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NEEDS OF MAN
- Physical Needs
- Emotional Needs
- Intellectual Needs
INFLUENCE OF NATURE
- Geographical
-Topographical
-Climate
INFLUENCE OF MAN
- Social Conditions
- Economic Conditions
- Technological Conditions

www.philippines-travel-guide.com

www.skyscrapercity.com

Source: Arch. Augusto VIllalon

ACTIVITIES OF MAN
- Desire for Preservation
- Desire for Recognition
- Desire for Response
- Desire for Self-expression
- Desire for Self-actualization

www.philippines-travel-guide.com

www.skyscrapercity.com

Source: Arch. Augusto VIllalon

PRINCIPLES OF ART
(Principles of Composition)
Movement
Unity
Variety
Balance
Emphasis
Contrast
Proportion
Pattern/Rhythm

ELEMENTS OF ART
Space
Value
Shape
Form
Texture
Color

INVISIBLE AND VISIBLE STRUCTURE


- Form, Mass & Volume
Arrangement of Volume
Primary Shapes
Regular and Irregular Forms
Transformation of Forms
Articulation of Forms

RED
YELLOW

rage of passion, health and vitality, etc


gayety, stimulating cheering to the lazy,
upsetting to the nervous
ORANGE
has stimulating effect (small amounts)
BROWN
restful and warming but should be
combined with orange
GRAY
cold, depressing unless combined with
warm colors
WHITE
cheerful, pure and clean
PURPLE
sedative and soothing, suggest melancholy
atmosphere, cowardliness, cheapness
BLUEpeaceful and tranquil
GREEN
has cooling quality and act as sedative

AXIAL ARRANGEMENT
EMPHASIS
SECONDARY PRINCIPLES
- Repetition
- Transition
- Alternation
- Transformation

SPATIAL PERCEPTION
VISUAL AND OPTICAL ILLUSIONS
PERCEPTION OF SPACE DEPTH AND
DISTANCE

CONCEPT FOR CONTEXT GETTING


PROCESS OF CONCEPT GETTING

HORIZONTAL DISPOSITION
PRINCIPLES RELATED TO FUNCTION

THE SYSTEM OF SPACE


www.dkimages.com

Man orients to objects that is, he


adapts
psychologically
and
technologically to physical things,
he interacts with other people, and
he grasp the abstract realities, or
meaning which are transmitted
through various languages created
for the purpose of communication.

people.clarkson.edu

Sources: Architectural Theories of Design by George Salvan; A home in the World by Martine
and Caroline Laffon and Forms, Space and Order by Francis DK CHing.

www.axp.mdx.ac.uk/~luke3/pho
to1/casabere.html

THE SYSTEM OF SPACE


www.dkimages.com

Man has created space to express


the structure of his world. We may
call this creation expressive or
artistic space. Expressive space
needs a concept which systematizes
its possible property this property
is aesthetic!

www.axiidesigns.com

Sources: Architectural Theories of Design by George Salvan; A home in the World by Martine
and Caroline Laffon and Forms, Space and Order by Francis DK CHing.
www.treas.gov

THE SYSTEM OF SPACE


As a rejoinder to mans spatial
needs as a result of oriented actions
towards objects and as dictated by
desires for self- preservation, selfactualization, response, recognition,
and self expression; a process
known as space planning which aims
to concretize mans existential
space evolved.

www.thewoombie.com

japanhouses.net

Sources: Architectural Theories of Design by George Salvan; A home in the World by Martine
and Caroline Laffon and Forms, Space and Order by Francis DK CHing.
www.flickr.com

THE SYSTEM OF SPACE


Architectural space is defined as a
concretization of mans existential
space. It has to adopt itself to the
needs of organic action as well as
facilitating
orientation
through
perception.

Architectural space basically


depicts humanity and
suggests cultural identity.

Sources: Architectural Theories of Design by George Salvan; A home in the World by Martine
and Caroline Laffon and Forms, Space and Order by Francis DK CHing.

www.healthyhomeplans.com

What is a SPACE?
Space is the extent within which matter
is physically extended and objects and
events have positions relative to one
another .

www.living-spaces.co.za

(source: Encyclopedia Britannica which was adopted by


wikipedia.com)

The infinite extension of the threedimensional region in which all matter


exists.
(Source: Webster Dictionary)

www.propertynetasia.com.my

What is a SPACE?
An area provided for a particular
purpose.

www.living-spaces.co.za

(from unknown source)

A blank or empty area.


(Common definition)

www.propertynetasia.com.my

The area between things or inside of


something.
(Source: Word Tutor)

TWO DISTINCT TERMINOLOGIES


- PHYSICAL SPACE
- ARCHITECTURAL SPACE

The difference of the architecture of the past


and that of today is profound and significant it is the
result of new approaches in design made possible by
social conditions and advances in technological
conditions.
There was no freedom in planning since the
designers only think of superficial details. Buildings
then were inflexible.

