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Birdwatching

Deborshee
Gogoi
Assistant Professor,
Deptt. Of Management
Digboi College

What is Birding?
Why Birdwatching?
Birds an
Introduction?
How to do
Birdwatching?
Where to do Birding?
Dos & Donts in
Birding?
Photo gallery

Birdwatching/ Birding- What?

Birdwatching or birding is the observation of birds


as a recreational activity. It can be done with the
naked eye, through a visual enhancement device like
binoculars and telescopes, or by listening for bird
sounds.

Birding and birdwatching is quite


Birding: A hobby in which individuals enjoy the challenge of bird
different?
study, listing, or other general
activities involving bird life.
Birdwatching: Refers to watching birds for any reason at all, and
should not be used to refer to the serious birder.

Most birdwatchers pursue this activity for recreational or social


reasons, unlike ornithologists, who engage in the study of birds
using formal scientific methods.

History of Birdwatching
Edmund Selous was the first
person to use the term
Birdwatching in his book
entitled Bird Watching in
1901.
During the Victorian era, bird
watching was practiced in the
interest of collecting eggs and
the skins of exotic breeds.
With the onset of advanced
optics and field guides, bird
watching exploded on the
Eastern seaboard of the
United States and gradually
spread worldwide.
Cont.

History of Birdwatching in India:


Observation of Birds in India has an ancient history (1700-1000
B.C) and references can be found in Rigveda and Yajurveda.
In 16th century Mughal rulers observed birds & kept meticulous
records. Emperor Jahangir even commissioned artists to portray
birds with great accuracy.
Scientific documentation began only after the arrival of Britishers.
The earliest book describing birds in
India is attributed to Eleanyar Albin in
1738.
Followed by Hugh Whistler's Popular
Handbook of Indian Birds (1928), Dr.
Salim Ali's The Book of Indian Birds
(1941) and Handbook of the Birds of
India & Pakistan(Ali & Ripley, 1964-74).

Why birdwatching?

1. Contribute towards
existing knowledge

2. Provides Mental Satisfaction

3. Improves observation skill/ concentration level

4. Makes sensory organs (especially


ears and eyes) more sensitive

5. Economic Advantages

6. Builds competitive
mindset

Birds an introduction

CLASSIFICATION OF BIRDS
Kingdom:
Animalia
Subphylum:
Vertebrata
Class: Aves
Order: 30 orders
Family: 194
families
Genus: 2099
genera

Characteristics of Birds:

Facts & Figures (Global Scenario):


Total Bird species of the world: 9702
Globally Threatened: 1253 (as per 2011 update) which is

12.5% of the global population.


Critically Endangered (extremely high risk of extinction):

189
One in eight of the world's birds faces extinction.
Since 1500 A.D: 190+ species ofbirds have

becomeextinct.
Weight range from 2 g to 100 kg.
There are about 300 billion (30000 crore) birds (#

individuals) on earth.

Facts & Figures (Indian Scenario):


Total No. of Bird Species: 1301 (Reliable
Record-1224 + 5)
Globally Threatened: 80
Endangeredbirds: 147 of which Critically Endangered: 14
Endangered: 15
Vulnerable: 54
Near Threatened: 64

Probably Extinct: 2
Endemic Birds: 55 (Birds only found in India)

A FEW EXTINCT SPECIES:


MOA:
A native bird of New Zealand. It
is generally considered that
most, if not all, species of moa
died out by A.D. 1400 due to
overhunting
by
the
Mori
(Polynesian people) and habitat
decline.

Dodo:
An extinctflightless bird
that wasendemicto the
island ofMauritius, east
ofMadagascar
in
theIndian Ocean.
The first recorded mention
of the Dodo was by Dutch
sailors in 1598. In the
following years, the bird
was hunted by sailors,
theirdomesticated
animals,
andintroduced
species during that time.
The last widely accepted
sighting of a Dodo was in

Passenger Pigeon or Wild


Pigeon:
Is an extinctNorth American Bird.
The species lived in enormous
migratory flocks until the early 20th
century, when hunting andhabitat
destruction led to its demise.

Some estimate 3 to 5 billion


Passenger Pigeons were in the
United States when Europeans
arrived in North America.
Some
reduction
in
numbers
occurred from habitat loss when
European
settlement
led
to
massdeforestation. Next, pigeon
meat was commercialized as a
cheap food forslaves and the poor
in the 19th century, resulting
inhuntingon
a
massive
and
mechanized scale. A slow decline
between about 1800 and 1870 was
followed by a catastrophic decline

PINK HEADED
DUCK:
Pink-headed
ducks
were one of the rarest
species of waterfowl
that were found in
India.
They
mainly
inhabited
the
area
around the lower areas
north of the Ganges
and
west
offormerly
the
Thisduck
occurred
in
Brahmaputra
River.
easternIndia,Bangladeshand
northernMyanmar,
but is now probablyextinct. It was always rare,
and the last confirmed sighting, byC. M. Inglis,
was from Darbhanga in June 1935, with reports
from India persisting until the early 1960s. The
main reason for its extinction was destruction of
habitat and deforestation.

How to do Birdwatching?

Things you will


require to start
Birding-

1. Notebook:
Carry a notebook and
pencil to record the
birds you have seen,
and any markings or
unusual behaviour.
You can then use
your notes to confirm
your identification or
you can even make a
rough sketch which
will help you to
identify the bird later.

2. Field-Guide Books:
A good up-to-date field guide is a
must. There is no substitute for
an illustrated field guide which
you can carry with and flip
through to identify a bird in
front of you.

3.Birding Binoculars
Porro Prism Binoculars: Porro
prism models will deliver good optics
for the dollar, but lack the durability
and compact styling of roof prism
models. In addition, many Porros are
not waterproof.

Roof Prism Binoculars: These


binoculars are rugged and durable,
and you no longer have to spend
more money to get good optical
quality in this design.

Specification??
Birding Binoculars have two numbers:
7x30; 8x40; 20x60; etc.where
7x = Magnification that the binocular offers; a 7x
binocular will bring objects seven times closer to
the viewer than the naked eye.
The second no. x30; x40 is the width of the
objective lens in millimeter. Larger the objective
lens, more light while viewing the object.

Identification:
What to notice about birds?
1. Color and marking
2. Calls and Songs
3. Habits and
Behaviors
4. Size
5. Beak Shapes
6. Any other noticeable
feature

Where to do Birding?
1.Garden
2.Paddy field
3.Reserve Forest
4.Wildlife sanctuaries
5.National Parks
6.Water Bodies (Near River Banks/
sea shores/ ponds/ wetlands)

Bird habitats:

Wetland

Grassland

Woodland

Agriculture

SOME POTENTIAL PLACES TO WATCH BIRDS IN


NORTHEAST INDIA:

Eaglenest Wildlife Sanctuary

Mishmi Hills, Arunachal Pradesh

Kaziranga National Park

Dibru-Saikhowa National Park

Khonoma, Nagaland

Dehing-Patkai WLS

Manas National Park, Assam

Namdapha N.P, Assam

Pakke Tiger Reserve,


Arunachal Pradesh

Nameri N.P, Assam

Dos & Donts in Birding?

Dos:
1. Avoid Chasing birds. Support the protection of
important bird habits.
2. Sparse use of artificial lights for photographing
and filming birds.
3. Stay on roads, trails and paths where they exist.
Create minimum disturbance to their habitat.

Donts:
1. Do not photograph nesting birds.
2. Avoid use of recordings and other methods of
attracting birds in heavily birding areas or for
attracting threatened species.
3. Exercise

restrain

and

caution

during

observation, photography, sound recording, or


filming.

Gracias