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ABS

krishnaswami.kaushik

ABS an Engineering Plastic


Description & Types
Properties & Grades
Application & Uses
Processing

Description & Types


ABS resins are thermoplastic resins
composed of three different monomers I.e,
ACRYLONITRILE, BUTADIENE AND
STYRENE
ACRYLONITRILE stands- Tensile, Strength,
Hardness, Heat resistance, Chemical
Resistance etc
BUTADIENE improves- Impact Strength
STYRENE improves Processability
ABS has an combination of Mechanical,
Thermal & Chemical Resistance. I.e (Tough;
Hard & Rigid Material).

Acrylonitrile butadiene
styrene

Acrylonitrile
Chemical Resistance
Fatique Resistance
Hardness & Rigidity
Melt Strength

H2C=CH
C=N

Butadiene
Low Temprature Ductility
Impact resistance
Melt Strength

H
C
HC

R
C

Styrene
Heat Resistance
Processability
Coloring
Hardness & Rigidity

HC = CH2

Properties
ABS is derived from acrylonitrile, butadiene, and styrene.
Acrylonitrile is a synthetic monomer produced from propylene and
ammonia;
Butadiene is a petroleum hydrocarbon obtained from the C4 fraction
of steam cracking;
Styrene monomer is made by dehydrogenation of ethyl benzene - a
hydrocarbon obtained in the reaction of ethylene and benzene.
The advantage of ABS is that this material combines the strength and
rigidity of the acrylonitrile and styrene polymers with the toughness of
the polybutadiene rubber.
The most important mechanical properties of ABS are impact
resistance and toughness.
A variety of modifications can be made to improve impact resistance,
toughness, and heat resistance.

These electron micrographs give an


idea of what ABS plastic looks like on
the surface.

The three pictures look totally different, yet


they are all ABS polymer.
If you were to zoom in even further, the
polymer lattice of the acrylonitrile / styrene/
butadiene terpolymer would look something
like this:

It is this cross-linked lattice that gives the


plastic the required strength, as styrene is a
brittle material;
However, the styrene partly fills in the holes
within this lattice work as well as cross-linking to
the acrylonitrile.
The butadiene has a similar effect, as well as
dispersing in the molten polymers.
ABS was one of the first commercial plastics and
was developed in 1948.
As engineering plastics go, its not that
sophisticated and has been superceded by far
superior polymers, but they are a lot more
expensive, hence manufacturers tend to stick to
ABS on cost grounds.

Properties of ABS
Excellent freedom of Design
Superior Dimensional Stability, Rigidity & Toughness
Good surface gloss
Excellent Chemical, Resistance & Non Corrosive
Better Surface Hardness
Better Insulating Property
Light Weight
Good Low Temperature Impact Strength
Availability of built in good attractive colours
Odourless, Tasteless
Possible to imply in all Techniques e.g spraying;
Screen Printing; Metallizing, Eletroplating without
any surface treament.

Grades of ABS
Graded by Injection Moulding; Extrusion &
Thermoforming.
Moulding can be graded as
General pupose;
High Impact;
High Gloss;
High Flow;
Heat Resistant;
Electroplating

Extrusion can be graded as


Luggage;
Refregerator lines;
COP Sleeves.

Alloys of ABS
PC Alloy
PVC Alloy

Plastic extrusion molding


Plastic extrusion molding is a process of
producing a continuous work piece by forcing
molten plastic through a shaped die.
As the hot material exits the die the material
is carried along a conveyor, cooled, and cut
to the desired length.
In plastic extrusion molding thermoplastic
materials are fed from a hopper into the
heated barrel of an extruder.
A rotating helical screw inside the barrel
pushes the plastic through the barrel toward
the die located at the end of the machine.

Shapes compatible with extrusion molding


are those having a constant cross-section.
A few examples of parts often made by
plastic extrusion molding include window
molding, electronic enclosures, door
insulation seals, pipes, rods, etc.
The process requires a custom steel die in
the shape of the part cross section.
Cost reduction options including reducing
cross section area, reducing wall thickness
and selection of low cost material.

