Humanistic Psychology

Abraham Maslow
and Carl Rogers

it sees human beings as able to transcend it to some degree It stresses health and actualization It is a reaction against a deterministic view of human beings     . as persons who have the ability to grow (human potential) Though it does not deny the effect of the environment.What is Humanistic Psychology? It emphasizes an optimistic view of human beings.

Humanistic Psychology: the Third Force Psychoanalysis has sometimes been called the "first force" in psychology Behaviorism was the second force Both first and second forces are deterministic in their view of people Humanistic psychology saw itself as the third force. stressing human freedom and human potential     .

emphasizing the realization of individual potential. proper nutrition. team training etc.The Human Potential Movement Both Maslow and Rogers were part of the "human potential movement" Part of the 1960's mindset. was much more open to spiritual perspectives than classical psychoanalysis or behaviorism In addition to individual therapy. meditation. exercise etc…     . It also fostered a holistic approach to health and was sympathetic to techniques like massage. this movement led to the use of encounter groups..

Esalen: the “home” of the human potential movement One of the places that became very important in this movement. due to the fact that a lot of experimentation around the human potential movement took place there is Esalen. As part of this unit. you will be taking a virtual fieldtrip there.     .

and especially very poor mothering.     .Abraham Maslow 19081970 Born in Brooklyn. He sought to attach himself to eminent people and studied them. New York in a Russian Jewish family. Had some college teachers he especially admired: Ruth Benedict and Max Wertheimer --they are the inspiration for his concept of "self-actualizing person. the oldest of 7 children Had a painful childhood. He also experienced much antiSemitism.

stability Belongingness and love Esteem (from self and others) Self-actualization The more basic needs have to be at least partly satisfied before one can move up. they are: Physiological (food.Maslow is known for his Hierarchy of Needs Maslow proposed 5 levels of need: from basic to more advanced. order. sex) Safety (security. water.     .

independent. creative Focus on problems outside themselves. spontaneous. are concerned w/ society.Self Actualized People (the top of the hierarchy) Are in touch with their spirituality (peak experiences) Are accurate in their perception of reality Are comfortable with themselves & others Are open. direct. the world Need aloneness and privacy Establish deep intimate relationships Are non-conformists but highly ethical     . playful.

Self actualized people are not perfect They are. however experiencing a high level of well being and personal integration They are still growing Do any of the characteristics surprise you?     .

What is a peak experience? A special moment when everything seems to fall into place People transcend the self and are at one with the world Similar to a religious. or mystical experience A transformative experience A part of the process of selfactualization     .

    .Can self-actualization be measured? The Personal Orientation Inventory (Shostrum. along with dimensions like inner-outer orientation. ability to function in the present etc… A research article using the POI to look at the relationship between humanism and religion can be found in the course Bb library. 1974) measures selfactualizing characteristics.

Why doesn’t everyone live up to his/her potential? The Jonah complex: fear of growth because growth may lead to new situations we would not know how to handle Psychological and/or spiritual growth requires courage (in addition to grace) Here is an interesting blog about the Jonah complex.     . from a business perspective.

Carl Rogers 1902-1987 Born in Oak Park. Moved away from conservative Christianity to very liberal beliefs. Studied at Union Seminary in NY. Illinois.     . fourth of six children. evangelical background. then transferred to Columbia to study psychology Then worked both in academic and clinical settings. As a sophomore in college. went to an international Christian student conference in Beijing.

Actualizing tendency: people tend to develop in a positive direction.According to Carl Rogers Important issues must be defined by the individual: importance of an autonomous self: self-insight is what predicts later behavior. (Roger's theory emphasizes phenomenology) Incongruence between our self-concept and our experience leads to pathology     . toward selfactualization The way we perceive our environment determines how it affects us.

authenticity     .Rogerian Therapy is Client-Centered Therapy Necessary conditions from therapist to client: Unconditional positive regard for the client Accurate empathy with the client Congruence in relations between the therapist & client.

the client Moves from talking about externals to talking about personal issues Moves from talking about the past to dealing with the present Becomes closer to and more comfortable with his/her feelings Becomes more open to new experiences.In Rogerian therapy. experiences more freedom     .

The Fully Functioning Person. for Rogers Is aware of all experiences Lives in the moment Trusts in his/her self Experiences freedom in choices Is creative and adapts well Is still growing and experiencing difficulties     .

The End .

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