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Nutrients that prevent Cancer

Vitamin D

Fat-soluble vitamin
Sources
Foods
Naturally found in very few foods
Added to many foods on the market

Supplements
Sunlight

Vitamin D

Daily Recommended Intake


Current minimum intake recommendations
Birth-50 years = 200 IU
51-70 years = 400 IU
71+ years = 600 IU

Currently being debated

Food Sources of Vitamin


D

3 oz smoked salmon = 583 IU

3 oz light tuna, canned in oil = 229 IU

1 large, whole egg = 29 IU

Foods Fortified with


Vitamin D
8 oz skim milk = 115 IU

8 oz orange juice = 100 IU


1 cup Cheerios = 40 IU
cup yogurt = 40 IU

Calcium

Essential mineral
Daily Recommended Intakes
9-18 years = 1300 mg
19-50 years = 1000 mg
51 years and older =1200 mg

Calcium

Sources in the diet


Milk
Yogurt
Cheese
Dark green vegetables

Fortified sources
Cereals
Bread
Orange Juice

Calcium content of foods


8 oz milk = 300 mg
8 oz low-fat yogurt= 230 mg
cup cooked Spinach = 120 mg
1 cup Cheerios = 100 mg

Dietary Supplements

Calcium
Carbonate or
citrate
Dose dependent
absorption
Two doses per day

Vitamin D
D2 or D3
D3 is best

A single serving = 1 cup


1 serving has 100 calories

10% Daily Value of calcium


1000mg * 0.10 = 100mg
10% Daily Value of vitamin D
400IU * 0.10 = 40 IU

http://www.fda.gov

Vitamin D Functions

Many uses in the body


Promotes absorption of calcium from the small

intestine
Maintain blood levels of calcium and phosphate
for bone formation, mineralization, growth, and
repair
Improves muscle strength and immune function
Reduces inflammation

Vitamin D Deficiency

At risk populations
Breastfed infants
Older adults
People with limited sun exposure
Darker skin pigments
Certain religious groups

Vitamin D Related
Diseases
Rickets

Osteomalacia
Osteoporosis

Calcium Functions

Major component of bones and teeth

A small amount of calcium circulates in the


blood
Essential for clotting of the blood
Aids in the normal functioning of the nerves,

muscles, and heart

Calcium Deficiency

At risk populations
Children and youth
Post-menopausal women
Elderly
People with poor diets, lacking in dairy foods

Vitamin D and Cancer

Roles in prevention of
Colon cancer
Breast cancer

Vitamin D and Cancer

How it prevents
Promotes cellular differentiation
Decreases cancer cell growth
Stimulates cell deaths

Vitamin D Cancer
Research

Mostly observational studies, only show


correlation
Food frequency questionnaires
Interviews
Diet records

Vitamin D & Colon Cancer


Research

Third National Health and Nutrition


Examination Survey
Epidemiologic study
16,818 participants
Examined blood levels of vitamin D
Results
Blood levels 80nmol/L or higher reduced risk

by 72%

Vitamin D Cancer
Research

American Cancer Societys Cancer


Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort
Studied 120,000 men and women
Analyzed diet, medical history, and lifestyle
Results
Men with intakes of 520 IU or higher from both

diet and supplementation slightly lowered risk


No effect in women

Vitamin D & Breast Cancer


Research

Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition


Cohort
Participants
68,567 postmenopausal women

Completed questionnaire on dietary intake,

family history, and supplement use


Results
Women who consumed higher amounts of

vitamin D and calcium from dairy products


reduced their risk of breast cancer

True or False.
Vitamin D is not necessary
for Calcium to be absorbed
in the body.

True or False.
Vitamin D is not necessary
for Calcium to be absorbed
by the body.

Calcium and Cancer

Roles in prevention of:


Colon cancer
Breast cancer
Premenopausal women

Calcium and Cancer

How it prevents cancer


Exact mechanism is unclear
Biochemical level
Calcium binds to bile acids and fatty acids in

the gastrointestinal tract to form insoluble


complexes
Reduces the ability of the acids to damage
cells in the lining of the colon and act directly
in reducing cell proliferation in the lining of the
colon

Calcium and Colon Cancer


Research

Nurses Health Study and Health


Professionals Follow-up study
Analyzed 135,000 men and women
Results
People who consumed 700mg or more per

day reduced risk by 35-45%


Effect was only recognized in distal area of
colon

Calcium & Colon Cancer


Research

National Institutes of Health-American


Association of Retired Persons Diet and
Health Study
Results
High intakes of total calcium, dietary calcium,

and calcium supplements lowered the risk of


colon cancer
20% among men
30% among women

Calcium & Colon Cancer


Research

Study in Iowa
34,000 women participated
Two groups
Intakes of 1280mg or more per day
Intakes of 800mg or less per day

Calcium intake from both diet and

supplements
Results

41% reduction in colon cancer risk associated

with higher intake

Calcium and Breast Cancer


Prevention

Nurses Health Study


3,000 women
Calcium intakes 800 mg or more per day
Particularly from dairy products
Low-fat or non-fat milk
Yogurt
Cheese

Compared to intakes of 200 mg or less from

dairy
Results

Reduced risk in premenopausal women but NOT

postmenopausal.

Calcium and Breast Cancer


Prevention

Womens Health Study


30,000 women
Two groups:
Intakes1366mg or more per day
Intakes less than 617mg per day

Results
Reduced risk in increased intake of calcium
Only in premenopausal women

What have we learned?

Vitamin D and calcium both plays roles


in preventing cancer
The recommended intakes
Calcium = 1000mg
Vitamin D = 400 IU

Many ways to increase intake


Change diet
Include supplements