Plastic Extrusion Molding Design


Considerations
Walls must not be too thick to provide cooling.
Use rounded corners.
Use uniform wall thickness.
Long items will have a slight curvature.
Ends are rough cut.

Machines of Plastics
Extrusion Molding

Plastic extrusion molding of ABS

ABS Molding or Extrusion Compound


Product Description
EXTRUSION IS A VERY IMPORTANT METHOD TO
MAKE PLASTIC PRODUCTS

Low Gloss ABS


Low Gloss Materials
are used for
Automobiles Part

Ultra Super Heat Resistant ABS

Very High Heat


Resistant

Medium Resistant Impact


ABS

THIS IS THE
GERERAL PURPOSE
ABS

High Impact ABS

This is Strong Plastic


ABS

Heat Resistant ABS


THE MATERIAL
SHOULD WORK IN
HIGH Temperature,
FOR INSTANCE,
AUTOMOBILE OR
HAIR DRYER SHELLS

Plating ABS
IT IS VERY
IMPORTANT TO ABS
USING, BUT NOT ALL
ABS GRADE
SUITABLE FOR
PLATING

Glass Fiber Reinforce


WITH GLASS FIBER
REINFORCE WORK,
THE RIGIDITY OF
ABS IS LARGELY
IMPROVED

Flame Retardant ABS

Injection Molding

Injection Molding

Plastic Injection Moulding with ABS


Plastics
Different grades of ABS plasic available today including
high-impact, glass-filled, transparent and high luster
formulations, available in a wide range of colors for
applications that include office machines, electronics
and consumer related products.

Properties of ABS Plastic (Injection


Moulding)
ABS is an amorphous thermoplastic copolymer
blended from Acrylonitrile, Butadiene and Styrene.
Being an amorphous thermoplastic, it is easily plastic
injection molded, and it provides uniform shrinkage
in both the flow and transverse-to-flow directions.
This uniformity in shrinkage can be maintained over
a wide processing range so precise dimensional
control is easier to achieve when compared to a
crystalline thermoplastic.
Uniformity in shrinkage also results in minimal
warpage after plastic injection molding.

ABS Thermaplastics Injection Molding


ABS, also known as acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, is
a common engineering thermoplastic that has good
impact strength and toughness along with mechanical
and electrical properties that make it idea for a variety of
uses:
Medical devices
Electrical and electronics
Hardware
Enclosures
Business machine and computer housings
Industrial parts
Appliances; Automotive & More

Factors Affecting the Injection Molding of ABS

A constant problem in injection molding


processes is that of flash. Flash results in
wasted material, time, money and poor
product quality.
The variables affecting the IM of ABS are:
Injection pressure (35% or 45% of Maximum
Pressure 62 Bars)
Holding Pressure (35% or 45% of Maximum
Pressure 62 Bars)
Holding Pressure time (1 second or 4
seconds) affect the flash of ABS tensile specimens,
The combination of variables that produced the least
amount of flash are injection pressure (35%), low
holding pressure (35%), and either low or high

ABS molded products include:


Standard injection molding
Thin- and thick-walled parts
Structural foam molding
ABS properties:
Tough, versatile, cost-effective engineering
thermoplastic
Good impact strength
Good rigidity
Good surface appearance
FDA and U.L. grades available
Ultraviolet light sensitive; requires stabilizers for
weatherability

Secondary Operations for ABS Plastics Parts


Other ABS plastic injection molded components are
parts that require post molding operations such as:
secondary machining operations;
installation of metal inserts,
ultrasonic insertion and
decorated moldings using hot stamping, pad printing,
and laser marking processes.
A unique characteristic of ABS is the ability to
chrome plate the material, thus lending itself to
applications such as decorative trim, automotive
parts, medical devices and toys.

Physical and Mechanical Properties :ABS is hard and tough even at temperatures as low as
-40oC.
It has a high resistance to temperature fluctuations but has
very limited weathering resistance and the mechanical
properties tend to degrade quickly in outdoor exposure.
It has low water absorption.

