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SOCIAL, LEGAL AND

ETHICAL IMPLICATIONS OF
TESTS

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CRITICISMS OF TESTING  In spite of the advantages of testing.Anastasi and Urbina (1997) offer us some factors to consider to observe the right to privacy:  Invasion 1) 2) 3) 4) Purpose of testing Relevance of Information Informed Consent Confidentiality . still some quarters hurl some serious allegations against its use. Below are some criticisms: of Privacy.

Teachers are not allowed to let the students grade or correct any other student’s paper. . Teachers cannot distribute test papers in a manner that will permit other students to observe scores of others. Teachers cannot ask students to raise their hands to determine if they answered correctly or incorrectly to any item. Teachers cannot display the works of their students as an example of poor or excellent work.Chase (1976) derived the following implications for teaching from the 1974 Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (Buckley Amendment) : 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Teachers cannot post the grade of students. Teachers cannot assume that letters of recommendations requested by students will be kept confidential..

The less able student incurs a higher level of anxiety from testing capable ones. Although there appears to be no relationship between sex and anxiety from among elementary school children. whereas a higher level of anxiety hinders learning in most cases. . Test anxiety increases with grade levels. Highly anxious students do better than less anxious ones on measuring rote recall. junior high school girls indicate that they experience more anxiety than boys at comparable levels. In his study. Creation of Anxiety and Interference in LearningHow tests affect students was studied by Kirkland (1971). Being familiar with the type of test to be administered reduces anxiety. the following conclusions regarding tests were reached based on the relationships between anxiety and learning: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) A mild degree of anxiety usually facilitates learning.

Avoid a “sudden death examination”. Write personal notes on each examination paper encouraging students to keep up the good work or exert more effort. Do not emphasize competitive examinations when some students are unable to compete. Avoid unannounced examinations Schedule personal conferences with students as often as possible to reduce anxiety and redirect learning. Emphasize more on strengths not on deficiencies. Be sure each item has “face validity”. Allow students to choose among activities of equal instructional value. Treat each student’s grades confidentially. . Keep in mind that passing or failing is a function of one test only. The following suggestions may help motivate students prepare for and take examinations without creating unnecessary anxiety: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) Emphasize tests for diagnosis and mastery rather that means of punishing students who fail to live up expectations of the teacher or parents. Items measure some important aspects of life as perceived by the students.

unchangeable.  Penalizing against Minority Students – Many minority students do not take test because they have not learned skills. Of course. therefore.  Discrimination  Measurement of Limited and Superficial Aspect of Behavior – A commonly recurring criticism of tests is that they cannot measure important human traits. such as love or motivation. there are some vague items. and attitude required to succeed. .Categorization of Students (Tracking) – The notion that measurement instruments are infallible and their performance is fixed and. knowledge.  Permanent Bright and Creative Students . it is not reasonable to criticize tests. but this is an exception rather than a rule. In this case.One of the most consistent criticisms of test is that they are insensitive to typical but defensible responses. has had serious consequences.

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