Está en la página 1de 46

Review Questions Lectures

3&4

Which of the following is not one of


the four types of tissue?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Connective
Vascular
Muscular
Epithelial
Nervous
Answer: Vascular
Hint: CMEN

All of the following are functions of


epithelial tissue except:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Physical Protection
Blood Transport
Secretion
Sensation
Selective permeability
Answer: Blood Transport

The basement membrane is a


transitional area between ________
and _________ tissue.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Connective and Nervous


Nervous and Muscular
Epithelial and Nervous
Epithelial and Connective

Answer: Epithelial and Connective

Fill in the blank to create the correct


definition:
1.

2.

3.

4.

___________ are closer to the basal


surface and act like a button that helps
to adhere to nearby cells.
___________ junctions are near to the
basal surface and act as channels to
allow cells to communicate with one
another.
___________ junctions are nearest to the
apical surface and are sealed to assure
that intercellular sheet is impenetrable
(aka make it a good barrier).
__________ allow connection to be
made with the basement membrane
beneath the cell.

1
2
3
1
2

4 5
5

Answer: Desmosomes, Gap, Tight, Hemidesmosomes. Heads up - Numbers do not match the labels
in the picture.

Epithelia are classified by which 2


characteristics?
Answer: Layers and
Shape

1.
2.
3.
4.

Size and Shape


Layers and Shape
Size and Layers
Shape and Function

What are the 2 functions of simple squamous


epithelium? Where are 2 places it can be found?

1.
2.
3.
4.

Diffusion and Filtration


Movement and Absorption
Protection and Absorption
Absorption and Secretion

Answer: Diffusion and Filtration. They are found in alveoli (lungs air sacs) and the
lining of blood vessels.

What are the 2 functions of Cuboidal


Epithelium? Where are 2 places it is
located?
1.
2.
3.
4.

Diffusion and Filtration


Movement and Absorption
Protection and Absorption
Absorption and Secretion

Answer: Absorption and Secretion. They are located in the kidney tubules
and glands.

Simple Columnar Epithelium that is


ciliated allows it to perform which
function? What is an example of both
non-ciliated and ciliated epithelium?
1.
2.
3.
4.

Absorption
Secretion
Movement
Protection

Answer: Movement. Examples of non-ciliated are the stomach and


intestines. An example of ciliated I the uterine tubes.

What is the primary function of stratified squamous


epithelium? Where are some areas it is located?

1.
2.
3.
4.

Absorption
Secretion
Movement
Protection

Answer: Protection.
It is located in the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, vagina, anus, and
epidermis of skin.

What is pseudostratified epithelium?


Where is it located?
1. Epithelium with many layers of different
shaped epithelia.
2. Epithelium with just one layer and many
different shaped epithelium
3. Epithelium that is just one layer, but
appears to be many due to different sized
columnar epithelia.
4. Epithelium that is just one layer, but
appears to be many due to different sized
cuboidal epithelia.

Answer: Number 3. It is located in the respiratory tract with the function to


protect it and movement such as swallowing if it is ciliated.

What are the purposes of transitional


epithelium and where is it located?

1.
2.
3.
4.

Protection and secretion


Distension and secretion
Distension and relaxation
Distension and absorption

Answer. Distension and relaxation of urinary structures. It is located in


the ureters, bladder, and urethra. It transitions between simple squamous
and simple cuboidal epithelium.

Exocrine glands are those that are ductless and


secrete products directly into the bloodstream.

1. True
2. False

Answer:
False
Exocrine glands contain ducts which secrete
products onto an epithelial surface.

Endocrine glands are ductless and secrete products


into interstitial fluid and the bloodstream.

Which of the following is not one of the 3 types of


exocrine glands? What is an example of each
secretion?

1.
2.
3.
4.

Merocrine
Hypocrine
Holocrine
Apocrine

Answer: Hypocrine
Mammary Glands

Saliva

Armpits/Oily

What is the difference between


holocrine and apocrine glands?

1. Holocrine glands secrete the whole


cell as where apocrine only secretes
part of the cell.
2. Holocrine glands release products
through exocytosis as where
apocrine release through secretory
vesicles.
3. Holocrine glands secrete hormones
Answer: Number 1. Hint: Holocrine = Whole cell secreted. Apocrine = A Piece of the
as where apocrine glands secrete
cell is secreted.

