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Optimization of ITS

for Urban Traffic


Rahul Kayala 1RV10EC122
Nikhil Bharat 1RV10ECO68

ITS
Highway Networks

Contents

City Networks
ITS for City Networks - Challenges

Intelligent
Transport
System

Control and Mitigate Traffic Congestion


Multiple Underlying Technologies GSM,
802.11, Zigbee
Largely focused on Highway Networks
Safer, more Coordinated, and 'Smarter'

Long
Uninterrupted
Stretches
Reasonably Fast
Moving Traffic
Service Roads for
Slower Traffic
Longer Travel
Times
Known Choke
Points

Highway
Networks

Challenges of ITS for


City Traffic
Shorter Travel
Time

The road links are short and the number of links is large
Computationally costly

Large Volume of
Traffic

Traffic flow is frequently split up due to the prevalent


existence of intersections

Unknown Choke
Points

The traffic management at intersections, e.g. traffic


signal control, has strong impact on traffic flow pattern
The occurrence of traffic congestion is more accurately
indicated by traffic volume on road links rather than
travel speed.

Driver assistance systems:


-Antilock Blocking System (ABS)
-Electronic Stability Control (ESC)
-Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC)

ITS
TECHNOLOGI
ES

- Lane Departure Warning (LDW)


- Lane Change Assistant (LCA)
-Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA)
-Collision Avoidance System (CAS)
Automated Highway Systems:
-Cooperative Vehicle Infrastructure Systems (CVIS)
Commercial Vehicle Operations

Traffic
Prediction
for Urban
Scenarios

Aim: Path Of Least Delay For Commuters Between A


And B.
Most Important Application
Pre-Emptive Road Network Design
Prevailing or Predictive Existing Networks
Prevailing network conditions utilize historical data to
analyse existing traffic conditions at the given time.
Predictive network conditions use historical data to
predict the traffic conditions - advanced statistical
techniques

Parametric Techniques -- Historical Average and


Smoothing Techniques, Regression, Kalman filters,
Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA).

Predictive
Analysis

Non Parametric Techniques -- Regression, and


Artificial Intelligence techniques such as Machine
learning, Fuzzy logic and Neural networks.
Non Parametric
Pros Easier to Implement, Better Performance
Cons requires large amount of historical data,
training processes, fails if good pattern match doesnt
exist.

Discrete-Time Dynamic System

Traffic
Modelling
Assumption
s

Rolling Horizon Approach.


Time Horizon is divided into discrete traffic prediction
time intervals whose length is t seconds
Prediction is performed recursively every t seconds
Acceleration and Deceleration of the vehicles is
neglected.

Model 1
Uplink/Downli
nk Based
Prediction

Traffic flow along the successive road links on a route


Traffic flow propagates from upstream road links to
downstream road links in a traffic network
Split up at intersections

Model 1

Model 2
Saturated
Inflow

Inflow and outflow rate on the concerned link is


largely determined by its spare capacity

Model 2

Model 2

Model 1
Results

Model 2
Results

Error
Analysis
Error Reduction
MAE by 52%
MAPE by 36%
RMSE by 47%

Safety is a prevalent issue in Intelligent Transport


Systems (ITS).
The cooperative vehicles are handled by the
controller for which we are seeking a collision
avoidance

Collision
Avoidance

Strategy, whereas the uncontrolled ones are handled


by the environment.

Configuration of the section is a tuple s = <d, A>


where:

d is an integer array indexed by the lanes such


that d[i] denotes the time elapsed since the last
entrance on lane i when d[i] < dmin and otherwise
d[i] = dmin.
A is a finite set of vehicles.

Initial Configuration s = <d, A>

Environmen
t Transition

New state Configuration s1 = <d1, A1>


For every lane i, the environment performs d1[i] =
min ( d[i] + 1, dmin).
If there is an uncontrollable vehicle a, its move is
performed.

Controller
Transition

Let s1 = <d1, A1> be a configuration


A new configuration s =<d, A> can be reached by a
transition from the controller by moving every
controllable vehicle of A1.

ITS subject to a variety of conditions,

Assessment
Analysis

- maturity of technology
-market acceptance
-willingness to invest and buy.

DAS technologies improve road capacity and reduce


congestion through speed and headway adjustment.

Capacity
Improveme
nt

Two ways of improving capacity reduces distances between fully automated vehicles
until they reach the minimal safe distance.
stabilises the traffic flow. Traffic equilibrium can be
reached avoiding stop-and-go operations and
inefficiencies caused by inattentiveness, merging,
weaving and lane changing.

CO2
emissions
reduction

DAS applications such as ACC and ISA have a direct


effect on CO2 emissions reduction through changes in
speed.
ITS reduces CO2 emissions indirectly by alleviating the
congestion caused by accidents.
ISA is expected to contribute to a reduction of fuel
burn and CO2 emissions by 25%.

It was found that the performance of Model-1 peaks


when the prediction interval is similar in order as the
link travel time.

Conclusion

Model-2 demonstrates superiority when the prediction


interval is larger than one minute.
Interoperability and standardisation issues need to be
resolved to achieve large scale integration of vehicle
and transport infrastructure.

[1] Zilu Liang and Yasushi Wakahara, "City Traffic Prediction based on Realtime Traffic Information for Intelligent Transport Systems," 13th International
Conference on ITS Telecommunications (ITST), 2013.
[2] V. Psaraki, I. Pagoni, and A. Schafer, "Techno-economic assessment of
the potential of intelligent transport systems to reduce CO2 emissions", IET
Intelligent Transport Systems, pg 356-364, March-2012.
[3] D. Daily, F.W.Cathy, and S.Pumrin, An algorithm to estimate mean traffic
speed using uncalibrated cameras, IEEE Conference for Intelligent
Transportation Systems, 2000.

References

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streams: Establishing a common coordinate frame, IEEE Trans. Pattern
Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 2000.
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Yann Thierry-Mieg, " Collision Avoidance in Intelligent Transport Systems:
towards an Application of Control Theory", 9th InternationalWorkshop on
Discrete Event Systems, 2008.
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traffic flow based on hybrid system modeling, IEICE Trans. on
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