Sources: Architectural Theories of Design by George Salvan; A home in the World by Martine
and Caroline Laffon and Forms, Space and Order by Francis DK CHing.

The designers began and ended with a study of


the external style, columns, doors, windows.
The process of design then is a complete
reverse of the present. Formerly, we regarded
buildings as piles of masonry for the purpose of
separating man from space.

Sources: Architectural Theories of Design by George Salvan; A home in the World by Martine
and Caroline Laffon and Forms, Space and Order by Francis DK CHing.

Design begins with a study of fundamental


principles of planning based upon the needs of people
and the resultant architectural forms.
Architecture is no longer bound to tradition or
style.

Sources: Architectural Theories of Design by George Salvan; A home in the World by Martine
and Caroline Laffon and Forms, Space and Order by Francis DK CHing.

Architecture is space, conditioned to suit


human needs. It is enclosed with opaque or
translucent and transparent materials in a manner
that man may exist comfortably in it but may be
spared the oppressiveness of heavy, confining walls.

Sources: Architectural Theories of Design by George Salvan; A home in the World by Martine
and Caroline Laffon and Forms, Space and Order by Francis DK CHing.

The principles of space organization


for architectural purposes are concerned
with:
1. The use of space (utility and function) to serve
the occupants.
2. The collaboration of materials
permanence and security.

(strength)

3. The contributions of aesthetics (beauty) in


architecture.
Sources: Architectural Theories of Design by George Salvan; A home in the World by Martine
and Caroline Laffon and Forms, Space and Order by Francis DK CHing.

The decision as to what type of


organization to use in a specific situation
will depend on:
1. The demands of the building program such as
functional proximities, hierarchy of spaces,
and requirements for access, light or view.
2. Exterior conditions of the site that might limit
the organizations form or growth, or that
might encourage the organization to address
certain features of its site and turn away from
Sources: Architectural Theories of Design by George Salvan; A home in the World by Martine
and Caroline Laffon and Forms, Space and Order by Francis DK CHing.
others.

Sources: Architectural Theories of Design by George Salvan; A home in the World by Martine
and Caroline Laffon and Forms, Space and Order by Francis DK CHing.

Sources: Architectural Theories of Design by George Salvan; A home in the World by Martine
and Caroline Laffon and Forms, Space and Order by Francis DK CHing.

Sources: Architectural Theories of Design by George Salvan; A home in the World by Martine
and Caroline Laffon and Forms, Space and Order by Francis DK CHing.

Sources: Architectural Theories of Design by George Salvan; A home in the World by Martine
and Caroline Laffon and Forms, Space and Order by Francis DK CHing.

SIMPLE PROGRESSION

PREPARATION- SURPRISE

CONSTRICTION-RELIEF

Sources: Architectural Theories of Design by George Salvan; A home in the World by Martine
and Caroline Laffon and Forms, Space and Order by Francis DK CHing.

PLAN

Sources: Architectural Theories of Design by George Salvan; A home in the World by Martine
and Caroline Laffon and Forms, Space and Order by Francis DK CHing.

1. Contained space may have


different shape from the host
space.
2. Contained space may not be
centrally located.
3. Contained space may take the
shape of the host but may be
oriented in different manner
PLANS

Sources: Architectural Theories of Design by George Salvan; A home in the World by Martine
and Caroline Laffon and Forms, Space and Order by Francis DK CHing.

PLAN

Sources: Architectural Theories of Design by George Salvan; A home in the World by Martine
and Caroline Laffon and Forms, Space and Order by Francis DK CHing.

1. The interlocking portion of the two


volumes can be shared by each
space.
2. The interlocking portion can be
merge with one of the spaces and
become integral part of its volume.
3. The interlocking portion can serve
as a distinct space and may link the
two interlocking volume.
PLANS

Sources: Architectural Theories of Design by George Salvan; A home in the World by Martine
and Caroline Laffon and Forms, Space and Order by Francis DK CHing.

PLANS

Sources: Architectural Theories of Design by George Salvan; A home in the World by Martine
and Caroline Laffon and Forms, Space and Order by Francis DK CHing.

1. Adjacent spaces may have


limited visual or direct
access as reinforcement of
individuality or
differences.

FOUR POSSIBILITIES OF SEPARATING PLANES

Sources: Architectural Theories of Design by George Salvan; A home in the World by Martine
and Caroline Laffon and Forms, Space and Order by Francis DK CHing.

2. Adjacent spaces may


be separated by a
free standing plane.

FOUR POSSIBILITIES OF SEPARATING PLANES

Sources: Architectural Theories of Design by George Salvan; A home in the World by Martine
and Caroline Laffon and Forms, Space and Order by Francis DK CHing.

