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LOADING JOBS

,
AND METHODS
Chapter 5

David de la Cruz Bailén
Jorge Moreno Fuentes

LOADING JOBS
Loading means the assignment of Jobs to

work or processing centers.
Operations Managers assign jobs to work

centers so that cost and completion times are
kept to a minimum
Oriented to
Capacity

Loading work centers
Related to assigning specific
jobs.

LOADING JOBS
Work centers are areas in a business in which productive

resources are organized and work is completed.

It may be a single machine, a group of machines, or an area where a
particular type of work is done.

The work centers can be organized in a variety of ways including by function
in a job-shop configuration; or by product in a flow, assembly line, or grouptechnology-cell configuration

A characteristic that distinguishes one scheduling system from

another is how capacity is considered in Infinite
determining the schedule.
Loading
 The scheduling systems can use

Finite
Loading

LOADING JOBS
Infinite loading:
 Ignores capacity constraints,

but helps identify bottlenecks
in a proposed schedule to
enable
proactive
management

 With infinite loading jobs are

assigned to work centers
without regard for capacity of
the work center.

 Jobs

are loaded at work
centers according to the
chosen priority rule.

 Priority

rules
are
appropriate for use under
the
infinite
loading
approach.

 This is known as vertical

loading.

LOADING JOBS
Finite loading:
 Allows only as much work to be

assigned as can be done with
available capacity – but doesn’t
prepare for inevitable slippage

 Finite

loading considers the
capacity of each work center
and compares the processing
time so that process time does
not exceed capacity.

 Then the job with the

With finite loading the
scheduler loads the job that
has the highest priority on all
work centers it will require.

 This process is referred

next highest priority is
loaded on all required
work centers, and so
on.
to as horizontal loading

Characteristics of High-Volume
Operations
High-volume aka flow operations, like

automobiles, bread, gasoline can be repetitive or
continuous
 High-volume standard items; discrete or continuous

with smaller profit margins
 Designed for high efficiency and high utilization
 High volume flow operations with fixed routings
 Bottlenecks are easily identified
 Commonly use line-balancing to design the process
around the required tasks

Characteristics of Low-Volume
Operations
Low-volume, job shop operations, are designed for

flexibility.
 Use more general purpose equipment
 Customized products with higher margins
 Each product or service may have its own routing

(scheduling is much more difficult)
 Bottlenecks move around depending upon the products
being produced at any given time

What an Input-Output Process is?
It is a technique that allows operation

personnel to manage facility work flows.
The idea of this process is to know how much

work is carrying out in order to adjust it
to the objective.

The advantages of Input-Output
Control
Identifies overloading and underloading

conditions
Prompts managerial action to resolve

scheduling problems
Can be maintained using ConWIP cards that

control the scheduling of batches.

AIRBUS COMPANY
The work is
lower than it is
being
processed

UNDERLOADIN
G

OVERLOADING

The work is
arriving
faster than it
is being
processed

IDENTIFY THE BEST CONDITION

Idle capacity
Wasted
Resources

Inefficiency
Quality problems

F.e. In the case we need 120 hours

Input-Output Exercise
CarCar, Ltd is a car enterprise which desires to develop an InputOutput Control for the Wheels Department for 4 weeks. The time
stipulated per week is 200 hours for the Input, for the Output is 220.
The real Input-Output is between 150-260 hours per week.
1º Week

2º Week

3º Week

4º Week

Planned Input

200

200

200

200

Actual Input

160

230

210

200

C. Deviation

-40

-10

0

-0

Planed Output

220

220

220

220

Actual Output

200

260

190

180

C. Deviation

-20

-60

-30

+10

?

?

?

?

C. Change in
BackLog

How much is the Cumulative Change in BackLog? What does
this result mean?

Input-Output Exercise
CarCar, Ltd is a car enterprise wich desires to develop an InputOutput Control for the Wheels Department for 4 weeks. The time
stipulated per week is 200 houres. The real Input-Output is between
150-210 hours per week.
1º Week

2º Week

3º Week

4º Week

Planned Input

200

200

200

200

Actual Input

160

230

210

200

C. Deviation

-40

-10

0

-0

Planed Output

220

220

220

220

Actual Output

200

260

190

180

C. Deviation

-20

-60

-30

+10

C. Change in
BackLog

-40

-70

-50

-30

The work is arriving faster than it is being processed, so
it means bad qualities and inefficiency.

