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# 2D TRANSFORMATIONS

2D Transformations
What is transformations?
The geometrical changes of an object from a
current state to modified state.

## Why the transformations is needed?

To manipulate the initially created object and to
display the modified object without having to
redraw it.

2D Transformations
2 ways
Object Transformation
Alter the coordinates descriptions an object
Translation, rotation, scaling etc.
Coordinate system unchanged

Coordinate transformation
Produce a different coordinate system

Matrix Math
Why do we use matrix?
More convenient organization of data.
More efficient processing
Enable the combination of various
concatenations

## Matrix addition and subtraction

a
b

c
d

a c
b d

Matrix Math
How about it?
a c
d
b

Matrix Multiplication
Dot product
a
c

b
d

e
g

f
= a.e + b.g
h
c.e + d.g

a.f + b.h
c.f + d.h

Matrix Math
What about this?
1

2
3

1
3

1
3

Type of matrix
a

Row-vector

2
1

2 =
1
=

tak boleh!!

a
b
Column-vector

Matrix Math
Is there a difference between possible
representations?
a b e ae bf

c d f ce df

ce df

a c
ae bf
b d

be df

a b
ae cf
c d

Matrix Math
Well use the column-vector representation for a
point.
Which implies that we use pre-multiplication of
the transformation it appears before the point to
be transformed in the equation.
A B x Ax By
C D y Cx Dy

convention?

Translation

## A translation moves all points

in an object along the same
straight-line path to new
positions.
The path is represented by a
vector, called the translation or
shift vector.
We can write the components:
p'x = px + tx
p'y = py + ty

or in matrix form:
P' = P + T
tx
x
x
y = y + ty

?
ty=4
(2, 2)

tx = 6

Rotation
A rotation repositions
all points in an object
along a circular path in
the plane centered at
the pivot point.
First, well assume the
pivot is at the origin.

Rotation

Review Trigonometry

## => cos = x/r , sin = y/r

x = r. cos , y = r.sin
=> cos (+ ) = x/r
x = r. cos (+ )
x = r.coscos -r.sinsin
x = x.cos y.sin
=>sin (+ ) = y/r
y = r. sin (+ )
y = r.cossin + r.sincos
y = x.sin + y.cos

P(x, y)

P(x,y)

x
Identity of Trigonometry

Rotation

## We can write the components:

p'x = px cos py sin
p'y = px sin + py cos

P(x, y)

or in matrix form:
P' = R P
can be clockwise (-ve) or
counterclockwise (+ve as our
example).
Rotation matrix

cos
sin

sin
cos

P(x,y)

Rotation
Example
Find the transformed point, P, caused by
rotating P= (5, 1) about the origin through an
angle of 90.
cos
sin

sin

x x cos y sin

## cos y x sin y cos

5 cos 90 1 sin 90

5 sin 90 1 cos 90

5 0 1 1

5 1 1 0

Scaling

## Scaling changes the size of an

object and involves two scale
factors, Sx and Sy for the xand y- coordinates
respectively.
Scales are about the origin.
We can write the components:
p'x = sx px
p'y = sy py
or in matrix form:
P' = S P
Scale matrix as:
sx
S
0

0
s y

Scaling

## If the scale factors are in between 0

and 1 the points will be moved
closer to the origin the object
will be smaller.
Example :
P(2, 5), Sx = 0.5, Sy = 0.5
Find P ?

P(2, 5)

Scaling

## If the scale factors are in between 0

and 1 the points will be moved
closer to the origin the object
will be smaller.
Example :
P(2, 5), Sx = 0.5, Sy = 0.5
Find P ?
If the scale factors are larger than 1
the points will be moved away
from the origin the object will be
larger.
Example :
P(2, 5), Sx = 2, Sy = 2
Find P ?

P(2, 5)

Scaling
If the scale factors are the same,
Sx = Sy uniform scaling
Only change in size (as previous
example)
If Sx Sy differential scaling.
Change in size and shape
Example : square rectangle
P(1, 3), Sx = 2, Sy = 5 , P ?

P(1, 2)

## What does scaling by 1 do?

What is that matrix called?
What does scaling by a negative value do?

Combining transformations
We have a general transformation of a point:
P' = M P + A
When we scale or rotate, we set M, and A is the additive
identity.
When we translate, we set A, and M is the multiplicative
identity.
To combine multiple transformations, we must explicitly
compute each transformed point.
Itd be nicer if we could use the same matrix operation all the
time. But wed have to combine multiplication and addition
into a single operation.

Homogenous Coordinates
y

y
w
x

## Lets move our problem into 3D.

Let point (x, y) in 2D be represented by point (x, y, 1) in the
new space.
Scaling our new point by any value a puts us somewhere along
a particular line: (ax, ay, a).
A point in 2D can be represented in many ways in the new
space.
(2, 4) ---------- (8, 16, 4) or (6, 12, 3) or (2, 4, 1) or etc.

Homogenous Coordinates
We can always map back to the original 2D point by dividing
by the last coordinate
(15, 6, 3) --- (5, 2).
(60, 40, 10) - ?.
Why do we use 1 for the last coordinate?
The fact that all the points along each line can be mapped
back to the same point in 2D gives this coordinate system its
name homogeneous coordinates.

Matrix Representation
Point in column-vector:
x
y
1
Our point now has three coordinates. So our matrix is
needs to be 3x3.
Translation

x 1 0 t x x
y 0 1 t y
y

1 0 0 1 1

Matrix Representation
Rotation

x cos
y sin

1 0

sin
cos
0

0 x
0 y
1 1

Scaling

x s x
y 0

1 0

0
sy
0

0
0
1

x
y
1

Composite Transformation
We can represent any sequence of transformations
as a single matrix.
No special cases when transforming a point matrix
vector.
Composite transformations matrix matrix.