3. Adjacent spaces may just


be separated by row of
columns, by ceiling
drapery and even by
imposing difference
between texture quality.

FOUR POSSIBILITIES OF SEPARATING PLANES

Sources: Architectural Theories of Design by George Salvan; A home in the World by Martine
and Caroline Laffon and Forms, Space and Order by Francis DK CHing.

4. Adjacent spaces may


be separated simply
by surface
articulation.

FOUR POSSIBILITIES OF SEPARATING PLANES

Sources: Architectural Theories of Design by George Salvan; A home in the World by Martine
and Caroline Laffon and Forms, Space and Order by Francis DK CHing.

LINKING SPACE

Sources: Architectural Theories of Design by George Salvan; A home in the World by Martine
and Caroline Laffon and Forms, Space and Order by Francis DK CHing.

Sources: Architectural Theories of Design by George Salvan; A home in the World by Martine
and Caroline Laffon and Forms, Space and Order by Francis DK CHing.

Sources: Architectural Theories of Design by George Salvan; A home in the World by Martine
and Caroline Laffon and Forms, Space and Order by Francis DK CHing.

PLAN

Sources: Architectural Theories of Design by George Salvan; A home in the World by Martine
and Caroline Laffon and Forms, Space and Order by Francis DK CHing.

Sources: Architectural Theories of Design by George Salvan; A home in the World by Martine
and Caroline Laffon and Forms, Space and Order by Francis DK CHing.

Sources: Architectural Theories of Design by George Salvan; A home in the World by Martine
and Caroline Laffon and Forms, Space and Order by Francis DK CHing.

PLAN

Sources: Architectural Theories of Design by George Salvan; A home in the World by Martine
and Caroline Laffon and Forms, Space and Order by Francis DK CHing.

Sources of Most of Illustrations, Figures and Photos of this Presentation: http://images.google.com.ph/images

KINESTHETIC
- the sensation of
movement or strain
in muscles, tendons
or joints,

Early JAPANESE GARDEN


designer understood the
interrelationship between the
kinesthetic experience of
space and the visual
experience.
Lacking wide-open spaces, and living
close together as they do, the Japanese
learned to make the most of small
spaces.

During the Heian period (794-1185), gardens shifted from


solely representing religious beliefs to becoming, "a place
for ceremonies, amusement, and contemplation" (Miller).

Japanese are ingenious in stretching


visual space by exaggerating
kinesthetic involvement.

Sources of Most of Illustrations, Figures and Photos of this Presentation: http://images.google.com.ph/images

MOVEMENT THROUGH SPACE


The circulation path can be
conceived as the perceptual thread
that links the spaces of a building, or
any series of interior spaces, together.

1. BUILDING APPROACH
2. BUILDING ENTRANCE
3. CONFIGURATION OF

PATH

(OCCUPANTS

CONVEYOR AND CIRCULATION SPACES)

4. PATH-SPACE

RELATIONSHIP

SPACE CONNECTOR)

5. PURVEYORS PATH

(CONVEYOR-

1. FRONTAL APPROACH
- may lead directly to a building or can be the entire front
facade of a building or an elaborate entrance within it.

2. OBLIQUE APPROACH
- enhances the effect of perspective

it is being done to

delay the sequence of approach

3. SPIRAL APPROACH
-prolongs the sequence of approach and emphasize the three
dimensions of the building.

1. FLUSH
- maintains the continuity of wall surface

2. PROJECTED
- providing shelter to the approach

3. RECESSED
- also provides shelter and at the same time receive a portion
of exterior space into the realm of the building

FLUSH

NATURE OF PATHS CONFIGURATION IS INFLUENCED BY


ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERN IT COULD BE:

A circulation space may be


enclosed, open on one side, and
even open on both sides

Sources of Most of Illustrations, Figures and Photos of this Presentation: http://images.google.com.ph/images

STUDY OF MEANING
The study of meaning is called
SEMANTICS, which is usually thought
as the meanings of words.
ARCHITECTURAL SEMANTICS
=
ARCHITECTURAL MEANING OR SYMBOLISMS

Meaning is not only the first mental entity to come


into consciousness, but that is also the entity
which commonly inspire creative works.

PERCEPTION

SIGN
- INDEXICAL SIGN (INDEX) there is existential relation
between signifier and signified
- ICONIC SIGN concern a different set of relations between
signifier and signified although, there is always present
existential and indexical relationship.
- SYMBOLIC SIGN where conventional relation between
signifier and signified

Ching, Francis DK. A visual dictionary of architecture.


New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold/ Wiley, 1995.
Ching, Francis DK. Forms, space and order. New York:
Wiley, 2000
Farrelly, Lorraine. The Fundamentals of architecture.
Switzerland : AVA Pub., c2007.
Salvan, George. Architectural theories of design :
Manila : GoodwillPublications, 2000.