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LOADING JOBS,

AND METHODS
Chapter 5

David de la Cruz Bailn


Jorge Moreno Fuentes

LOADING JOBS
Loading means the assignment of Jobs to

work or processing centers.


Operations Managers assign jobs to work

centers so that cost and completion times are


kept to a minimum
Oriented to
Capacity

Loading work centers


Related to assigning specific
jobs.

LOADING JOBS
Work centers are areas in a business in which productive

resources are organized and work is completed.

It may be a single machine, a group of machines, or an area where a


particular type of work is done.

The work centers can be organized in a variety of ways including by function


in a job-shop configuration; or by product in a flow, assembly line, or grouptechnology-cell configuration

A characteristic that distinguishes one scheduling system from

another is how capacity is considered in Infinite


determining the schedule.
Loading
The scheduling systems can use

Finite
Loading

LOADING JOBS
Infinite loading:
Ignores capacity constraints,

but helps identify bottlenecks


in a proposed schedule to
enable
proactive
management

With infinite loading jobs are

assigned to work centers


without regard for capacity of
the work center.

Jobs

are loaded at work


centers according to the
chosen priority rule.

Priority

rules
are
appropriate for use under
the
infinite
loading
approach.

This is known as vertical

loading.

LOADING JOBS
Finite loading:
Allows only as much work to be

assigned as can be done with


available capacity but doesnt
prepare for inevitable slippage

Finite

loading considers the


capacity of each work center
and compares the processing
time so that process time does
not exceed capacity.

Then the job with the

With finite loading the


scheduler loads the job that
has the highest priority on all
work centers it will require.

This process is referred

next highest priority is


loaded on all required
work centers, and so
on.
to as horizontal loading

Characteristics of High-Volume
Operations
High-volume aka flow operations, like

automobiles, bread, gasoline can be repetitive or


continuous
High-volume standard items; discrete or continuous

with smaller profit margins


Designed for high efficiency and high utilization
High volume flow operations with fixed routings
Bottlenecks are easily identified
Commonly use line-balancing to design the process
around the required tasks

Characteristics of Low-Volume
Operations
Low-volume, job shop operations, are designed for

flexibility.
Use more general purpose equipment
Customized products with higher margins
Each product or service may have its own routing

(scheduling is much more difficult)


Bottlenecks move around depending upon the products
being produced at any given time

What an Input-Output Process is?


It is a technique that allows operation

personnel to manage facility work flows.


The idea of this process is to know how much

work is carrying out in order to adjust it


to the objective.

The advantages of Input-Output


Control
Identifies overloading and underloading

conditions
Prompts managerial action to resolve

scheduling problems
Can be maintained using ConWIP cards that

control the scheduling of batches.

AIRBUS COMPANY
The work is
lower than it is
being
processed

UNDERLOADIN
G

OVERLOADING

The work is
arriving
faster than it
is being
processed

IDENTIFY THE BEST CONDITION

Idle capacity
Wasted
Resources

Inefficiency
Quality problems

F.e. In the case we need 120 hours

Input-Output Exercise
CarCar, Ltd is a car enterprise which desires to develop an InputOutput Control for the Wheels Department for 4 weeks. The time
stipulated per week is 200 hours for the Input, for the Output is 220.
The real Input-Output is between 150-260 hours per week.
1 Week

2 Week

3 Week

4 Week

Planned Input

200

200

200

200

Actual Input

160

230

210

200

C. Deviation

-40

-10

-0

Planed Output

220

220

220

220

Actual Output

200

260

190

180

C. Deviation

-20

-60

-30

+10

C. Change in
BackLog

How much is the Cumulative Change in BackLog? What does


this result mean?

Input-Output Exercise
CarCar, Ltd is a car enterprise wich desires to develop an InputOutput Control for the Wheels Department for 4 weeks. The time
stipulated per week is 200 houres. The real Input-Output is between
150-210 hours per week.
1 Week

2 Week

3 Week

4 Week

Planned Input

200

200

200

200

Actual Input

160

230

210

200

C. Deviation

-40

-10

-0

Planed Output

220

220

220

220

Actual Output

200

260

190

180

C. Deviation

-20

-60

-30

+10

C. Change in
BackLog

-40

-70

-50

-30

The work is arriving faster than it is being processed, so


it means bad qualities and inefficiency.