Composite transformations:
Rotate about an arbitrary point translate, rotate,
translate
Scale about an arbitrary point translate, scale, translate
Change coordinate systems translate, rotate, scale

## Does the order of operations matter?

Composition Properties
Is matrix multiplication associative?
?

(A.B).C = A.(B.C)
a b e

c d g

j ae bg

l ce dg

af bh i

cf dh k

a b e

c d g

f i

h k

a b ei fk

c d gi hk

l
aej bgj afl bhl

ej fl

gj hl

## cej cfl dgj dhl

Composition Properties
Is matrix multiplication commutative?
?
A. B = B .A

f ae bg

h ce dg

af bh
cf dh

f a b ea fc

h c d ga hc

eb fd

gb hd

a b e
c d g

e
g

Order of operations
So, it does matter. Lets look at an example:
1.
2.

Translate
Rotate

1.
2.

Rotate
Translate

## Operation :1. Translate (pivot point is moved to origin)

2. Rotate about origin
3. Translate (pivot point is returned to original position )
T(pivot) R() T(pivot)

1
0
0

0
1
0

tx
ty
1

1
0
0

0
1
0

tx
ty
1

cos
sin
0

.
.

cos
sin
0
cos
sin
0

-sin 0
cos 0
0
1

1
0
0

0
1
0

-tx
-ty
1

## -sin -tx cos+ ty sin

cos -tx sin - ty cos
0
1

## -sin -tx cos+ ty sin + tx

cos -tx sin - ty cos + ty
0
1

## Composite Transformation Matrix

Example
Perform 60 rotation of a point P(2, 5) about a
pivot point (1,2). Find P?
cos
sin
0

## -sin -tx cos+ ty sin + tx

cos -tx sin - ty cos + ty
0
1

0.5
-0.866 -1.0.5 + 2.0.866 + 1
0.866 0.5 -1.0.866- 2.0.5 + 2
0
0
1
0.5 - 0.866 2.232
0.866 0.5
0.134
0
0
1

2
5
1

.
.

x
y
1

Sin 60 = 0.8660
Kos 60 = 1/2

2
5
1
-1.098
4.366
1

P = (-1, 4)

## Without using composite

homogenus matrix
Example
Perform 90 rotation of a point P(5, 1) about a pivot
point (2, 2). Find P?

## 1. Translate pivot point ke asalan ( tx = -2, ty = -2)

Titik P(5, 1 ) P (3, -1)

2. Rotate P = 90 degree

## P(3, -1) -- > kos 90 -sin 90 3 = 0

-1 3 = 1

sin 90 kos 90 -1
1
0 -1
3
3. Translate back ke pivot point (tx = 2 , ty = 2)

## Composite Transformation Matrix

General Fixed-Point Scaling
Operation :1. Translate (fixed point is moved to origin)
2. Scale with respect to origin
3. Translate (fixed point is returned to original position)
T(fixed) S(scale) T(fixed)
Find the matrix that represents scaling of an
object with respect to any fixed point?
Given P(6, 8) , Sx = 2, Sy = 3 and fixed point
(2, 2). Use that matrix to find P?

Answer
1
0
0
1
0
0

0
1
0
0
1
0

tx
ty
1
tx
ty
1

.
.

Sx 0
0 Sy
0
0

0
0
1

1
0
0

0
1
0

-tx
-ty
1

Sx 0 -tx Sx
0 Sy -ty Sy
0 0
1

x =6, y = 8, Sx = 2, Sy = 3, tx =2, ty = 2

2
0
0

0
3
0

-2( 2) + 2
-2(3) + 2
1

6
8
1

10
20
1

Sx 0 -tx Sx + tx
0 Sy -ty Sy + ty
0 0
1

## Composite Transformation Matrix

General Scaling Direction
Operation :1. Rotate (scaling direction align with the coordinate axes)
2. Scale with respect to origin
3. Rotate (scaling direction is returned to original position )
R() S(scale) R()
Find the composite transformation matrix
by yourself !!

latihan
Dapatkan titik akhir bagi P(5, 8) jika titik
tersebut diputarkan sebanyak 90 darjah,
kemudian ditranslate sebanyak (-6, 9) dan
akhirnya diskala dengan faktor skala (2,
0.5).

Sx 0
0 Sy
0
0

0
0
1

Sx 0
0 Sy
0
0

0
0
1

.
.

T
1
0
0

0
1
0

cos
sin
0

.
tx
ty
1

-sin tx
cos ty
0
1

Sxcos Sx(-sin) Sx tx
Sy sin Sy cos Sy ty
0
0
1

R
cos
sin
0

-sin 0
cos 0
0
1

Other transformations
Reflection:

1 0 0
0 1 0

0 0 1

x-axis

y-axis

1 0 0
0 1 0

0 0 1

Other transformations
Reflection:

1 0 0
0 1 0

0 0 1

origin

0 1 0
1 0 0

0 0 1

line x=y

Other transformations
Shear:
1 shx
0 1

0 0

x-direction
0

0
1

1
sh
y
0

0 0

1 0
0 1

y-direction

## We often need to transform points from one coordinate system to

another:
1. We might model an object in non-Cartesian space (polar)
2. Objects may be described in their own local system
3. Other reasons: textures, display, etc