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Allah el-most3an

What is gypsum ? Name the varieties of

It is a natural mineral mined around the various parts of the world
having a chemical formula, CaSO4s2H2O(calcium sulphate dihydrate).

Albaster:-pure white ,fine grained and translucent.

What are different uses of plaster of


Impression of mouth and face(impression plaster)

For making moulds, study casts, diagnostic cast,prliminary cast, master cast,
and dies over which dental prostheses and restorations are made.

To mount cast on articulator.

For bite registration

In dental investments.

- cast,die and model.

CAST:- It is positive ,dimensionally accurate replica of oral soft and hard

tissues of either the maxillary or mandibular jaw and used for the
construction of dental appliances which fit on to the soft tissues of the oral

DIE:-It is a positive , dimensionally accurate replica of a prepared natural

tooth and used for the construction of inlay , crown or bridges.

MODEL:-It is a positive, dimensionally accurate replica of oral soft and hard

tissues used as a study model or for patient education .The progress of
treatment can be shown to the patient with these models.

Classify the gypsum products according to ADA

specification no.
According to ADA specification number 25:

TYPE I:Dental plaster,impression

TYPE II:Dental plaster,model

TYPE III:Dental stone, model

TYPE IV:Dental stone,die,high strength,low expansion

TYPE V:Dental stone,die,high strength,high expansion

What do you mean by calcination?


process of heating gypsum for manufacturing

plaster is known as calcination.

Removing 3/4th of water of crystallization by

burning of gypsum

Write the process for manufacturing of Dental

plaster( hemihydrate).
What do you mean by dry calcination ? Give its

Gypsum is ground and heated in an open kettle on kiln at a temperature of 110 C

to 130 C for manufacturing of beta type crystals or dental plaster. This
process is known as dry calcination.

CaSO4 .2 H 2O

110 130

CaSO4 . H 2O
(beta hemihydrate)

Write the process for manufacturing of

dental stone( hemihydrate).
CaSO4 17 lbs/sq.
inch CaSO4 . H 2O
(alpha hemihydrate)
120 130

Write the process of manufacturing for

alpha modified stone or improved stone.

Gypsum is calcined by boiling it in 30% calcium chloride solution . The

chlorides are then washed away or autoclaved in presence of sodium
succinate 0.5%.Than grinded to obtain alpha() modified stone.

Give the reaction for manufacturing of

orthorhombic anhydrite.
130 200
200 1000
CaSO4 .2 H 2O CaSO4 . H 2O CaSO4 CaSO4
(Calcium sulphate
(calicum sulphate
110 130

Write the setting reaction of plaster.

(CaSO4 ) 2 H 2O 3H 2O 2CaSO4 .2 H 2O unreacted (CaSO4 ) 2 . H 2O Heat
Hemihydrate + water

Dihydrate + unreacted hemihydrate + Heat


What are modifiers?

They are the chemicals added in order to alter some of the properties like
expansion , setting time etc. or to enhance the other properties like working
time , dimensional stability etc.

EX.:accelerator & retarder.

What are accelerator and retarder?

ACCELERATORS:-The substances which decreases the setting time of gypsum

products by increasing the rate of reaction are called accelerator.
E.g., Tera alba, sodium sulphate, potassium sulphate and sodium chloride(low

RETARDERS:-They are the substances which increases the setting time of

gypsum products by decreasing the rate of reaction.
E.g., Borax, sodium chloride, sodium sulphate(high concentration) ,glue ,agar,
coagulated blood.

What is impression plaster? Give its


Impression plaster is one of earliest rigid impression materials in dentistry.


For making impressions in complete denture and maxillofacial prosthesis.

For bite registration material.

What is the chemical formula for dental

plaster/ hemihydrate?
CaSO4 . H 2O

What do you mean by hydrocal?Give its


It is the type III gypsum product called DENTAL STONE used for model


For preparing master casts and to make moulds.

Stone & plaster

CaSO4 . H 2O

120 130



(alpha hemihydrate
110 130

CaSO4 .2 H 2O

CaSO4 . H 2O

(beta hemihydrate)

What is the difference between the crystal

structure of dental plaster and dental stone?


Needle like crystals

Rods and prism like crystals

Irregular in shape with capillary pores

Regular in shape

Loosely packed

Closely packed

What is excess water?

The actual amount of water necessary to mix the calcium sulphate

hemihydrate is greater than the amount required for the chemical reaction,
this is called excess water.

Write the synonyms for TYPE IV gypsum


Class II stone

Die stone


Improved stone

Write the uses of die stone.