Property

Aproximate Value
ABS

Tensile strength

55 - 80 MN/m2

Tensile Modulus

2 - 3 GN/m2

Elongation at Break

10 - 50 %

Flexural Strength

<50 - 150 MN/m2

Notched Impact Strength

10 - 20 kJ/m2

Specific Heat

1.25 - 1.70 kJ/kgoC

Glass Transition Temperature

110 oC

Heat Deflection Temperature

<100oC

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion

5 - 10 x 10-5 / oC

10

Long Term Service Temperature

<100 oC

11

Specific Gravity

1.0 - 1.2

12

Mould Shrinkage

0.001 - 0.005 m/m

13

Water Absorption

0.1 - 0.5 % (50% rh)

14

Transparency

Opaque

SPECIFIC GRAVITY
The ratio of the weight of the molded piece as
compared to the weight of an equal volume of
water ASTM D792
ABS
1.04-1.07

Specific gravity of major polymers


ABS (High Impact)1.01 - 1.04
ABS(Medium Impact)1.04 - 1.07
ABS High(Heat Resistant)1.05-1 .08
ABS Self Extinguishing 1.15 - 1.21

Thermal, Electrical and


Optical Properties
Thermal Properties:ABS has good high temperature
performance and the softening point is
generally higher than standard PS.
The heat deflection temperature can be
increased by several methods to
between 120 to 130oC.
ABS can be used down to about -40 oC.

Fire Behaviour
Most ABS variants are flammable and will
burn freely (giving off typical styrene odours).
The flame and fire properties of ABS can be
improved by blending bromine compounds at
15 - 20 pts phr - an expensive solution that
seriously compromises the toughness of the
material.
Another method is to create an ABS/PVC
blend and to let the chlorine on the PVC act
as a fire retardent.

Electrical Properties
ABS has relatively good electrical insulating properties
and products are suitable for secondary insulating
applications.

Optical properties
Natural ABS is milky-opaque but can be easily
coloured in a wide variety of colours.
Special glass clear versions are available.

Chemical Resistance Property


ABS is resistant to most acids and alkalis,
hydrocarbons, oils and fats.
It is not resistant to acetone, ether, ethyl
benzene, ethyl chloride and ethylene
chloride.

Advantages

Limitations

Good stain resistance

Good impact resistance even at


low temperatures.

Must be dried before processing.

Good electrical insulator and


the electrical properties are
unchanged by changes in
humidity.

Ordinary grades burn easily and


continues to burn once the flame is
removed.

Low water absorption.

Easily electroplated to give


good finish.

Poor heat resistance.

Poor transparency but can be mixed with


PMMA to improve.

Good scuff or abrasion


resistance.

Scratches easily.

Tough and stiff.

Wide colour range possible


(natural is ivory colour).

Poor weathering resistance.

Attacked by strong adds and alkalis,


chlorinated solvents and can suffer from
stress cracking in the presence of some
greases.

Applications of ABS
Domestics
Food Mixers & Grinders;
Washing Machine; Hair Dryers; Vaccum Cleaners;
Doors & body lines, handles of Refrigerators;
Luggage's

Business
Xerox Machine; Typewriters, Computers; Telephones;
Textile;
Electroplated parts;
Automobiles etc

Application- Material ABS


Material ABS - acrylonitrile butadiene styrene
ABS is an amorphous thermoplastic blend.
The recipe is 15-35% acrylnitrile, 5-30%
butadiene and 40-60% styrene.
Depending on the blend different properties
can be achieved.
Acrylnitrile contributes with thermal and
chemical resistence,
The rubberlike Butadiene gives ductility and
impact strength.
Styrene gives the glossy surface and makes

Generally, ABS has good impact


strength also at low temperatures. It
has satisfactory stiffness and
dimensional stability, glossy surface
and is easy to machine. If UVstabilizators are added, ABS is suitable
for outdoor applications

Computer mouse
Vacuum jug
KimBox suitcase
Ceramic advanced wet shave razor
Hedge cutter handle
Handle for high pressure cleaner
Shaver, rechargeable
Ensemble chair (ABS blended with PA)

Application Lego Building


Bricks
The LEGO building bricks
illustrate the attractive
properties of ABS plastic:
impact strength and glossy
surface.
The dimensional stability of
ABS contributes to the
narrow tolerances required
when joining the building
bricks.
The bricks are mass
produced by injection