Connective tissue is made up of


_______ cells and ________ matrix.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Alpha, Extracellular
Beta, Intracellular
Gamma, Keanu Reeves
Sparce, Extracellular

Answer: Sparce, Extracellular

Ground substance is primarily made up


of:
1. Lipids, Collagens, and Podocytes
2. Protein, Water, and Carbohydrates
3. Lipids, Carbohydrates, and Amino
Acids
4. Plasma, Proteins, and Fibrinogen.
Answer: Protein, Water, and Carbohydrates

What is the common origin of all


connective tissue?
1.
2.
3.
4.

Adam
Bacterium
Mesenchyme
Carbon Atoms

Answer:
Mesenchyme

Common origin (mesenchyme)

Connective tissue proper

Supporting connective tissue

Loose connective
tissue (fewer fibers,
more ground
substance)

Dense connective
tissue (more fibers,
less ground
substance)

Cartilage
(semisolid matrix)

Bone
(solid matrix)

1.Areolar
2.Adipose
3.Reticular

1.Regular
2.Irregular
3.Elastic

1.Hyaline
2.Fibrocartilage
3.Elastic

1.Compact
2.Spongy

Fluid connective tissue

Blood

What type of sparse cell is


described by each function:
1. Fiber builders.
2. Fat cell.
3. Phagocyte that engulfs large,
unwanted cells.
4. Stem-like cell that can become any
other within the extracellular matrix.
Answer: Fibroblast, Adipocyte, Macrophage, Mesenchymal cell.

Name the type of loose connective


tissue from each of the following
descriptions:

1. Gel-like ground substance with scatted


fibroblasts and many blood vessels. Its
purpose is to protect tissues and organs. It is
found in the hypodermis.
2. Contains a very loose ground substance of
reticular fibers, fibroblasts, and leukocytes. It
is found in lymphatic organs and bone marrow.
3. Contains many adipocytes (fat cells). Its
purposes are to store energy, cushion, and
protect organs. It is also found in the
hypodermis.
Answer: Areolar, Reticular, and Adipose Connective Tissue.

Name the type of loose connective


tissue from each of the following
pictures:

1.
3.
Areolar

2.
Adipose

Name the type of dense


connective tissue from each of the
following descriptions:

1. Made up of densely packed, parallel collagen


fibers. Resists stress applied in one direction.
Located in the tendons and ligaments.
2. Made up of collagen fibers that are randomly
arranged and clumped together. Resists
stress applied in all directions. Located deep
in dermis and covering bones.
3. Made of branching elastic fibers. Allows
stretching of some organs. Found in walls of
large arteries.
Answer: Dense Regular, Dense Irregular, Elastic Connective Tissue

Name the type of dense


connective tissue from each of the
following pictures:

1.
2.
Irregular

Regular

Cartilage is made of a semisolid


matrix containing _______ and
bone is made up of a calcified
matrix containing _______.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Fibrinogen, calcium
Osteoclasts, osteoblasts
Chondrocytes, calcium
Chondrocytes, osteocytes
Answer: Chondrocytes,
osteocytes

The three main components that make up blood


(fluid connective tissue) are________, ________,
and ________.

1. Erythropoietin, plasma, and protein.


2. Erythrocytes, leukocytes, and
platelets.
3. Neutrophils, basophils, and
eosinophils.
4. Beta, alpha, and gamma cells.
Answer: Erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets.

________ is caused by a Vitamin C deficiency and by


weakened gums, teeth, bones, and internal mucosa.

1.
2.
3.
4.

Gangrene
Marfans Syndrome
Scurvy
Graves Disease
Answer: Scurvy

_______ is caused by a lack of bloodflow,


mechanical injury, bacterial infection or
diabetes. It most commonly affects limbs,
fingers, and toes.

1.
2.
3.
4.

Gangrene
Marfans Syndrome
Scurvy
Graves Disease
Answer: Gangrene

_________ is a genetic disease caused by and


abnormal gene on chromosome 15.
Abnormalities occur in fibrillin, collagen, and
elastin and are most commonly manifest in
those who are tall and thin with long legs,
arms, fingers, and toes.

1.
2.
3.
4.

Gangrene
Marfans Syndrome
Scurvy
Graves Disease

Answer: Marfans Syndrome

Which of the following statements is


false concerning the integument?
1. The integument is the largest body organ and
approximately 1.5 to 2 meters squared of skin.
2. The thickness of the integument is anywhere
from 1.5 4.0mm.
3. The integument includes the epidermis, dermis,
and hypodermis.
4. Functions of the integument include protections,
water prevention, temperature regulation,
sensory receptors, and excretion by secretion.

Answer. Number 3, because the hypodermis is a subtaneous layer and not considered par
of the integument.

Dame what type of tissue each of


the following layers are:
Epidermis
1.
Dermis
2.