How can be the Input-Output
improved?
Through Go-Look-See Management, being
the process in which managers actively move
around the business engaging with their
teams, their products, and the processes they
operate.
Go to the source, observe and
deeply understand the actual
situation for yourself.

Gantt Charts
Developed in the late 1800’s by Henry Gantt
Load charts illustrate the workload relative

to the capacity of a resource
It shows the use of resources such working

centers and labor
It also shows today’s job schedule by employee
When used in loading, Gannt Charts show the
loading and idle times of several departments,
machines or facilities.

Gantt Charts
The display the relative workloads in the

system so that the manager knows what
adjustments are appropriated.
If a work center comes overloaded employees from
other a low-loaded center can be transferred
temporarily to increase work force.
 Versatile equipment may also be transferred among
centers.

Gantt Charts
Shows relative workload in facility
Disadvantages
Does not account for unexpected events
Must be updated regularly
Day
Work Center

Monday

Metalworks

Job 349

Tuesday

Painting

Processi

Thursday

Friday

Job 350

Mechanical
Electronics

Wednesday

Job 349

Job 406

Job 408

Job 349
Job 295

Unschedul

Job 408

Job 349

Center not available
(for example,
maintenance time,

Gantt Charts Exercise
Answer key
Description
A. Train Project Team
B. Project Management
Paperwork
C. Modify Purchased Package
D. Manual systems Flow
E. Modify In-House Procedures
F. Test and Implement
Modifications to Purchased
Package
G. Test and Implement Manual
Systems Flow
H. Test and Implement
Modifications to In-House
Procedrues

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Decemb
er
       
       
       
       
       
       
       
       
       
       
       

January
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Februar
y
       
       
       
       
       
       
       
       
       
       
       

March
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

April
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

May
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

June
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

July
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

   

                         

                                   

   
   
   

                         
                         
                         

                                   
                                   
                                   

   

                         

                                   

What an Assignment Method is?
It is a method of allocating organizational resources.
The Assignment Method involves assigning task or jobs to the

resources.
To avoid the subactivity.
Optimize Workload capacity balance.

What is the objective of this method?

Minimize Total Costs
Maximize the production

Minimize the time required

The characteristics of the
Assignment Method
Just one job or work is assigned to one project or

machine.
It is used for production allocation.
It is called as well The Hungarian method is
a combinatorial optimization algorithm that solves
the assignment problem in polynomial time and
which anticipated later primal-dual methods.

Assignment Method Exercise
The CarCar, Ltd. Co. wants to start the year with the following
project: Assign Wheels, Airbag, and Lights, looking for the one with
lower opportunity cost.

Models
JOB

Wheels

Airbag

Lights

Worker 1

30 hours

35 hours

25 hours

Worker 2

15 hours

20 hours

19 hours

Worker 3

10 hours

13 hours

11 hours

Assignment Method Exercise
Step One - Rows¹
Typesetter

W

A

Job
1
2
3

5
0
0

10
5
3

0
4
1

Step Two – Columns²
Typesetter

W

A

L

Job
1
2
3

5
0
0

7
2
0

Models

L

0
4
1

JOB

Wheels

Airbag

Lights

Worker 1

30 hours

35 hours

25
hours

Worker 2

15
hours

20 hours

19 hours

Worker 3

10 hours

13 hours

11 hours

Create
zero
opportunity costs by
repeatedly subtracting
the lowest costs from
each
row¹
and
column².

Step Three – Lines
Typesetter

Job
1
2
3
Draw the minimum
number of vertical
and horizontal lines
necessary to cover
all the zeros.

W

A

L

5
0
0

7
3
0

0
4
1

h
Enoug
No
t
en
ou
gh

Because three lines
is
needed,
the
solution is optimal.

We take the Zeros to
the Original Table
We repeat the
creation of Zero
opportunity Cost
resting the low
number outside the
line to the other
numbers.

Step Four - Assignments
Typesetter

Job
1
2
3

W
5
0
0

A
7
3
0

ORIGINAL COST TABLE

L
0
4
1

Typesetter

WheelsAirbag Lights

Job
Worker 1 30
Worker 2 15
Woker 3 10

MINIMUM COST: 25+15+13=53

35
20
13

25
19
11

David de la Cruz Bailén
Jorge Moreno Fuentes