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By Chem-O

1. the science or practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and
prevention of disease (in technical use often taken to
exclude surgery).
2. a compound or preparation used for the treatment or
prevention of disease, especially a drug or drugs taken by

Pharmaceutical or a drug is
classified on the basis of their origin.
1. Drug from natural origin: Herbal or plant or mineral origin, some drug

substances are of marine origin.

Drug from chemical as well as natural origin: Derived from partial herbal
and partial chemical synthesis Chemical, example steroidal drugs
Drug derived from chemical synthesis.
Drug derived from animal origin: For example, hormones, and enzymes.
Drug derived from microbial origin: Antibiotics
Drug derived by biotechnology genetic-engineering, hybridoma technique for
Drug derived from radioactive substances.

One of the key classifications is between traditional small molecule drugs, usually
derived from chemical synthesis, and biologic medical products, which include
recombinant proteins, vaccines, blood products used therapeutically (such as IVIG),
gene therapy, and cell therapy (for instance, stem cell therapies).

Pharmaceutical or drug or medicines are classified in various other groups besides

their origin on the basis of pharmacological properties like mode of action and their
pharmacological action or activity, such as by chemical properties, mode or route of
administration, biological system affected, or therapeutic effects. An elaborate and
widely used classification system is the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical
Classification System (ATC system). The World Health Organization keeps a list of
essential medicines.

Traditional Medicines

Infusions are typically used for delicate herbs, leaves and fresh
tender plants. Preparing an infusion is much like making a cup of
tea. Water is brought just to a boil and then poured over an herb (or
combination of herbs), it is covered and allowed to sit/steep for 1015 minutes or so. It can be prepared in the drinking cup (by just
pouring the heated water over the herb in the cup) or by dropping
the herb into the pot which the water was heated in.
Common plants used for medicine include lemon, apples, ginger
that can be turned into tea or coffee with the same process.

Decoctions are usually the method of choice when working with
tougher and more fibrous plants, barks and roots (and which have
water soluble chemicals). Instead of just steeping it in hot water,
the plant material is boiled for a longer period of time to soften
the harder woody material and release its active constituents.
Common plants used for medicine include

herbal teas,teas,coffees,

A tincture is an alcohol and water extract which is used
when plants have active chemicals that are not very soluble
in water, and/or when a larger quantity is prepared for
convenience and wanted for longer term storage. The
percentage of alcohol usually helps determine its shelf-life:
the more alcohol used, the longer the shelf life.
Common plants used for medicine include cinnamon twig
and cyperu.

This method of preparation is certainly the easiest. The
fresh or dried plant material is simply covered in cool water
and soaked overnight. The herb is strained out and the
liquid is taken. Alternatively, just stir the ground plant
powder into juice, water or smoothies and drink.

Baths and Bathing Remedies

Quite a few popular remedies which have been used for
thousands of years are prepared as vapor baths, or
medicinal plants are added to bath water and the patient is
soaked in it.
Common plants used for medicine include chili, peppers,
cacao, tobacco, pitarilla tree. In addition, animal parts, such
as those from crocodiles, insects, fishand birds were
combined into the herbal concoctions.

Compresses are put directly on the skin.
For the preparation of a compress one use the liquid of the
herb mixture instead of the herb bywound mash. Use a cool
compress by warm inflammations and a warm compress to
light strains and pain in cold, painful regions.
Common plants used for medicine include lavender to
light tensions and headache.

Herbal Infused Oils

Oils infused with herbs are a lovely way to utilize the healing properties of plants
which contain volatile oils and fats. Unlike essential oils they are easy to make at
home and usually very gentle on the skin. You can use them to make massage oils, to
heal skin problems, or to make lovely subtly scented balms and creams.
Plants containing volatile oils are generally those commonly used in
aromatherapy. Aromatic plants such as lavender, rosemary, thyme and sage make
lovely infused oils, as do peppermint, melissa, chamomile, rose, yarrow, juniper and
pine. You can experiment with any plants that you know have a high volatile oil