How can be the Input-Output


improved?
Through Go-Look-See Management, being
the process in which managers actively move
around the business engaging with their
teams, their products, and the processes they
operate.
Go to the source, observe and
deeply understand the actual
situation for yourself.

Gantt Charts
Developed in the late 1800s by Henry Gantt
Load charts illustrate the workload relative

to the capacity of a resource


It shows the use of resources such working

centers and labor


It also shows todays job schedule by employee
When used in loading, Gannt Charts show the
loading and idle times of several departments,
machines or facilities.

Gantt Charts
The display the relative workloads in the

system so that the manager knows what


adjustments are appropriated.
If a work center comes overloaded employees from
other a low-loaded center can be transferred
temporarily to increase work force.
Versatile equipment may also be transferred among
centers.

Gantt Charts
Shows relative workload in facility
Disadvantages
Does not account for unexpected events
Must be updated regularly
Day
Work Center

Monday

Metalworks

Job 349

Tuesday

Painting

Processi

Thursday

Friday

Job 350

Mechanical
Electronics

Wednesday

Job 349

Job 406

Job 408

Job 349
Job 295

Unschedul

Job 408

Job 349

Center not available


(for example,
maintenance time,

Gantt Charts Exercise


Answer key
Description
A. Train Project Team
B. Project Management
Paperwork
C. Modify Purchased Package
D. Manual systems Flow
E. Modify In-House Procedures
F. Test and Implement
Modifications to Purchased
Package
G. Test and Implement Manual
Systems Flow
H. Test and Implement
Modifications to In-House
Procedrues

Decemb
er










January

Februar
y










March

April

May

June

July

What an Assignment Method is?


It is a method of allocating organizational resources.
The Assignment Method involves assigning task or jobs to the

resources.
To avoid the subactivity.
Optimize Workload capacity balance.

What is the objective of this method?

Minimize Total Costs


Maximize the production

Minimize the time required

The characteristics of the


Assignment Method
Just one job or work is assigned to one project or

machine.
It is used for production allocation.
It is called as well TheHungarian methodis
acombinatorial optimization algorithm that solves
the assignment problem in polynomial time and
which anticipated later primal-dual methods.

Assignment Method Exercise


The CarCar, Ltd. Co. wants to start the year with the following
project: Assign Wheels, Airbag, and Lights, looking for the one with
lower opportunity cost.

Models
JOB

Wheels

Airbag

Lights

Worker 1

30 hours

35 hours

25 hours

Worker 2

15 hours

20 hours

19 hours

Worker 3

10 hours

13 hours

11 hours

Assignment Method Exercise


Step One - Rows
Typesetter

Job
1
2
3

5
0
0

10
5
3

0
4
1

Step Two Columns


Typesetter

Job
1
2
3

5
0
0

7
2
0

Models

0
4
1

JOB

Wheels

Airbag

Lights

Worker 1

30 hours

35 hours

25
hours

Worker 2

15
hours

20 hours

19 hours

Worker 3

10 hours

13 hours

11 hours

Create
zero
opportunity costs by
repeatedly subtracting
the lowest costs from
each
row
and
column.

Step Three Lines


Typesetter

Job
1
2
3
Draw the minimum
number of vertical
and horizontal lines
necessary to cover
all the zeros.

5
0
0

7
3
0

0
4
1

h
Enoug
No
t
en
ou
gh

Because three lines


is
needed,
the
solution is optimal.

We take the Zeros to


the Original Table
We repeat the
creation of Zero
opportunity Cost
resting the low
number outside the
line to the other
numbers.

Step Four - Assignments


Typesetter

Job
1
2
3

W
5
0
0

A
7
3
0

ORIGINAL COST TABLE

L
0
4
1

Typesetter

WheelsAirbag Lights

Job
Worker 1 30
Worker 2 15
Woker 3 10

MINIMUM COST: 25+15+13=53

35
20
13

25
19
11

David de la Cruz Bailn


Jorge Moreno Fuentes