It is used when high strength and surface hardness is required

E.g., dies used for inlays , crown and bridge wax pattern.

How type V is better than type IV stone?

It has higher compressive strength.

Setting expansion is increased from a maximum of 0.10 to 0.30% to

compensate for the shrinkage of base metal alloys during solidification.

What do you mean by setting time? Give

its two types.

It is the time elapsing from the beginning of mixing until the material

TYPES:1. Initial setting time

2.Final setting time

Define initial setting time.

As the reaction proceeds,more hemihydrate crystals react to form dihydrate

crystals.The viscosity of the mass is increased and it can no longer be
poured.The material become rigid(but not hard).It can be carved but not
moulded.This is known as initial setting time

What is final setting time?

The time at which the material can be separated from the impression
without distortion or fracture.

What are the methods to measure the

setting time?

Loss of gloss method ----The set plaster when loses it surface shine and
smoothness it is considered as the end of working time and initial set has
taken place this method is known as loss of gloss method.

Exothermic reaction

Penetration tests

Which are the types of penetrometers?

Vicat needle.

Gillmore needle.

(Vicat needle)

(Gillmore needle)

Properities of gypsum
1- setting time
Factors affecting setting time

a- w/p ratio?

is defined as water required for 100gm of



liquid ____less nuclei of

crystallization ______prolonged time .

What is the w/p ratio of the gypsum


Impression plaster : 0.50 to 0.75

Dental plaster

: 0.45 to 0.50

Dental stone

: 0.28 to 0.30

Die stone,Type 4

: 0.22 to 0.24

Die stone,Type 5

: 0.18 to 0.22



What is the of low and high water

powder ratio on gypsum products?
LOW W/P RATIO(thick mix)

HIGH W/P RATIO (thin mix)

Quick setting

Slow setting

High expansion

Low expansion

More strength

Less strength

More surface hardness

Poor surface hardness

Less porosity

More porosity

B- mixing time and Give its value for

gypsum products.

It is the time from the addition of the powder to the water until mixing is

1 minute

Increase mixing time lead tooooooo accelerate setting time due to mixing
can break up some of the formed dehydrate crystals thus forming more nuclei
of crystalization

c-Water temprature

From 0 -50 accelerate setting

50 -80 retard setting

At100 no setting

D- Factors controlled by manufacturing

Fineness of powders will increase surface area of hemihydrate exposed for

water ,this accelerate setting

Impurities in the powder ,accelerate , act as nuclei of crysrtalization

Addition of accelerator or retarder

2- hygroscopic expansion and how much

it is?

It is increased expansion of setting plaster in presence of water .It can be

double the amount of normal setting expansion.

USE:It is used to expand some gypsum bonded investments.

Write the factors controlling expansion.

Water powder ratio :- setting expansion

Modifiers :-

setting expansion

K 2 SO4 :- 4% solution decreases the setting expansion from 0.5 to 0.06 %.

NaCl and borax :-

mixing time ...

setting expansion
Setting expantion

Write the factors affecting strength and

give its two types.

Water powder ratio :-

Spatulation :-

Addition of accelerators and retarders :-

TYPES:1.Dry strength
2.Wet strength

water , porosity , strength

strength (within limit)


What is wet strength ? How much it is for

model plaster, dental stone and die stone?

It is strength when the set mass is still contains excess water and specimen is
wet to touch.

Model plaster 12.5 Mpa
Dental stone - 31 Mpa
Die stone 45 Mpa

3- strength

Dry strength

It is strength when the set mass has no excess water and specimen is dry to
touch. It is 2- 3 times more than wet strength.

Wet strenght

What care should be taken with

temperature to avoid shrinkage and
reduction in strength of gypsum products?

Gypsum is stable only below about 40 C . Drying at higher temperature

rapidly at 100 C or higher ,lose of water of crystallisation occurs which

causes shrinkage and reduction in strength.


Storage . Closed container to prevent reaction with moisture from the

atmosphere which accelerate the setting

Correct w\p ratio :wet \ dry strength

Incorporation of air in the mix should be avoided

Vibration air bubbles

Mechanical mixures under vacum


Silcophosphate cement

High setting shrinkage

Amalgam die


Long time for setting

Need sepeating media

High thermal conductivity >>> cool wax pattern rapidly

Acrylic resin die


Epoxy die

Toxic & shrinkage

Ceramic die


Electroplated die

Silver plated rubber base material

Not used with compoud <<softening

Copper plated for compound

Metal die