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Anchorage and Development

Development Length - Tension
 f α β γ λ
l d ≥ 0 .9 d b   ≥ 1 i 2 n.
y c+K
≤ 2 .5
( )
t r
c+K tr Where,
1 2 fc '  db
 db 

α = reinforcement location factor

β = reinforcement coating factor

for further information and
γ = reinforcement size factor values, see page 31a,
λ = lightweight aggregate concrete factor
A f
K tr = 1500
tr yt
sn transverse reinforcement index
Ktr = 0 as a design simplification
c = spacing or cover dimension

Excess reinforcement: ld may also be modified by (As required/ As provided)

Development Length - Compression

0.02 f y
ldc ≥ d b ≥ 0.0003 f y d b ≥ 8in.
f c'

ldc may be modified by the following:

Reinforcement in excess of that required by

analysis ………..A’s required/A’s provided

Spirally reinforced column bars and bars surrounded

by closely spaced ties………..0.75
Standard Hooks
When sufficient embedment length is not available for tensile reinforcing bars,
they may be bent into the shape of a hook (hooks are not effective in

basic hook development length for uncoated

rebar in normal weight concrete: 0.02 f y
lhb = db
f c'

ldh ≥ lhb (modification factors) ≥ 8db ≥ 6 in.

Modification factors:
• For side cover ≥ 2 ½ in. normal to plane of hook, and for 90° hook with cover
on extension beyond hook ≥ 2 in. …………………..0.7
• If the hook is enclosed vertically or horizontally within ties space ≤ 3 db along
the full length ldh ……………………………………….0.8
• When anchorage for full development is not specifically required, and there is
excess reinforcement…………………As required/As provided
Standard Hooks
Critical points, c, occur at points of
maximum moment. All
reinforcement must be anchored
distances ld or ldh on both sides of
these points.

Critical points, x, are formed in bars

that continue past bars that are
stopped. The points x are to be
taken as the theoretical stopping
point of bars that actually are
stopped further along the beam in
accord with Code requirements.
The continuing bars must extend ≥
ld beyond the points x. The bars
being stopped must continue the
greater of d, 12 db or, when the last
⅓ of top reinforcement is being
stopped, ln/16 beyond the point
where they are theoretically no
longer needed.
Zero Positive Moment Locations
At points of zero positive moment a minimum As is required:
V u (l d − la )
A s

≥ 1 .1  1 
 f yd 

la = greater of d or 12 db
Reinforcement Stopped in a
Tension Zone
Flexural reinforcement may not be stopped
in a tension zone unless one of the following
conditions is satisfied:

a. Shear at the cutoff point is ≤ ⅔Ф(Vc+Vs)

b. Excess stirrups are provided form the cutoff point for a
distance = 3/4d past it. (see notes p. 33)
c. The continuing reinforcement provides double the As
required at the cutoff point and Vu ≤ ¾Ф(Vc+Vs)
Maximum Moment Diagrams
Reinforcement Layout

8.3” 37” 3 #5 bars 3 #5 bars
2#5 bars WWF

3 #5 bars
2 #5 bars
60” 60”