Application Product Computer


Mouse
Products Computer mouse Threedimensional decoration of these mice is
achieved by water transfer technology.
As it can be seen, decoration with very
complex patterns and with a variety of
colours can be achieved.
One of the commercial names for
water transfer technology is cubic
printing

Application of Vacuum Jug


This vacuum jug illustrates how chemical resistancy
and strength can be achieved at boiling
temperatures.
The black top of the jug is made from POM plastic
which hardly absorbs the taste or smell from tea or
coffee.
The colored plastic jug furthermore shows how shiny
scratch resistant surfaces are obtained using ABS
plastic

Application-Product Kim Box


Suitcase
This suitcase illustrates how a glossy surface is obtained
using ABS plastic shaped with vacuum forming.
The interior is made from PUR foam cut into shape using
waterjet cutting.
The suitcase is only produced in a very limited number for
the Danish Museum of Craft and Design
(Kunstindustrimuseum).
It is used for transporting a collection of designed
products that introduce children and teenagers to good
industial design.

Application Ceramic ABS


Products Ceramic advanced wet shave razor The
ceramic blade in this razor stays sharp up to 40 times
longer than conventional razor metal blades.
The razor is made from ABS plastic shaped with the
insert moulding technique.
The sharp blade is made of yttria stabilised zirconia
ceramic.
The present version of the razor is a prototype

Application- Product Hedge Cutter


Products Hedge cutter This hedge cutter shows how many
different plastic materials are used in a product to obtain
different properties.
The handle and the shielding plate are made from ABS
plastic which ensures good impact strength.
The motor housing, in PA plastic, has good heat resistance.
The sheath shows that a very long narrow hollow geometry
can be produced in HDPE plastic by conventional injection
moulding.

Application-Handle for High Pressure


Cleaner
This hollow handle is produced with air assisted injection
moulding.
Better quality and reduced cost are achived compared with
the traditional solution: a handle assembled from two half
shells using snap locks.
This handle is part of a high pressure cleaner. The cleaner
can rotate around the joint at the bottom of the handle.
The material is a blend that combines the qualities of ABS
and PA

Application-Product Shaver
Rechargeable
This shaver shows how soft rubber-like plastic is integrated
with hard plastic.
It also illustrates that it is realistic to produce strong, thin,
sharp cutting blades with a complex geometry.
The green rubber-like parts are produced by multicolor injection
molding using PP for a stiff basis and SEBS plastics for the
rubber-like surface.
The hard blue part of the cover is injection molded in ABS
plastic.
The blades are made by electroforming

Application-Product Ensemble
Chair
This stable chair is made
from Stapron N which is a
blend of ABS and PA
plastics.
The blend gives good
acoustic properties (a sound
unlike plastic!), a soft
consistency, chemical
resistance (coffee, food,
alcohol), and good moulding
properties.
Using air injection moulding,
air cavities are integrated

Moulding Condition of ABS


Moulding Temperature C 180-240
Injection Pressure a KGS/Cm 800-1400
Mould Temprerature C 55-60
Pre Drying of ABS
Type of Oven : Air Circulating Type
Thickness of Granules in Tray : 2 18mm
Pre-drying Time : 2-3 Hrs
Pre-drying Temperature : 80-90

Processing
ABS is an amorphous material and softens over a
range of temperatures rather than melting quickly as
do the crystalline materials.
The materials have a broad processing window and
can be processed on most standard machinery.
ABS is available in standard and easy-flow grades
and the easy flow grades are very good for complex
mouldings.
Pre-drying is not always needed for injection
moulding with a vented cylinder but if drying is
needed then 4 hours at 80oC is generally sufficient.
Signs of moisture are stripes, streaks or bubbles in
the moulding and if any of these are seen then the
material should be pre-dried.

Injection Moulding
Mould temperature is usually between 30 and 80oC
and the higher the mould temperature the better the
surface quality.
Weld lines may also become less prominent with
increasing mould temperature.
Moulding is carried out with an injection pressure of
1000 to 1500 bar and using a follow-up pressure of
relatively short length but in the region of 30 - 60% of
the injection pressure.

