Gear macro-geomet

Gear tooth contact


and transmission Gear micro-geometry
error
Housing design
and stiffness Gear

misalignment

Analysis Methods
Hierarchy of Design Parameters
- Other parameters have little effect on the
gearbox performance
- They can be estimated
Shaft design
- e.g. seal design

Seal
design

Gearbox packagin

Engineering Drawings and Toleranc

Activities within Engineering Drawings and Toleranc


- Major issues should be resolved
Confirm
Material
Specification

Completed Detailed Design

Identify All
Tolerance
Stack Loops

Define Tolerances

Complete Drawings
for Components. SubAssembly and General
Arrangement, with
Assembly Instructions

Deliver
Completed
Drawings

Carry out all


tolerance stack
calculation and
assess

If tolerance stacks a
problem, adjust
tolerances if
necessary
If major problem
iterate on Detailed
Design if necessary

86

Engineering Drawings and Toleranc


Applying Manufacturing Tolerances

- Tolerances applied to components based on


knowledge of manufacturing process
e.g. turning, grinding etc
- Functionally critical features identified

- Initial tolerances applied based on experience


These will be updated during the toleran
analysis

87

Engineering Drawings and Toleranc


Tolerance Stacks
Identify
checks required
Create master
dimension sheet

Gear and shaft


deflections from
analysis

Final design

Create tolerance
stacks for each
shaft assembly

Check result

Yes
Create tolerance
stacks for shaft to
shaft clearances

Yes

Revise dimensions
No
on master No
dimension sheet

Check result

No

Check result

Yes

Create housing
tolerance stacks
88

Engineering Drawings and Toleranc


Potential Problems

Form and functionality at tolerance extrem


- Symptom (example):

At tolerance extremes, transmission does no


assemble or there is a foul (at zero load)
- Action:
Small iteration: Redefine the tolerances

Large iteration: Nominal dimensions are redefin


89

Engineering Drawings and Toleranc

Potential Problems
Form and functionality at tolerance, tempe
extremes, under load

- Symptom (example): Transmission does not ass


or there is a foul at:
Tolerance extremes
Temperature extremes
Load (i.e. deflected shapes)

- Example: Gears clash due to thermal expansion


axial movement due to compliance of
bearings, housing etc.
- Action (as before)
90

Output of Design Process


A layout that satisfies the key requirements of the PDS

All durability targets are met, including the effect of sys


deflections, at all tolerances, thermal extremes etc.
Bill of Materials and material selection list confirmed

3D models complete with all components defined to nom


dimensions
2D drawings of all components defined with tolerances

2D drawings of sub-assemblies and assemblies, with


assembly instructions

91

THANK
YOU