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Today we cover
How does motivation activate, direct,
and sustain behavior?
How do people achieve personal goals?
What is addiction?
Drugs and Alcohol


A need or desire that energizes or directs
a behavior
A hypothetical state within an organism
that propels it toward
- Instigation and maintenance of a
- Achievement of a goal

Some Definitions

Instinct: A complex unlearned behavior rigidly

patterned throughout a species
Homeostasis: A tendency to maintain a constant
internal state
Drive-reduction theory: A physiological need
creates arousal which motivates an organism to
satisfy the need

Needs are states of deficiency
Drives are psychological states
activated to satisfy needs
Needs produce states of arousal which
drive behavior
Incentives are external motivators
that motivate behaviors

Maslows Hierarchy of
Crandall & Jones
(1986): Scale
Satisfaction of
lower level needs
creates upper level
Motivation enables
satisfaction of

The pleasure principle

Motivational states
arouse behaviors
solve adaptive
problems and
produce pleasure

Pleasure is associated with dopamine

release, and many pleasurable
behaviors exceed adaptive needs

Extrinsic vs. Intrinsic motivation

Extrinsic motivation = external goals
Intrinsic motivation = value or pleasure of an
activity for its own sake
Intrinsic motivators
Problem solving
What happens when you give extrinsic motive for an
intrinsically motivated activity?

What Is Addiction?

Addiction Has Psychological

and Physical Aspects
Physical vs. psychological dependence
Both negative and positive reinforcement
operate in producing addiction
Both social and individual levels of analysis
contribute to causation
Experimenters are better adjusted than

Physical Dependence
Psychological Dependence
kicking the habit
going cold turkey

Negative and Positive Reinforcement

Drugs operate via negative and positive
Using: positive reinforcement
Withdrawal unpleasant: using again =
negative reinforcement
Withdrawal symptoms: positive punishment

The study of the effects of drugs on mood,
sensation, consciousness, or other
psychological or behavioral functions

Increase behavioral and mental activity
Activate the sympathetic nervous system
Interfere with the normal reuptake of
dopamine by the releasing neuron
Some stimulants also increase the release of
Caffeine, cocaine, amphetamines

Amphetamine Psychosis
Psychosis resulting from the use of
Paranoia, delusions, hallucinations, and
thought disorder

MDMA (Ecstasy)
stimulates the release and inhibits the
reuptake of serotonin (5-HT)
Tuesday Blues

Therapeutic applications?

Neurotoxicity of MDMA

The most widely used illegal drug
in North America
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
THC receptors in the hippocampus
Impaired focus, attention, comprehension
Cognitive impairment from heavy marijuana
use may linger for a week or longer, but it does
not appear to be permanent" -Harrison Pope


Analgesic properties
Opium, heroine, morphine, codeine
Highly addictive
Cocaine developed as a cure for opiate

D-Lysergic acid diethylamide, Psilocybin,
LSD: actions at multiple receptors
Not physiologically addictive, no withdrawal, and no
documented toxic fatalities
Psychosis: sometimes prolonged
Flashbacks and Hallucinogen
Persisting Perception Disorder

What is Alcohol?
Alcohol is a sedative
It is primarily used for recreation, not
2nd most commonly used psychoactive
drug in the world
(first is caffeine)

Alcohol Is the Most

Widely Abused Drug
Alcohols believed effects motivate drinking
The balanced placebo design helps
researchers separate alcohol effects from
alcohol-expectancy effects
Believing one has consumed alcohol can
produce learned disinhibition of social

The Pharmacokinetics of
Alcohol: Absorption
Alcohol is soluble in both fat and water
This means alcohol is absorbed though
the gastrointestinal tract and through the
blood brain barrier
20% is absorbed through the stomach the
other 80% through the upper intestine

Concentration-Effect Relationship
BAC [%] Effects
0.02-0.03 Mood elevation. Slight muscle relaxation.
0.05-0.06 Relaxation and Warmth. Increased
reaction time. Decreased fine muscle
0.08-0.09 Impaired balance, speech, vision, hearing,
muscle coordination. Euphoria.
0.14-0.15 Gross impairment of physical and mental
0.20-0.30 Severely intoxicated. Very little control of
mind or body.
0.40-0.50 Unconscious. Deep coma. Death from
respiratory depression

The Pharmacokinetics of
Alcohol: Distribution
Alcohol easily crosses the blood-brain
barrier because it is lipid soluble
Alcohol can even cross the placental
barrier and cause fetal alcohol syndrome
(FAS). FAS occurs in 30% to 50% of the
infants of alcoholic mothers.

Effects of Prenatal Alcohol

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

Genetic Variation in ALDH

Acetaldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH)
varies in Whites, Blacks and Asians.
50% of Asians have inactive ALDH
Elevated acetaldehyde cause increased
flushing, tachycardia (elevated heart rate),
nausea, vomiting & hyperventilation.

Metabolism of Alcohol by Men and

Since men have less fat then women and larger
blood vessels, men have a lower Blood Alcohol
Concentration (BAC) than women
Also, women have 50% less enzyme then men,
thus the metabolism rate is slower for alcohol
absorption, so it takes longer for females bodies
to rid themselves of the alcohol