Back pressure using a normal cylinder is 100


- 250 bar and should be kept high to avoid air
scorching of the material, a vented cylinder
uses 20 - 50 bar and if this is too high then
the easy flow grades will ooze from the vent
port.
Screw speeds can be high but should be set
to ensure complete plastification.
Injection speeds can be high but it is best to
start slowly and then to inject rapidly.

1
2
3
4
5
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8
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10
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14
15
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18
19
20
21
22

CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC

AR
BDT6500
DFAR
DSK
GDM6400
GDT2510
GDT6400
GHT3510
GHT4320
GHT4400
GPM4700
GPM5500
GPM5500F
GPM550M
GPM5600
GPM5600F
GPM6300
GPM6300F
GPT3800
GPT4600
GPT4800
GPT5500

ABS
ABS
ABS
ABS
ABS
ABS
ABS
ABS
ABS
ABS
ABS
ABS
ABS
ABS
ABS
ABS
ABS
ABS
ABS
ABS
ABS
ABS

350
350
360
370
325
350
370
340
380
380
400
330
330
360
380
260
260
310
370

190
183
184
195
182
198
182
206
211
197
198
197
195
195
178
198
195
195
185
182
186
187

1.05
1.05
1.04
1.05
1.05
1.05
1.05
1.05
1.05
1.02
1.04
1.05
1.05
1.05
1.05
1.05
1.05
1.05
1.02
1.02
1.03
1.05

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24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45

CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC
CYCOLOY
CYCOLOY
CYCOLOY
CYCOLOY
CYCOLOY

GSM
KJB
KJT
KJU
KJW
L
LDM
SEA2
T
TE
V100
VW300
X11
X15
X17
X37
Z48
ZA2
C1000HF
C1110
C1110HF
C1200
C1200HF

ABS
ABS
ABS
ABS
ABS
ABS
ABS
ABS
ABS
ABS
ABS
ABS
ABS
ABS
ABS
ABS
ABS
ABS
ABS+PC
ABS+PC
ABS+PC
ABS+PC
ABS+PC

330
330
340
330
330
270
340
380
340
340
400
340
310
340
380
350
350
330
360
340
345
340
340

192
190
190
190
190
188
181
162
188
195
162
168
189
205
205
230
217
192
210
225
230
235
235

1.04
1.22
1.20
1.22
1.23
1.02
1.04
1.17
1.04
1.04
1.21
1.20
1.04
1.05
1.05
1.06
1.06
1.04
1.12
1.14
1.14
1.15
1.15

46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53

CYCOLOY
CYCOLOY
CYCOLOY
CYCOLOY
CYCOLOY
CYCOLOY
CYCOLOY
CYCOLOY

C1950 ABS+PC
C2800 ABS+PC
C2950 ABS+PC
C2950HF
LG8002 ABS+PC
MC1300 ABS+PC
MC8002 ABS+PC
MC9000 ABS+PC

360
390
385
ABS+PC
330
300
340
345

210
176
203
375
220
210
230
230

1.12
1.17
1.18
200
1.13
1.10
1.14
1.14

1.18

Extrusion
Screws should be chrome plated, single lead, full
flighted constant pitch screws.
Compression ratio should increase from around 2:1
to 2.5:1.
In the absence of special ABS screws, lowcompression PVC or shallow flighted PS screws can
be used at low production rates.
Reprocessing of up to 30% can be used provided
the regrind has not been subjected to previous
thermal degradation.

Material
Grav.

Grade

Generic Flex.
name

HDT(F)
Spec
Mod.
@264psi

(X1000psi)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC
CYCOLAC

CGA ABS
GPX2800
GPX3700
GPX3800
GPX4500
GSE ABS
KLG ABS
LDA ABS
LS
ABS

240
ABS
ABS
ABS
ABS
330
300
270
260

192
240
340
300
410
192
190
200
188

1.03
194
198
195
196
1.04
1.24
1.02
1.02

1.02
1.04
1.03
1.05

ABS

Thank You