Hypodermis
3.

Answers: 1. Epithelial
2. Connective
3. Connective

What does it mean for a cell to be


keratinized?
1. Protein is found within the cell to
make it more impermeable and
tough.
2. Protein is found within the cell
making it more absorbent to
entering objects.
3. Protein found within the cell make it
more permeable to keratinized
foreign objects.
Answer: Number 1.
4. The color of ones skin is more

Name the following epidermal


layers from superficial to deep:

1. ___________
2. ____________
3. ____________
4. ____________
5. ____________

Answer: Stratum Corneum, Lucidum, Granulosum, Spinosum, and Basale. Hint: Can

How long does it take for cells


divided in the Stratum Basale to
reach the surface of the
epidermis?
1.
2.
3.
4.

1
6
1
6

week
weeks
month
months

Answer: 1 month

Stratum Lucidum is only found in thick


areas such as the ________ and
_________. What does Lucidum mean?
1.
2.
3.
4.

Skull and forehead


Buttocks and breasts
Palms of your hands and nails
Palms of your hands and soles of
your feet

Answer: Palms of your hands and soles of your feet. Lucidum means clear.

Name the type of epidermal cells


depending on the description below:
1. Is in charge of protection by gobbling up and
destroying dangerous material/cells. Found in the
Stratum Spinosum of the epidermis.
2. In charge of releasing melanin, which changes the
color of skin. Is found in the Stratum Basale of the
epidermis.
3. Is born in the Stratum Basale and becomes more
keratinized as it moves up (becomes more superficial)
through layers. There are approxomately 30 dead
layers of these in the Stratum Corneum.
4. Is attached to a nerve and helps you sense touch. This
cell is found in the Stratum Basale of the epidermis.
Answer: Dentritic cell, Melanocyte, Keratinocyte, Tactile Cell.
Side notes: Dendrite means branch and tactile means touch.

Know where each epidermal cell is


located:

Review.

Skin color is controlled by three things.


What color results from the following:
1. Hemoglobin
2. Melanin
3. Carotene

Red effect when oxygen is


bound
Tan effect from melanocytes
Orange effect from carrots and
sweet potatoes

Bonus Question: How tan someones skin is depends on


how many melanocytes they have.
True
False
Answer: False. Everyone has approximately the same number of
melanocytes, but color is determined by their activity.

Name skin markings from the


following descriptions:
1. Yellowish or brown spot from
excessive melanocyte activity.
2. Proliferation of blood vessels. Bright
red and purple in color.
3. Overgrowth of melanin-forming
cells.
4. Formed by large folds and volleys of
the dermis and epidermis.

Answer: Freckles, Hemangioma, Nevus (mole or birthmark), and


Friction ridges (fingerprints).

There are 2 layers of dermis. The


papillary layer is made up of
________ connective tissue and the
reticular layer is made up of
_________ connective tissue.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Regular, irregular
Areolar, dense regular
Areolar, dense irregular
Areolar, Adipose
Answer: Areolar, dense irregular

The hypodermis is made up of ________ and


________ connective tissue. What is its purpose?

1.
2.
3.
4.

Dense regular and Dense irregular


Adipose and Elastic
Elastic and Areolar
Areolar and Adipose

Answer: Areolar and Adipose


The purpose of the hypodermis is to anchor skin to underlying
structures and serve as an energy reservoir.

1.

Nails are made of hared keratin.


Label the different areas of the
nail:

Answers: 1. Free edge


2. Lunula
3. Cuticle
4. Nail matrix

2.

3.

4.

Name the type of hair based on the


description below:
1. Fine hair on most of the body.
2. Hair covering the fetus.
3. Hair found on the head, pubic
region, armpit, and face (men).

Answer: Vellus, Lanugo, terminal

Name the structures of hair


indicated on the picture:

1
.

2
.
4
.

3
.
Answers: 1. Shaft
2. Root
3. Arrector pili
muscle
4. Follicle

In male pattern baldness, testosterone


causes ______ hair to be replaced by
_______ hair.
1.Lanugo,
vellus
2.Terminal,
vellus
3.Vellus,
terminal
Answer: Terminal, vellus
4.Vellus,
lanugo

Sebaceous glands (holocrine) produce


_______, while sudoriferous glands
(merocrine and apocrine) produce
_______.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Sweat, oil
Oil, interstitial fluid
Sebum, sweat
Sweat, water

Answer: Sebum, sweat

What is the most deadly type of skin


cancer?
1. Basal Cell Carcinoma
2. Squamous Cell Carcinoma
3. Malignant Melanoma

Answer: Malignant Melanoma